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Test Review AP World History

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Test Review AP World History Chapters 8,9 & 10 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Test Review AP World History


1
Test ReviewAP World History
  • Chapters 8,9 10

2
Islam
  • Why did Muhammad flee from Mecca?
  • The leaders of Mecca feared that accepting
    Muhammad as the sole agent of the one true god
    would threaten their power and prosperity
  • What is Sharia?
  • Law of Islam
  • Foundation of Islam society

3
Split between Sunni and Shiite
  • What caused the split between Sunni and Shiite
    Muslims?
  • A difference between Muslims about who should be
    Islams leader after Abu Bakr (Muhammads
    father-in-law) died. Some thought it should be a
    descendant/relative of Muhammads, others thought
    the leader should be elected from the people who
    best understood the teachings of the Prophet

4
What are the achievements during the Abbasid
Golden Age?
  • Rise of literary works from Greek, Iranian,
    Central Asian and African sources
  • EX. The Arabian Nights, Arabic poetry
  • House of Wisdom-repository of works of history,
    politics, literature etc.
  • Translations of Greek Roman works by Plato,
    Aristotle
  • Medical research flourished
  • Algebra and other mathematical advancements
  • http//www.nmhtthornton.com/mehistorydatabase/abba
    sid_golden_age.php

5
S.E. Asia
  • Describe impact of trade
  • Describe impact of religion

6
What about the issue of slavery in Islamic
communities?
  • Muslims did not make slaves of Jews or Christians
    or Zoroastrians because they were considered
    People of the Book (those who revered holy
    books respected by Muslims)
  • It was only allowed if the slave was a prisoner
    of war.
  • Did not develop a hereditary slave society. If a
    slave converted to Islam, he was usually freed
  • Offspring of slave women and Muslim men were free

7
What are the 5 pillars of faith in Islam?
  • Avowal of faith-Allah is the only god, and
    Muhammad is his messenger
  • Pray five times a day
  • Fast during Ramadan
  • Give alms to the poor
  • Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your
    life

8
What is the role of Umma in Islamic society?
  • A community defined by acceptance of Islam and
    Muhammad.
  • Combined Meccan and Medina residents and calmed
    the tension between them

9
Name the five major religions of the world in the
order in which they developed
  • Hindu
  • Buddhism
  • Judaism
  • Christianity
  • Islam

10
How was the Islamic religion spread?
  • Through conquest
  • Through trade

11
How were the teachings of Islam shared with the
community?
  • What is a Madrasa?
  • A religious college, begun in Irans urban
    centers that became popular throughout the
    Islamic world.
  • What is a Ulama?
  • A Muslim religious scholar, a primary interpreter
    of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim
    urban society

12
How were the caliphs instrumental in the spread
of Islamic empires?
  • They used the concept of umma to unite Muslims
    of many different ethnic societies and social
    customs as they gradually expanded the Islamic
    empires

13
How did the Muslims relate to the peoples they
conquered?
  • In general.
  • The caliph, Umar, forbid Muslims from owning
    property in conquered lands. This permitted the
    residents to go on with their lives without
    interruption but non-Muslims had to pay a tax
    which was used to support the Muslim armies
  • To Christians and Jewish subjects
  • Considered them to be people of the book so
    they could not be converted to slaves, and
    usually were treated somewhat as equals. Converts
    to Islam usually migrated to cities so they would
    not be discriminated against in their religious
    community

14
  • Who is Abu Bakr?
  • Father-in-law to Muhammad
  • Became successor to Muhammad when he died
  • What are Bedouins?
  • Nomadic herders of the Middle East and north
    Africa

15
Explain the importance of Baghdad in the Muslim
world
  • Built by the Abbasids.
  • Most beautiful city of the time
  • Became the center for trade, artists and scholars

16
Women in Muslim society
  • How did the practice of veiling and secluding
    women begin?
  • Began in the Byzantine and Sasanid periods.
    Interpretation of the Quran said that women
    should be secluded from the view of men
  • What was the position of women in Islamic society
    during the period of 600-1200 C.E.?
  • Islamic women had greater status than Christian
    or Jewish women.
  • They could inherit property
  • Influential at home but barred from public office
  • Could testify, go on pilgrimage and practice
    birth control

17
What happened to the Western Roman empire after
the 5th century C.E.?
  • Fragmented into a handful of kingdoms under
    Germanic rulers
  • Rome lost political influence but was still
    influential as a religious center
  • Latin dissolved into dialects-Portuguese,
    Spanish, French, Italian and Romanian
  • Fear and physical insecurity led communities to
    seek protection from local strongmen

18
Treaty of Verdun
  • Why was it signed?
  • When Louis the Pious (Charlemagnes son) died,
    the Treaty split the Carolingian Empire (Gaul,
    parts of Germany Italy) into 3 parts.
  • This was because of the Germanic tradition of
    splitting property among sons.
  • They never re-united

19
Feudalism
  • What was the social hierarchy during the feudal
    period?
  • King
  • Nobles/Lords
  • Knights
  • Merchants/Craftsmen
  • Peasants
  • Serfs
  • Explain how the feudal system worked
  • The King gave a fief to a noble (vassal) in
    return for fealty
  • The Noble promised loyalty and knights service
    to the king
  • The noble then offered a small piece of his land
    to knights in return for loyalty
  • The fief provided financial support to the knight

20
What is chivalry ?
  • The Code of Honor expected of a knight. He was to
    be virtuous, honest, courageous, loyal and a
    devout Christian
  • A knight was expected to defend the weak, protect
    the realm and obey his king.
  • A knight without honor is dead

21
Describe manorialism
  • A manor was the economic backbone of the Middle
    Ages. It was granted to a lord by the king
  • The manor was self-sufficient and selling the
    produce of the manor supported the lord and his
    family
  • The work on the manor was done by serfs (attached
    permanently to the manor) and peasants who might
    work in the village as a craftsman.

22
What is the difference between feudalism and
manorialism ?
  • Feudalism is the system of nobles (vassals)
    swearing fealty to the king, to help him fight
    in the kings wars in exchange for a fief of
    land.
  • Manorialism is the system of economic structure
    where a lord pays taxes and possibly knights
    service to the lord or king who granted him the
    manor and makes his living from the produce of
    the manor

23
How did religion impact medieval society?
  • Politically?
  • Socially?
  • Economically?
  • Literacy?
  • Kings depended on the Church for financial and
    spiritual aid
  • The Church depended on the King for protection
    and support
  • The Church was the center of social life
  • Priests were literate so taught the sons of
    nobles
  • Monks copied books by hand

24
The monks, friars and priests provided many
services to the people such as
  • Hand copying texts of liturgical books
  • Travelling to small villages and manors to
    provide religious sacraments
  • Repository of accumulated knowledge and history
    such as that of the Greeks and Romans
  • Hospitals

25
What was the controversy over the investiture of
priests?
  • The Church resented the kings appointing church
    officials who appointed the Bishops. It gave the
    kings some control of the clergy and put the
    clergy square between the orders of the Pope and
    the orders of the King.
  • The King wanted to choose church officials who
    would be compliant with his goals

26
Crusades
  • What was the purpose of the Crusades?
  • To regain the Holy Lands (Jerusalem) from the
    Muslims.
  • To bring Christianity to those who were infidels
  • In what ways did the Crusades impact Europe?
  • Opened trade connections between Europe and
    Middle East
  • Eventually led to the fall of feudalism and the
    growth of cities

27
Explain how the schism in the Catholic church
developed.
  • Split of Roman empire
  • Split the church down language lines,
    cultural lines
  • Debate over head of the church-
  • Head of the Roman church, seat of Saint Peter
  • Head of the Constantinople church, seat of
    St. Andrew
  • Debate over doctrine

28
How is the Schism in the church related to the
rise of Russia under Peter the Great?
  • The Pope tried to heal the schism by arranging a
    marriage between Peter the Great of Russia (Roman
    Catholic) and Sophia Paleologue, the niece of the
    last Byzantine Emperor (Eastern Orthodox)
  • However, Peter adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith

29
What is this language? Where was it used?
  • Cyrillic
  • Russia, Slavic Christians

30
What is the legacy of Emperor Justinian of the
Byzantine empire?
  • Corpus Juris Civilis- Justinian had his legal
    experts completely re-work the Roman laws,
    streamline them and separate them into books. The
    laws were more uniform and reflected more rights
    for women (Thanks, Theodora! ?)
  • Our word justice comes from Justinian
  • He built the beautiful Hagia Sophia

31
This represents the typical art that
characterizes the Byzantine Empire. What is it
called?
32
Iconoclasm
  • Icons are the formal, stately representations of
    holy figures usually painted or done in mosaics.
    Characteristic of the Byzantine empire

33
Constantinople
  • Describe the fall of this important city
  • It was under siege by the Ottoman Turks because
    it was a very desirable, profitable port city.
    Eventually, the overwhelming numbers of the
    Ottomans won the city.
  • What long term significance did the fall have?
  • It led to Europeans needing to find a new route
    to Asia since the Silk Road was cut off, and thus
    discovered the New World!

34
Explain the rise and importance of the
Mediterranean Italian city trade powers.
  • Located on the rivers and seaways of Italy
  • Dominated the maritime trade in the Mediterranean
  • Cities became independent through the power of
    trade
  • Gold coinage became prolific due to trade increase

35
Describe Justinians plague
  • The Bubonic plague (Black Death) that was spread
    through the crowded port cities and eventually to
    densely populated areas through trade.

36
Tang period of China
  • Buddhists?
  • The ruler was responsible for making society
    into a harmonious Buddhist society
  • Faith in bodhisattvas-those who postpone nirvana
    in order to help others achieve it
  • Tang princes tried to get monastic leaders to
    pray and preach for them to get contributions to
    their war chests
  • In return, the monasteries got tax exemptions,
    land privileges and gifts
  • Expansion of empire expanded Buddhism too

37
Economy in Tang China
  • Describe the tribute system of China
  • Independent countries acknowledged the Chinese
    emperors supremacy by sending money and goods
  • What is flying money?
  • To improve trade Chinese merchants developed a
    form of uniform money or credit that could be
    used all over the empire

38
Chinas economy
  • What is the Grand Canal ? Why is it important?
  • It was designed to connect the Yangtze and Yellow
    river and make trade faster and easier
  • How did the invention of moveable type impact
    Asia?
  • Increased literacy
  • Allowed many more to study for the civil service
    exams
  • Spread knowledge of farming and other tasks.
    Expanded agriculture

39
Chinas economy
  • What is this?
  • A Chinese junk
  • What is a Uighur ? How is it related to the Silk
    Road ?
  • Turkic group that moved in and took over much of
    inner Asia. (Silk Road)
  • Brought a literate culture with ties to Islam
  • Great merchants and scribes who spoke many
    languages

40
How did the renewal of the civil service exams in
Tang China impact the country?
  • Spread Confucian ideals
  • Allowed many young men to take the examinations
    so appointments were based on ability rather than
    family lineage
  • Government became more efficient because of more
    competent officials

41
How did Tang China affect Japan?
  • Japanese rulers adopted key features of Tang
    government
  • Legal code
  • Official variety of Confucianism
  • Official reverence for Buddhism
  • Centralized government

42
What are some technological achievements of the
Tang and Song dynasties?
  • Tang
  • http//www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Tang/tang-tec
    h.html
  • Song
  • http//www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Song/song-tec
    h.html

43
Now go on to Part II !!
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