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Unit 1 The Reformation

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Unit 1 The Reformation Chapter 4 Constitutionalism in England Magna Carta Reformation Puritans vs. Anglicans English Calvinists Congregationalists Presbyterianism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1 The Reformation


1
Unit 1 The Reformation
  • Chapter 4

2
Why is This Happening?
  • Humanism/Individualism
  • new ways of thinking
  • knowledge than the Dogma
  • Begin with the idea of reform- end with split
  • The Reformation is a transformative event that
    will help set Europe on its modern path

3
Seeds of Revolt
  • Late middle ages
  • Challenges from kings
  • Thinkers

4
Babylonian Captivity
  • French Pope

5
Great Schism
  • 2-3 different Popes

6
Church Practices
  • Indulgences
  • Sale of offices (Simony),
  • Fees for sacraments
  • Absenteeism
  • Pluralism,
  • Clerical Ignorance,
  • Moral laxity of Clergy

7
Critics of the Church
  • Martin Luther was not the 1st

8
Lollards John Wycliff
  • Vernacular
  • personal connection with God
  • Excommunicated

9
Jan Hus
  • Czech
  • Bible was the sole authority in Christianity- not
    the pope.
  • God loves us- doesnt judge us
  • Burned at the stake as a heretic

10
Martin Luther and the Beginnings of
Protestantism
  • Lived in Holy Roman Empire- which was good
    distance away from Rome (esp in North where
    Luther lived) HRE was center of Northern
    Humanism- looking to use Christianity to build a
    better world

11
Who is Luther?
  • Urged people to study the Bible for themselves
    (few Catholics- even priests- had read it) and to
    form a personal connection to God

12
Why is he unhappy?
  • John Tetzel was selling indulgences
  • 1517 published 95 Thesis
  • denied the infallibility of the
  • pope and said Jan Hus had
  • NOT been a heretic)

13
What did he do?
  • Can no longer reconcile with church- creates
    his own.
  • Confession of Augsburg written as a last attempt
    at compromise, became a statement of protestant
    beliefs
  • Salvation through faith, not sacraments
  • Bible sole authority, not pope
  • We are all equal in eyes of God
  • Used vernacular, allowed married clergy and
    divorce. Encouraged Education (read bible)
    Sermons in each service. Consubstantiation.

14
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15
Charles V
  • HRE
  • Allied with POPE

16
Peasants War
  • Germany 1524-1525
  • Peasants saw Luther as throwing off ALL
    authority. Demanded an end to all serfdom and
    tithes.
  • Luther did NOT support this- spoke against it-
    and it was savagely crushed (100,000 dead)

17
League of Schmalkalden 1531
  • Formed by Princes who became Lutheran (looking to
    gain power for themselves, break away from
    Emperor and Church ties)
  • Stood against Charles V (aided by Francis I of
    France, who wanted to push down Hapsburgs)
  • Led to Hapsburg Valois Wars 1531-1539 as well as
    a German Civil war (beginning of wars of religion)

18
Peace of Augsburg 1555
  • Ended the German Civil War
  • Legalizing Lutheranism only in HRE.
  • Princes could choose if their land was Protestant
    or Catholic.

19
Reformation in Switzerland and France
  • Switzerland
  • Southern areas stayed Catholic
  • Moved from Switzerland into France

20
Swiss Zwinglianism
  • Theocracy in Zurich
  • Argued with Luther about the Eucharist- said it
    was only symbolic, didnt represent anything

21
Anabaptists
  • Protestants who were against infant baptism
  • Voluntary association- no allegiance to any
    particular state
  • Accepted Polygamy
  • Rejected the idea of the trinity- believed the
    end of the world was near

22
Calvinism
  • Geneva (the city that was a
  • church) became a theocracy

23
Principles
  • Predestination (no free will) Already decided,
    but if you live a good enough life- God will let
    you know. (the elect visible saints living
    among men)
  • Church should be governed by Presbyteries- groups
    of ministers/elders who rule church council and
    town.
  • Strict rules, no frivolous activities (music,
    dancing or cards) Stark churches, plain clothes.

24
Protestant Work Ethic
  • Importance of hard work- that all tasks done well
    pleased God. Whether you grow rich or poor
    depends of YOU and what you do- God helps those
    who help themselves.
  • Would have major social impact on Calvinist
    societies (focus on business etc..)
  • Pilgrims

25
Spread
  • Dutch Reform Church Netherlands
  • no impact on Ireland, Italy, Spain

26
English Reformation William Tyndale
  • Is about power
  • Humanist
  • Translated the bible into English in 1526 (Base
    of the King James version) Hunted down and
    executed 1535

27
Henry VIII
  • Catholic lands confiscated by king, (600
    monasteries convents) sold for profit
  • Divorce permitted at discretion of king (shocker)
  • 1536 Pilgrimage of Grace- rebellion of common
    folk in favor of RC church- crushed

28
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29
Aftermath of Anglican Split
  • Edward VI (r 1547-1553) Added to Anglican by
    allowing married clergy- recognized only 2
    sacraments (baptism and communion)
  • Mary I (r 1553-1558) tried to restore Catholicism
    by force (bloody Mary)
  • Elizabeth I (r 1558-1603)- Anglican, Politique
  • Elizabethan settlement law says you must be
    Anglican in public- do what you want at home
  • 39 Articles Anglican Creed. Followed protestant
    ideas, but loose enough most (except Puritans)
    could live with it

30
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31
The Catholic (Counter) Reformation
  • 1534

32
The Council of Trent
  • Creates index of forbidden books
  • after 1540 no new country becomes protestant.
  • Makes split between Catholics/protestants
    permanent and implacable.

33
Jesuits
  • 3 Goals
  • 1. reform church through education
  • 2. Spread Catholicism
  • 3. Fight Protestantism
  • In charge of Inquisition. Stamp out Heresy.

34
Political Impact of Reformation
  • Shattered the last unifying element in European
    culture. Made it easier for them to fight each
    other.
  • Positives Religious enthusiasm rekindle, and
    literacy expanded (keep up with arguments etc)

35
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36
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37
  • Dutch Strongly Calvinist- wanted freedom from
    Hapsburg Control- will lead to prolonged war
    which will diminish Spanish power
  • England Elizabeth gets things settled (with
    problem of Catholic claimant Mary of Scots to
    deal with) But religious issues will return with
    House of Stuart vs. Puritans

38
  • German States
  • Civil War from 1547-1555 (league of Schmalkalden)
    only first wave- issues become about power as
    well as faith
  • Peace of Augsburg

39
Marriage
  • Origins of family values.

40
Social Class
  • Protestantism appealed to all classes
  • Overall ever increasing emphasis on secular world

41
Women
  • Protestant
  • Catholic
  • No more convents etc meant that women lost main
    opportunity for leadership.
  • Protestant women meant to be devoted wives and
    mothers- subordinate to men. Although, marriage
    supposed to be based on Love rather than econ.
    Encouraged to read bible (therefore literate)
  • Continued to have opportunities as nuns etc
    Ursuline Order founded by Council of Trent to
    educate women in their faith.

42
Chapter 5 A Century of Conflict
  • 1555-1648

43
Politics, Religion and Warfare
  • Constant warfare- a mix of politics and religion.
  • War is different-slaughter from guns and
    artillery.

44
French Wars of Religion
  • 1562-1598- civil war Valois , Bourbon vs. Guise

45
Origins
  • Calvinism (Huguenots)
  • 40-50 of nobility became Huguenots
  • Political
  • Nobles resent kings power

46
Religious Riots and Civil War
  • St Bartholomews Day Massacre
  • Catholics slaughtering Huguenots all over France

47
War of Three Henrys 1572-1589
  • 15 year civil war with over 500,000 killed
  • Henry of Navarre

48
Triumph of the Politiques
  • Henry of Navarre
  • Privately he remained Calvinist

49
Edict of Nantes 1598
  • Gave religious rights to Huguenots in France.
  • Revoked in 1685 by Louis XIV
  • NOT religious tolerance or mixing

50
Spain Philip II and Militant Catholicism
  • Philip (the Most Catholic) ruled Spain at the
    height of its power (their golden age, lasts gt
    100 years, in part b/c kings
  • are so inflexible)

51
Escorial
52
Ottomans
  • Spain stopped them
  • 1571-Battle of Lepanto

53
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54
Revolt of the Netherlands
  • Spain defeated
  • leads to decline of Antwerp and rise of Amsterdam

55
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56
Defeat of Spanish Armada 1588
  • Queen Elizabeth
  • the protestant wind
  • Begins Spains decline (and Englands Rise)

57
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58
Germany the 30 Years War
  • 1618-1648. Most important conflict of the 1600s
  • HRE split
  • Luther not Calvin

59
Four Phases 1st (Bohemian) Phase
  • Defenestration of Prague
  • Czechs (Bohemians- Calvinist)
  • Czechs defeated, Battle of White Mountain- forced
    conversions

60
2nd (Danish) PhaseDenmark v. HRE
  • King Christian of Demark (Lutheran)
  • HREmperor wins again
  • Issues Edict of Restitution (only Lutheranism)

61
3rd (Swedish) Phase
  • Swedish (Lutheran) king Gustavus Adolphus
  • Swedes win battle
  • Took over Denmark, Poland, Finland and Baltics
  • Turns the tide and gives protestants hope.
  • Emperor annulled Edict of Restitution

62
4th (French/International) Phase
  • French declare war on Spain (supported a
    rebellion in Portugal)
  • Richelieu
  • Politique

63
Peace of Westphalia
  • In 1648 no one really wins
  • Treaty recognizes
  • City states autonomous, HRE destroyed
  • Dutch and Swiss , France gains Alsace and
    Lorraine, Prussia gains power
  • Recognizes Augsburg agreement- adds Calvinism

64
Results of 30 Years War
  • Ends German Reformation and wars of religion (on
    continent)
  • Rise of France as power
  • Balance of Power diplomacy

65
English Civil War
66
Constitutionalism in England
  • Magna Carta
  • Reformation

67
Puritans vs. Anglicans
  • English Calvinists
  • Congregationalists
  • Presbyterianism
  • John Knox
  • Scotland
  • s went up
  • Influence went up
  • Elizabeth I
  • Church of England
  • Tolerated other religions, but no rights

68
Conflicts in Stuart England
  • Elizabeth died, end of Tudors
  • James I
  • Scotland Cousin
  • Protestant
  • mom-Queen of Scots
  • Catholic
  • Divine Right
  • free from Parliament
  • Paternalistic

69
Parliament Under James
  • House of Commons
  • Lords
  • Economy
  • 30 Year War
  • 1625 died

70
Charles I and Long Parliament
  • James I son
  • Economy
  • Petition of Right
  • Short Parliament
  • Scotland
  • Long Parliament
  • Ireland

71
The English Civil War 1642-1649
  • Cavaliers
  • Roundheads
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Levelers
  • Charles I
  • Rump Parliament

72
Cromwell the Protectorate
  • Military Dictatorship
  • Lord Protector
  • Interregnum
  • New Model Army
  • Ireland
  • Navigation Acts
  • France
  • 1660

73
Restoration1660
  • Charles II
  • Religion
  • Parliament
  • Ministers
  • France agreement
  • James II
  • Whigs
  • Tories
  • Test Act

74
Glorious Revolution1685
  • James II
  • William Mary
  • Bill of Right
  • Not a Democracy
  • Toleration Act
  • Common Law
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