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UNERUTILIZED PLANTS IN FINLAND

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UNERUTILIZED PLANTS IN FINLAND Anna-Leena Salmela LUPINES Lupinus is a large genus with 200 species, four species (L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. luteus, L ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNERUTILIZED PLANTS IN FINLAND


1
UNERUTILIZED PLANTS IN FINLAND Anna-Leena Salmela
2
  • LUPINES
  • Lupinus is a large genus with gt200 species, four
    species (L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. luteus,
  • L. mutabilis) are suitable for cultivation
    as high protein crops
  • Sweet lupin vs bitter lupin
  • Wild-growing lupines not suitable for animal feed
    or human consumption due to
  • poisonous alkaloids (bitter)
  • Breeding has resulted in low alkaloid variants
    (sweet lupines)
  • Lupines belong to legumes
  • Peanut
  • Peas
  • Beans
  • Soy
  • Lupines
  • Lupines have a long history in human nutrition
    seeds were very popular with the Romans,
  • in the Incan empire, and are nowadays
    commonly used in Greece, Portugal, Italy, Egypt

3
  • Lupin cultivation in Finland
  • Species Lupinus angustifolius (Blue lupine),
    Lupinus luteus (yellow lupine)
  • and Lupinus albus (white lupine)
  • Significance Finland is dependent on exported
    protein source in animal feed.
  • Together with peas and fava beans lupines
    are potential alternative protein
  • source for exported ones (soy)
  • Can be also used as a component of healthy
    human diet (high fibre and protein content)
  • - only blue lupin cultivated for human
    consumption in Finland, 1 farm
  • Wild-growing lupins contain poisonous
    alkaloids
  • Lupin cultivation area in 2010 85 ha, in 2011 92
    ha

Images from wikipedia
4
  • Lupin cultivation in Finland
  • Lupinus angustifolius - Blue lupine, Australian
    lupin, Australian sweet lupin, bitter lupin,
    European blue
  • lupine, lupin, narrow leaf lupin, New Zealand
    blue lupin, sweet lupinseed
  • Native to northern Africa (i.e. Algeria, Egypt
    and Morocco), southern Europe (i.e. Bulgaria,
    Greece,
  • Italy, France, Portugal and Spain), western
    Asia (i.e. Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, western Syria
    and Turkey)
  • Due to its roots entering deep in the ground,
    does not require strong fertilization
  • Blue or white flowers
  • Haags Blaue lupin is cultivated in Finland by
    appr. 10 farmers
  • Successfully cultivated only for a couple of
    years
  • Interest in using blue lupin as an alternative
    protein source in animal feed and also part of a
    healthy
  • diet. In Finland, only 1 farm cultivating
    blue lupin for human consumption
  • Challenges in using blue lupin in chicken feed

5
  • Lupin cultivation in Finland
  • Digestibility trials by MTT Agrifood Research
    Finland in early 2000 low compared to fava beans
    and pea, decreased egg production when used gt 15
  • Together with recent results (2011) suggest that
    blue lupin (lt 16) can be used as a
  • chicken feed without hampering egg
    production.
  • Slow digestibility of protein and fibre makes
    blue lupin excellent feed for ruminants.
  • University of Helsinki (prof. Aila Vanhatalo)
  • Investigation of legumes (blue lupin and
    fava beans) as ruminant feed
  • Underutilized plants development project by
    Satafood Kehittämiskeskus ry in 2007 2012

6
  • Blue lupin in human diet
  • Only seeds can be used for nutritional purposes
  • Use in human nutrition is in early stages in
    Finland
  • High protein content (over 30 in the bean)
  • High levels of fibre (polygalactan)
  • Low levels of starch
  • Oleic acid
  • Is a potential allergen
  • Health effects
  • Short chain amino acids reduce blood pressure and
    cholesterol
  • Lupin in human nutrition in Finland
  • Only one company, Palkuainen in Lammi, makes
    lupin-based products (commercial production since
  • 2012)
  • Uses blue lupin Haags blaue cultivated in Lapua
  • Lupin tempe (usually from soy) http//www.tempe.fi
    /
  • Also interested in developing lupin-based
    ice-cream and youghurt

7
  • Potential health effects of blue lupine
  • Effects on
  • serum lipids
  • cholesterol
  • faecal microbiota
  • blood pressure
  • glycemic response
  • satiety, food intake
  • bowel function
  • risk factors of colon cancer

8
Health effects of blue lupine (Pubmed) Bartkien
e E et al. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of
lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and
quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Nov64(7)890-6.
Sirtori CR et al. Hypocholesterolaemic effects
of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre
combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic
individuals. Br J Nutr. 2012 Apr107(8)1176-83.
Hall RS et al. Liking of health-functional
foods containing lupin kernel fibre following
repeated consumption in a dietary intervention
setting. Appetite. 2010 Oct55(2)232-7. Hodgson
JM et al. Effects of increasing dietary protein
and fibre intake with lupin on body weight and
composition and blood lipids in overweight men
and women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010
Jun34(6)1086-94. Lee YP et al. Effects of
lupin kernel flour-enriched bread on blood
pressure a controlled intervention study. Am J
Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar89(3)766-72. Johnson SK et
al. Lupin kernel fibre foods improve bowel
function and beneficially modify some putative
faecal risk factors for colon cancer in men. Br J
Nutr. 2006 Feb95(2)372-8. Smith SC et al.
Lupin kernel fiber consumption modifies fecal
microbiota in healthy men as determined by rRNA
gene fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eur J
Nutr. 2006 Sep45(6)335-41. Hall RS et al.
Lupin kernel fibre-enriched foods beneficially
modify serum lipids in men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005
Mar59(3)325-33. Archer BJ et al. Effect of fat
replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on
sausage patty acceptability, post-meal
perceptions of satiety and food intake in men. Br
J Nutr. 2004 Apr91(4)591-9. Warren JM et al.
Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food
intake in preadolescent children. Pediatrics.
2003 Nov112(5)e414. Dove ER et al. Lupin and
soya reduce glycaemia acutely in type 2 diabetes.
Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct106(7)1045-51. Yang X et
al. The effects of a lupin-enriched diet on
oxidative stress and factors influencing vascular
function in overweight subjects. Antioxid Redox
Signal. 2010 Nov 1513(10)1517-24.

9
  • Lupin in Peru partially based on the
    presentation of Gladys Tarazona R. in Turku 2011
  • Nomenclature
  • Lupinus mutabilis
  • Quechua tarwi
  • Aymara tauri
  • Spanish altramuz (Spain), chocho (Ecuador),
    tarhui (Southern Peru,
  • Bolivia), chuchus muti (Bolivia)
  • English tarwi, pearl lupin, Andean lupine
  • Finnish tuoksulupiini
  • Significance
  • grown mainly for its edible bean
  • planting started by Incas over 1500 years ago
  • a significant source of protein
  • of great importance in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and
    Chile
  • together with corn, potatoes and quinoa a dietary
    base of the ancient Andean cultures

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lupinus_mutabilis
10
  • Lupinus mutabilis in nutrition
  • Status has changed from peasant food to premium
    food
  • gt 40 protein
  • Rich in lysine
  • Low in cysteine and metionine
  • 20 fat, of high quality
  • Oleic acid
  • Linoleic acid (omega-6, essential)
  • Used as vegetable oil, and alternative for animal
    protein
  • Seeds consumed in soups, stews, salads etc, or
    grained into flour
  • High content of alkaloids, several processes for
    removal before consumption
  • Soaking
  • Cooking for 1 to 2 hours
  • Washing, removal of bitterness

11
  • A literature search in Pubmed (Sept 2014)
  • Appr. 20 publications on Lupinus mutabilis was
    found
  • 5 papers concerning health effects
  • Protein quality and oil digestibility (1983)
  • Lopez de Romaãna G et al. Protein quality and
    oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis metabolic
    studies in children. J Nutr. 1983
    Apr113(4)773-8.
  • Hypoglycemic effects (2012, 2009)
  • Baldeón ME et al. Hypoglycemic effect of cooked
    Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in
    subjects with type-2 diabetes. Nutr Hosp. 2012
  • Jul-Aug27(4)1261-6.
  • Fornasini M. et al. Hypoglycemic effect of
    Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and
    subjects with dysglycemia. Nutr Hosp. 2012
  • Mar-Apr27(2)425-33.
  • Ranilla LG et al. Evaluation of indigenous
    grains from the Peruvian Andean region for
    antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using
    in
  • vitro methods. J Med Food. 2009
    Aug12(4)704-13.

12
  • Article Underutilized species Policies and
    strategies
  • Underutilized crops in Peru some conceptual and
    political considerations (2006)
  • By Santiago P, Fuentealba B and Ruiz M
  • Analysis of 391 scientific articles on
    underutilized Peruvian plants published in
  • 1995 2006 in the National Library of
    Agriculture, as well as the documents of the
    main National Improvement Programmes developed
    by the National Institute for Agrarian
    Research and Development (INIA), UNALM and other
    state universities in inland Peru.
  • They found 45 publications on tarwi/chocho
    (greatest number of the publications
  • on the underutilized crops discussed in the
    study)
  • Most publications on the underutilized plants
    discussed in the study were
  • - on the agricultural aspects (19)
  • - only 5 on biochemical characterization
    (including nutritional contents)

13
  • HEMP
  • Hemp in Finland
  • During 90s, first hemp variety that produced
    seeds (Finola) was developed.
  • In 2003, support from EU for cultivating Finola
    started.
  • Suspended in 2006 due to too high THC
    concentrations.
  • In 2011, EU support for Finola cultivation was
    continued in Finland and in 2013, support
  • for oil hemp cultivation concerned the whole
    EU area.
  • Lots of interest in Finola also abroad.
  • Cultivation area for hemp almost 190 ha, majority
    being oil hemp (2012)

http//yle.fi/uutiset/hamppu_haastaa_perinteiset_o
ljykasvit/5397599
14
  • Hemp in nutrition
  • All essential amino acids
  • High quality fat 80 PUFA, omega-6omega-6 21,
    GLA, stearic acid
  • Vitamin E
  • Cholesterol-free
  • Easy to use (no cooking)
  • Potential as egg replacer, for vegetarians
    alternative protein source to soy
  • Clinical evidence on hemp seed oil in athopy
    (Kuopio)
  • Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients
    with atopic dermatitis.
  • Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P,
    Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T.
  • J Dermatolog Treat. 2005 Apr16(2)87-94.
  • Clinical evidence on serum lipids, cholesterol
    and haemostatic factors (Kuopio)
  • Eur J Nutr. 2006 Dec45(8)470-7. Effects of
    hempseed and flaxseed oils on the profile of
    serum lipids, serum total and lipoprotein lipid
    concentrations and haemostatic factors.
  • Schwab US1, Callaway JC, Erkkilä AT, Gynther J,
    Uusitupa MI, Järvinen T.

15
  • Buckwheat - Fagopyrum tataricum
  • A pseudo-cereal, belongs to tatars
  • Originates from Northern India and China
  • To Europe in the 16th century
  • Potassium in soil important
  • Otherwise not much nutrients needed
  • Sensitive to frost and drought
  • Gives highly variable yields
  • Buckwheat in Finland
  • Traditions for cultivation stronger in Eastern
    Finland (Carelia, Savonia)
  • Cultivated already during the Stone Age in
    Finland (7000 years ago)?
  • Among the oldest cereal-like plants in Finland
  • Was very commonly cultivated 1700 - 1850
  • Cultivation stopped in the 1940s due to start of
    nitrogen fertilization and
  • the loss of traditional areas for
    cultivation in the second world war
  • Original pink variety is very rare

16
  • Buckwheat in nutrition
  • High quality protein
  • lysin content higher than in most of the Finnish
    cereals
  • Lots of phenolic compounds (antioxidants)
  • Phagopyritols (D-chiro inositol, glucose
    metabolism, type 2 diabetes diet
  • and prevention?)
  • Potential in product development for healthy
    conscious consumers
  • Gluten-free
  • Protein oatgtbuckwheatgtrye, barley and wheat
  • Flakes, crushed seeds, flour, macaroni,
  • baking, porridge, blinis, side dish, pies
  • Research projects on Buckwheat
  • Terveyttä tattarista (Health from buckwheat )
    investigation
  • By MTT, 2003 - 2007
  • Buckwheat and environment, how to increase the
    yields, potential of buckwheat in food
    development, sensory properties etc

17
  • Potential health effects of buckwheat
  • clinical
  • post-prandial response of selected
    gastrointestinal satiety hormones
  • glycaemic and C-peptide responses
  • serum levels of myeloperoxidase and cholesterol
  • In vivo
  • cognition and memory function in an in vivo
    Alzheimer model
  • oxidative status and blood pressure parameters in
    hypertensive rats
  • cholesterol metabolism in rats and mice fed
    cholesterol-enriched diet
  • lipid metabolism and aorta histopathology in rats
    fed an obesogenic diet
  • In vitro
  • cell cycle and viability of cancer cells
  • growth and cell viability of the probiotic
    strains in synbiotic fermented milk

18
Research on health effects in vitro Effects of
tatariside G isolated from Fagopyrum tataricum
roots on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa
cells. Li Y et al. Molecules. 2014 Jul
2919(8)11145-59. Flavonoids from tartary
buckwheat induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and
apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Li Y et
al. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014
Jun46(6)460-70. doi 10.1093/abbs/gmu023. Epub
2014 Apr 22. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat
bran on growth and cell viability of the
probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC
501, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 and their
combination SYNBIO, in synbiotic fermented milk.
Coman MM et al. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013 Oct
15167(2)261-8. Antigenotoxic effect of
Tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and common
(Fagopyrum esculentum) buckwheat flour. Vogrincic
M et al. J Med Food. 2013 Oct16(10)944-52. doi
10.1089/jmf.2012.0266. Epub 2013 Oct 1. In
vivo Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and
memory function in an in vivo amyloid-ß-induced
Alzheimer model. Choi JY et al. Food Chem
Toxicol. 2013 Mar53105-11. doi
10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.002. Epub 2012 Nov 28. A
new "functional" pasta containing tartary
buckwheat sprouts as an ingredient improves the
oxidative status and normalizes some blood
pressure parameters in spontaneously
hypertensive rats. Merendino N et al. Food Funct.
2014 May5(5)1017-26. Preparation of tartary
buckwheat protein product and its improving
effect on cholesterol metabolism in rats and mice
fed cholesterol-enriched diet. Tomotake H et al.
J Food Sci. 2007 Sep72(7)S528-33. Hypolipidemic
and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and
flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats.
Ðurendic-Brenesel M et al. Bosn J Basic Med Sci.
2013 May13(2)100-8. Effect of adlay, buckwheat
and barley on lipid metabolism and aorta
histopathology in rats fed an obesogenic
diet. Son BK et al. Ann Nutr Metab.
200852(3)181-7. clinical Consumption of
buckwheat modulates the post-prandial response of
selected gastrointestinal satiety hormones in
individuals with type 2 diabetes
mellitus. Stringer DM et al. Metabolism. 2013
Jul62(7)1021-31. The glycaemic and C-peptide
responses of foods rich in dietary fibre from
oat, buckwheat and lingonberry. Rokka S et al.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Aug64(5)528-34.
Eating buckwheat cookies is associated with the
reduction in serum levels of myeloperoxidase and
cholesterol a double blind crossover study in
day-care centre staffs. Wieslander G et al.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011225(2)123-30.

19
Other examples Development of gluten-free bread
using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in
flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as
ingredients. Costantini L et al. Food Chem. 2014
Dec 15165232-40. The content of fagopyrin and
polyphenols in common and tartary buckwheat
sprouts. Kreft S et al. Acta Pharm. 2013
Dec63(4)553-60. Buckwheat - an old crop with
new health prospects. Keskitalo, M. et al. 2007
NJF Seminar 399 Beneficial health substances
from berries and minor crops how to increase
their concentration in cultivated species,
elimanate losses in processing and enhance
dietary use, Piikkiö, Finland, 14-15 March 2007
Buckwheat allergy. Stember RH. Allergy Asthma
Proc. 2006 Jul-Aug27(4)393-5. Identification
and characterization of the major allergens of
buckwheat. Park JW et al. Allergy. 2000
Nov55(11)1035-41.
20
Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory
function in an in vivo amyloid-ß-induced
Alzheimer model. Choi JY et al. Food Chem
Toxicol. 2013 Mar53105-11. doi
10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.002. Epub 2012 Nov
28. Antigenotoxic effect of Tartary (Fagopyrum
tataricum) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum)
buckwheat flour. Vogrincic M et al. J Med Food.
2013 Oct16(10)944-52. doi 10.1089/jmf.2012.0266
. Epub 2013 Oct 1. Preparation of tartary
buckwheat protein product and its improving
effect on cholesterol metabolism in rats and mice
fed cholesterol-enriched diet. Tomotake H et al.
J Food Sci. 2007 Sep72(7)S528-33. Buckwheat -
an old crop with new health prospects. Keskitalo,
M. et al. 2007 NJF Seminar 399 Beneficial
health substances from berries and minor crops
how to increase their concentration in cultivated
species, elimanate losses in processing and
enhance dietary use, Piikkiö, Finland, 14-15
March 2007
21
Broad bean, field bean, faba bean, fava bean
(Vicia faba)
  • Widely used in Asia and as part of Mediterranean
    diet
  • A long history of cultivation in Finland from 7th
    century
  • Was a very common part of diet before
    potatoes and peas
  • 1960 2000 area of cultivation was very low
  • A strong interest in broad bean from the
    beginning of 2000s
  • Only 15 of the protein in animal feed is of
    Finnish origin
  • Attempts to decrease the dependence on imported
    protein sources
  • One of the GMO-free, Finnish alternatives for soy
    protein financial
  • support for cultivation and product
    development
  • Human consumption plant-based protein for
    vegetarians and health conscious
  • Animal feeds chicken and pig feeds are currently
    dependent on soy
  • Decreases the need for fertilization (N),
    improves structure of soil
  • Area for broad bean cultivation has increased to
    10000 ha
  • Cultivated at 1000 farms, mainly in South Western
    Finland
  • MTT estimates climate change will enable
    cultivation of hemp and broad bean also in
    Lapland in 70 years

22
  • Broad bean in nutrition
  • High value carbohydrates
  • Fibre-rich
  • Protein-rich
  • 1 fat
  • Available as beans, flour, tempe
  • Available from eco stores, farmers
  • Studies on broad bean
  • Broad bean (Vicia broad) consumption and
    Parkinson's disease. Rabey JM et al. Adv Neurol.
    199360681-4.
  • Improvement of parkinsonian features correlate
    with high plasma levodopa values after broad bean
    (Vicia broad) consumption.
  • Rabey JM et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
    1992 Aug55(8)725-7.

23
  • Studies on broad bean
  • Broad bean (Vicia broad) consumption and
    Parkinson's disease. Rabey JM et al. Adv Neurol.
    199360681-4.
  • Improvement of parkinsonian features correlate
    with high plasma levodopa values after broad bean
    (Vicia broad) consumption.
  • Rabey JM et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
    1992 Aug55(8)725-7.
  • Thesis work at Seinäjoki University of Applied
    Scieces. 2014.
  • http//www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/70122
    /Rankila_Marjo.pdf?sequence1
  • Härkäpapu kotimaisen kasvivalkuaisen lähteenä.
    Härkäpaputuotteiden tuotekehitys (Fava bean as a
    plant protein source. Product development.)
  • - broad bean patties, broad bean blueberry
    beverage
  • http//www.hs.fi/kotimaa/a1400564802038
    20.5.2014
  • University of Helsinki, Food Technology
    department in Viikki
  • Research on broad bean in product development
    2012 - 2014
  • Products developed Broad bean yoghurt
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