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The Values, Fears and Aspirations of 19th Century New Zealanders


The Values, Fears and Aspirations of 19th Century New Zealanders Ideas the immigrants brought to New Zealand Level 3 History S Avery – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Values, Fears and Aspirations of 19th Century New Zealanders

The Values, Fears and Aspirations of 19th Century
New Zealanders
  • Ideas the immigrants brought to New Zealand
  • Level 3 History S Avery

The Immigrants
  • Cultural Baggage
  • Social Class
  • Debate on the Development of Male Culture

Cultural Baggage
  • Brought Cultural Baggage in the form of
  • Values
  • Ideals
  • Institutions
  • Language
  • Ways of Doing things
  • This baggage was modified to fit the
    circumstances they experienced in NZ

  • The belief in the superiority
  • of the British, more particularly
  • the English, culture.

  • Empire was expected to come in one of three
    ways conversion, conquest or fatal impact.
    Conversion was the whole package of agencies by
    which non-Europeans were to be transferred into
    something European-like and peacefully
    subordinated to Europe.
  • James Belich, Making Peoples A History of the New
    Zealanders From Polynesian Settlement to the End
    of the Nineteenth Century, Auckland, 1996.

Stereotypes common among Pakeha New Zealanders
around 1890 according to Tom Brooking
  • Pakeha Settler
  • Individualistic
  • Family farmer
  • Hard working
  • Anti-landlord
  • Thrifty
  • Energetic
  • Progressive
  • Secular and moral
  • Egalitarian
  • Maori Savage
  • (often landlord)
  • Communistic
  • Tribal
  • Lazy
  • Spendthrift
  • Unproductive
  • Dependent
  • Promiscuous
  • Bad black landlord

Where settlers came from
  • http//

A 20th-century depiction of the signing of the
Treaty of Waitangi, 6 February 1840
  • The British believed they had obtained
    sovereignty by the Treaty

  • The Wars and the resistance movements that
    followed them had an effect on the country. Most
    European New Zealanders though they demonstrated
    sovereignty rested with the Crown - that is,
    with the New Zealand Government of the day - and
    not with the Maori. That, after all, is what
    their view of the Treaty of Waitangi had been all
    about. Maori feeling that the Treaty had been
    dishonoured by the Crown was little understood by
  • Michael King, The Penguin History of New Zealand,
    Auckland, 2003, pp. 220-221.

Queen Victoria
British Institutions
  • Institutions are important systems of
    organisation in society that have existed for a
    long time
  • Examples are the law Parliament, the army

Individual Land Ownership
  • Protestant work ethic
  • Hard work
  • Employment

The Parish Church at Sturton-le-Steeple which was
the home of Pastor John Robinson and the William
White family. Photo by Alice C. Teal
Martial Tradition
  • Legality of force

Martial Tradition cont.
Martial Tradition cont.
Horses being shod at the camp at Newtown Park,
Wellington, during the South African War 
Martial Tradition cont.
  • The myth of martial New Zealanders, later known
    as the Anzac legend, became central in Pakeha
    collective identity. It actually dates from the
    New Zealand Wars although it was partially
    aborted by the embarrassment of frequent defeats
    by Maori.
  • James Belich, Making Peoples A History of the New
    Zealanders From Polynesian Settlement to the End
    of the Nineteenth Century, Auckland, 1996, p.

Womens roles
  • House keepers
  • Bearing and raising children
  • Sober and thrifty
  • Setting a moral tone

Ethel Benjamin
  • New Zealand's first woman lawyer
  • 1875-1943

(No Transcript)
Mens roles
  • Work hard and earn a livelihood
  • Marry within their own race
  • Maintain family values
  • Defend the realm

A government jail gang, Sydney
Very few Europeans came to New Zealand in the 50
years after its rediscovery by Captain James
Cook. Of those who did, many sailed across the
Tasman Sea from Port Jackson (Sydney), which was
a large convict settlement. This is a lithograph
of a Sydney prison gang, whose villainous faces
are somewhat exaggerated.
Mens roles cont.
Plants and animals
  • Make the landscape look like home

North Island conifer-broadleaf forest
Plants and animals cont.
Constable Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows
Discontent with the home country
  • Avoid the evils of the old world

Modification of Cultural Baggage due to
  • Maori rangatiratanga
  • Incomplete hold of British law
  • Harsh natural environment
  • Loneliness
  • Distance from home
  • Lack of capital
  • Depression
  • Transience

Social Class
  • Immigrants hoped to change their class as part of
    getting ahead
  • Success depended on
  • Access to capital and credit
  • Luck
  • Getting in early

Emigration a remedy
This famous emigration poster compares life in
England and New Zealand. In the 1830s and 1840s
many people in England believed in the theory
that population growth was related to food
production, and that as Britains population
continued to rise there would be penury and
starvation as depicted in the scene on the
left. The solution was to encourage emigration to
countries where abundant land would bring plenty
of food and health as in the happy scene on the
Social Class cont.
  • Settler society was shaped by a potent mix of
    industrial ideology, new philosophies of reason,
    new Calvinist evangelism and new economic
    theory. This explains the society settlers
    built with its tilt to egalitarianism, dreams of
    private home ownership, self help ethic and
    emphasis on security. New Zealand was settled at
    an extraordinary rate in the mid century and the
    scale of movement was even greater as tens of
    thousands poured in for the gold rushes and later
    left for diggings elsewhere.
  • Wright, Mathew, Reed Illustrated History Of New
    Zealand, Auckland, 2004, pp. 94-95

Order of Worth
  • New Zealand Society in the 1890s
  • Family farmer
  • Small business (family)
  • Skilled labourer/miner
  • Hard working rural unskilled worker
  • Hard working urban unskilled worker
  • Maori and loafer and monopolist and aristocrat
    and fallen women
  • Asiatics
  • Pests (animals and plants)

The Debate on the Development of Male Culture
  • The established historical interpretation to the
    later 1980s was
  • Society was a collection of small, local
  • Stability and tradition were key features

Miles Fairburn
  • Miles Fairburn presented a man alone analysis
  • Geographical isolation
  • Individualism more important than community
  • Male isolation the key element in social
  • Social. Physical, emotional isolation
  • Lack of family networks
  • Atomised, bondless society
  • Dominated by young males
  • Loneliness, drunkenness, violence

Jock Phillips
  • Jock Phillips argues mateship led to a
    distinctive male culture
  • Found in
  • Bush camps, shearing gangs, gold fields, pubs.
  • It emphasised
  • Physical prowess
  • An ability to do it yourself
  • Equality
  • Pubs where drinking, shouting and yarns dominated
  • Argues that male culture changed in the 1880s
  • Rules for rugby
  • Rise of prohibition and temperance

Views counter to Fairburn
  • Kinship and the impact of chain migration
    lessened isolation
  • There was a lack of guns
  • Women and families had a significant role
  • Cooperation was a feature in the workplace and
    the community
  • Mateship was more important than atomisation
  • Violence due to a lack of women

(No Transcript)
Aylmer Street and Gold Mine, Ross
Their War Cry before starting play'
  • Cartoon published during the New Zealand Natives'
    Rugby Tour of 1888/89

In the Shearing Shed
Crew of the sailing ship Timaru standing at her
She is in the graving dock at Port Chalmers.
  • Pakeha New Zealand was established by 1870.
    Little villages no longer clung to the fringes
    of a Maori world. Maori landholdings had been
    decimated and Pakeha outposts set up in the
    middle of the North Island. The colony was
    acquiring a degree of solidarity and permanence
    which had not characterised it a decade earlier.
  • Binney, Judith, Bassett, Judith, Olssen, Erik,
    The People and The Land, Te Tangata me Te Whenua
    An Illustrated History of New Zealand 1820-1920,
    Wellington, 1990, p. 121.

Tinakori Road, Wellington
Brees, Samuel Charles 1810-1865