Welcome to Health From Head to Toe: Vascular Risk Reduction Building Healthy Lifestyles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Welcome to Health From Head to Toe: Vascular Risk Reduction Building Healthy Lifestyles

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Title: Welcome to Health From Head to Toe: Vascular Risk Reduction Building Healthy Lifestyles


1
Welcome toHealth From Head to ToeVascular Risk
ReductionBuilding Healthy Lifestyles
2
Objectives
  • ? Promote your knowledge of vascular risk factors
  • ? Learn chronic disease prevention strategies
  • ? Discuss healthy lifestyle interventions

3
  • As I see it, every day you do one of two things
    build health or produce disease in yourself.
  • Adelle Davis (1904-1974)

4
8 in 10 Canadians have at least one risk
factor for vascular disease (i.e. heart disease
or stroke)
  • MANAGEABLE risk factor
  • ? Metabolic Syndrome
  • ? High Blood Pressure
  • ? High Cholesterol
  • ? Pre-Diabetes/Diabetes
  • MODIFIABLE risk factor
  • ? Smoking
  • Abdominal Obesity
  • ? Physical Inactivity
  • Nutrition/High sodium
  • intake
  • ? Excessive Alcohol
  • Consumption
  • ? Un-managed Stress
  • ? Insufficient Sleep

5
Steps to Reduce Your Risk
  • Know and control your risk factors!
  • http//www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ccdpc-cpcmc/index_e.htm
    lextended
  • www.heartandstroke.ca

6
Metabolic Syndrome
  • Diagnosed if you have 3 or more of the following
    conditions
  • ? Blood pressure gt 130/85 mmHg
  • ? Triglycerides gt1.7 mmol/L
  • ? HDL (Healthy cholesterol) - Menlt 1.0 Women lt
    1.3 mmol/L
  • ? Fasting Blood Glucose gt5.6 mmol/L
  • ? Abdominal obesity Waist circumference gt 94 cm
    in men or gt 80 cm in women

7
Leading Risk Factors for Death in Developed
Countries
1
Blood Pressure
Tobacco
2
3
High Cholesterol
Overweight
4
Low Fruit Vegetable intake
5
6
Physical Inactivity
(World Health Organization 2002)
8
Why Treat Hypertension?
9
Cholesterol
  • ? About 40 of Canadians have high cholesterol
  • ? Ideal cholesterol levels vary individually
    based on other risk factors for heart disease or
    stroke
  • www.heartandstroke.ca

10
Lipid Panel
  • LDL (LOUSY) promotes the buildup
  • of fatty plaque on the artery walls
  • HDL (HEALTHY) helps clear the arteries
  • Triglycerides not a type of
  • cholesterol, but are also a fat found in
  • the blood

11
Statins
  • In addition to current Canadian recommendations
    on management of dyslipidemia, statins are
    recommended in high-risk hypertensive patients
    with established atherosclerotic disease or with
    at least 3 of the following criteria

LVH ECG abnormalities Microalbuminuria or
Proteinuria Family History of Premature
CV disease
Male age 55 or older Smoking
Total-C/HDL-C ratio of 6 mmol/L or higher
12
Diabetes
  • ? More than 3 million Canadians have diabetes
    (90 are Type 2)
  • ? Fasting blood sugar should be tested every 3
    years if over age 40 to screen for diabetes
  • www.diabetes.ca

13
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14
Waist Circumference Measurement
Last rib margin
Mid distance
Iliac crest
Courtesy J.P. Després 2006
15
90 of Canadians have other cardiovascular risk
factors!
Emberson et al. Eur Heart J. 200425484-491.
16
Lifestyle Modification
17
Healthy Lifestyles Really Make a Difference
Intervention Amount Change in SBP/DBP
Reduce daily sodium intake by 1800 mg -5.1 / -2.7
Weight loss of 4.5kg (lt10lb) -7.2/-5.9
Alcohol intake 0-2 drinks per day/day -3.9 / -2.4
Aerobic exercise 120-150 min/week -4.9 / -3.7
Dietary patterns DASH diet Hypertensive Normotensive -11.4 / -5.5 -3.6 / -1.8
Reducing Stress
-6.1/-4.3
18
Some Fantastic Effects of Smoking Cessation
  • Risk of heart attack and stroke drop lt 24 hours
  • Breathing is easier lt 3 days
  • Coughing is improved lt 2 weeks
  • Risk of CAD is reduced by 20 50 lt one year
  • Risk of stroke normalizes lt 5 years
  • Risk of dying is equal to a non smoker lt 15
    years.
  • Smoker Help Line 1-866-332-2322

19
Physical Activity
  • Physical Activity can
  • Decrease risk of heart disease and stroke
  • Help lower blood pressure
  • Help control blood sugar
  • Help to control weight.
  • Help to reduce stress levels
  • Increase HDL, decreases LDL and triglycerides.

20
Physical Activity Recommendations
  • Frequency 4 - 7 times per week
  • Intensity Moderate
  • Time 30-60 minutes
  • Type Cardiorespiratory Activity
  • - walking, jogging
  • - cycling
  • - non-competitive swimming

21
Eat a Healthy Diet
  • Follow Canadas Food Guide
  • Adequate fruit, vegetables,
  • whole grains, low-fat dairy products.
  • Foods low in saturated and trans fat, sugar
    salt, and high in fiber.
  • Have at least 3 meals a day and an afternoon
    snack. Space meals 4-6 hours apart.
  • Eat breakfast each morning.
  • Visit www.healthcanada.gc.ca/foodguide for more
    information.

22

23
Nutrient Density vs Calorie Density
24
What About the Food We Eat? The Amount of Fat and
Sugar Is Whats Important!
25
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26
Shake the Salt Habit
  • 1 in 3 Canadians with hypertension could have
    normal blood pressure if they lowered their
    sodium intake.

27
Health Issues Linked to High Sodium Intake
  • Excretion of calcium in the urine, may lead to
    osteoporosis
  • Stomach cancer
  • Water retention
  • Kidney stones
  • Enlargement of the heart
  • Increased severity of asthma symptoms

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and weakening of bone tissue
28
Adequate Sodium Intake For Adults
Age Sodium intake per day (mg)
9-50 years 1500
50-70 years 1300
Over 70 years 1200
29
Sources Of Sodium
30
Sodium Content of Restaurant Foods
Menu Item Sodium (mg)
Breakfast Egg Sandwich 840
Chicken Caesar Salad 570
12 Pepperoni Pizza 5960
Deluxe Cheeseburger Medium Fries 1910
Fried Chicken Dinner 2280
31
Processing Adds Sodium To Food
Food Sodium (mg) Food Sodium (mg)
Plain pasta 5 Pasta sauce 800
Cucumber 2 Dill Pickle 385
Fresh salmon 56 Canned salmon 272
Cheddar cheese 176 Processed cheese 407
Coffee cream sugar 15 Cappuccino from mix 250
32
Salt o - Meter
  • http//www.theglobeandmail.com/special-reports/har
    d-to-shake/
  • www.sodium101.ca
  • - information on how to reduce dietary sodium
  • http//www.sodium101.ca/en/happening/news.html

33
Potential Benefits of Dietary Sodium Reduction in
Canada
  • Reduction in average dietary sodium from about
    3500 mg to 1700 mg
  • 1 million fewer hypertensives
  • 5 million fewer physicians visits a year for
    hypertension
  • Health care savings of 430 to 540 million
  • Improvement of hypertension treatment
  • control rate
  • 13 reduction in CVD
  • Total health care cost savings of over 1.3
    billion/year

34
Limit Alcohol
  • Men Maximum 14
  • drinks/week
  • Women Maximum 9
  • drinks/week
  • No more than 0-2 drinks per day

35
Stress
  • Increases LDL and decreases HDL
  • Raises Blood pressure
  • Increases Blood sugars
  • Increases Clotting enzymes

36
What Can You Do?
  • Identify what is causing stress
  • Establish priorities
  • Can you change perspective???
  • If able, modify your situation
  • Say NO more often??
  • Make time for yourself!!

37
Sleep Reduces Vascular Damage
  • ? Adults need 7 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep
    to maintain vascular health.
  • ? Sleep is a process of restoration and
    regeneration for the body and mind
  • ? Sleep allows the body to heal itself, suppress
    the appetite hormone, reduce cortisol (stress)
    which in turn will decrease blood pressure.

38
CONCLUSION
  • UNDERSTAND vascular protection
  • KNOW your stats!
  • REDUCE your risk
  • VISIT - your doctor/health care provider
  • DEVELOP your action plan!!!

39
QUESTIONS??
  • BHL Hypertension/Stroke Prevention
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