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World War I and the United States 1914-1920

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Title: War and the American State 1914-1920 Author: rauchtilstrag Last modified by: mike Created Date: 3/8/2003 8:01:53 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I and the United States 1914-1920


1
World War I and the United States1914-1920
2
Timeframe of WWI
  • Europe 1914-1918
  • US 1917-1918
  • War ends on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day
    of the eleventh month.
  • 11/11/1918
  • Veterans Day is November 11th now celebrated in
    honor of those who fought in all wars.

3
The Two sides
  • Triple Entente
  • Became Allied Powers
  • England
  • France
  • Russia left war 1917 because of revolution
  • Japan joined later
  • Triple Alliance
  • Became Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy switched sides 1915
  • Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined later

4
Isolationism Policy from 1914-17
  • The US believed they could stay neutral
    couldnt clearly see the war as democracy v.
    autocracy
  • Cultural ties to both sides
  • Ties to British culture
  • Irish-Americans
  • German-Americans
  • Russia sided with Britain but seen as an
    autocracy
  • Feminists, pacifists and social reformers said
    the country needed to deal with other issues.

5
Both sides made it difficult for the US to remain
neutral
  • 8/1914 British blockaded Central Powers
  • As result cut American trade with Germany
  • US couldnt complain too much trade with allies
    up from 824m in 1914 to 3.2b 1916, also lent
    allies 2.5b
  • In comparison trade and loans with Germany 29m
    and 27m
  • Germans used U-boat (submarines) to challenge
    British control of the seas

6
The Lusitania and Americas response?
  • Passenger ship torpedoed May 7, 1915
  • 1198 died (128 Americans)
  • Was a passenger ship but had been carrying
    munitions
  • American newspapers called it mass murder
  • Wilson protested to German govt
  • US-German tensions reduced when German govt said
    they would no longer attack non-combatants
  • Not enough to cause war for US (US doesnt enter
    for two years), but does turn public opinion
    against Germany and Wilson starts preparation for
    possible war

7
Wilsons attitude toward war was changing in 1915
  • 1b buildup of military
  • ran for re-election in 1916 with slogan He kept
    us out of war.
  • Wilson had long opposed womens suffrage
  • Irony was that he won a very close race with the
    support of 10 of the 12 states that had adopted
    womens suffrage
  • They liked his isolationist stance

8
Changes led to a decision to go to war
  • Jan. 1917 Germany announced resumption of
    submarine warfare (against ships sailing to
    Britain)
  • Several American merchant ships sunk
  • Feb. 1917 Zimmermann telegram
  • Germany urged Mexico to go to war against the US
    and recover lands lost in mid-1800s
  • Feb. 1917 revolution in Russia maybe a
    democracy
  • 4/2/1917 Wilson went to Congress to ask for a
    declaration of war
  • No desire to conquest or make gains
  • Socialists and IWW against the war
  • gained more votes 20 in mayoral elections
  • Jan 1918 Wilson issued 14 Points

9
New Technologies and Strategies that were used in
WWI
  • Machine gun
  • Long range high velocity rifles
  • Poison gas
  • Trench Warfare stagnant front
  • 25,000 miles heavily fortified trenches with no
    mans land in between
  • Stalemate in many battles
  • High casualties

10
End of Introduction
11
What contribution did the allies want from the US
and how was this accomplished?
  • Men
  • Draft
  • Little resistance
  • About 300,000 evaded the war
  • 4,000 conscientious objectors
  • By end of the war 4m men in armed forces
  • 48,000 killed in action or from wounds
  • 27,000 died from other causes
  • War claimed 8m lives

12
Major military accomplishments of US forces?
  • Secured shipping lanes in the Atlantic
  • Helped French against Germans at battles of
    Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood
  • Pushed Germans back from the Marne River
  • Won the Meuse-Argonne campaign near Verdun which
    broke the German defenses
  • Kaiser abdicated 2 days later on Nov 11
  • Nov 11, 1918 Armistice Day

13
Paying for the War
  • Federal Reserve System enabled govt to expand
    money supply
  • 2/3 from loans Liberty Bonds
  • Increased income taxes
  • Excess profits tax
  • Govt also worked with businesses suspended
    anti-trust laws in favor or cooperation

14
Mobilization of Industry
  • July 1917 War Industries Board created led by
    Bernard Baruch used personal contact to avoid
    forcing business and people to comply
  • Allocated scarce resources
  • controlled flow of raw materials
  • Ordered conversion from peacetime to wartime
    production
  • Set prices
  • Coordinated purchasing

15
Food Administration
  • Created August 1917 led by Herbert Hoover
  • Slogan food will win the war
  • Convinced population for the need for self-denial
    and self-sacrifice
  • Farm acre expanded from 45m to 74m acreas
  • Rationing unnecessary people complied voluntarily
    with
  • wheatless Mondays
  • meatless Tuesdays
  • porkless Thursdays and Saturdays

16
Transportation and Temporary Nationalization
  • Govt took over control of Railroads in Dec 1917
    to ensure easy movement of troops.
  • Fulfilled their promise to return RR to their
    owners after war

17
Need for Labor
  • Established National War Labor Board April 1918
  • Representatives of labor, management and the
    general public
  • Helped labor in the long run by reforms during
    war
  • 8 hour workday for war workers
  • Time and a half for overtime
  • Equal pay for women
  • Strikes not allowed in war industries but used
    arbitration to solve disputes

18
New faces in the Workforce
  • Mexicans crossed the borders for industrial jobs
    in southwestern cities (100,000)
  • Women joined workforce in record numbers (one
    million)
  • Most people believed this would be a temporary
    change

19
Progressive Reform during WWI
  • Temperance movement
  • Urban areas and areas with high immigrant
    populations opposed prohibition
  • Many southern states already had prohibition laws
  • 18th amendment ratified 1919
  • Womens groups supported Wilson and the war hopes
    of winning the right to vote
  • January 1918 Wilson withdrew his opposition to
    female suffrage amendment
  • Took until Aug 1920 to have the amendment
    ratified
  • 72 years after goal of womens suffrage declared
    at Seneca Falls in 1948

20
Progressive Reform during WWI
  • Temperance movement
  • Urban areas and areas with high immigrant
    populations opposed prohibition
  • Many southern states already had prohibition laws
  • 18th amendment ratified 1919
  • Birth Control
  • to protect soldiers from VD gave out birth
    control info and devices
  • Reversal of the treatment of Margaret Sanger and
    Emma Goldman

21
Womens Suffrage
  • Americas entry into the war threatened to tear
    apart the suffrage movement
  • Jeannette Rankin opposed war first woman member
    of congress
  • women in general supported the war
  • The National Womans Party was militantly
    fighting for suffrage
  • Alice Paul compared Wilson to the Kaiser denying
    democracy, chained herself to white house fence,
    force fed in prison
  • The combined efforts of women during the war won
    them suffrage Wilson finally gave in
  • January 1918 Wilson withdrew his opposition to
    female suffrage amendment
  • Took until Aug 1920 to have the amendment
    ratified
  • 72 years after goal of womens suffrage declared
    at Seneca Falls in 1948

22
Propaganda During WWI
  • The Wilson administration decided that patriotism
    was too important to leave to the private sector
  • The Committee on Public Information (CPI) was
    created 1917 shape public opinion in later
    international conflicts prowar propaganda
  • posters, pamphlets, newspaper ads, movies
  • Four-Minute Men standardized talks in different
    languages
  • The CPI couched its appeal in the Progressive
    language of social cooperation and expanded
    democracy
  • Freedom took on new significance enlist, buy
    liberty bonds

23
Patriotism v. Freedom
  • Committee on Public Information encouraged ethnic
    groups to give up old world customs
  • Especially aimed at German immigrants
  • Espionage Act 1917 Sedition Act 1918
  • Penalties for anti-war activities
  • Govt could ban treasonous material
  • Individuals arrested
  • Eugene Debs 10 yrs jail saying that the master
    classes declared war while the subject classes
    fought battles
  • Pardoned 1921
  • Schenck v. US Supreme Ct upheld that Schenk
    guilty of sending pamphlets urging draft
    resistance

24
Patriotism v. Freedom cont.
  • The American Protective League (APL) helped the
    Justice department identify radicals and critics
    of the war spied on neightbors and conducted
    slacker raids checking on draft cards
  • IWW crushed by employers and govt
  • IWW leader Frank Little lynched in Butte Montana
  • broadest warrant in U.S. history fed agents went
    to IWW offices and
  • arrested hundreds of leaders and seized files and
    publications
  • Bisbee, Arizona copper miners rounded up strikers
    and sympathizers ? took them to desert and left
    them there

25
Immigrants and WWI
  • The war led to further growth of the Southwests
    Mexican population
  • legally classified as white thought they would
    assimilate
  • public officials in SW kept them segregated
  • On the eve of American entry into World War I,
    Congress terminated the status citizen of Puerto
    Rico and conferred American citizenship on
    residents of the island
  • subject to draft but couldnt vote in Am
    elections
  • Even more restrictive were policies toward
    Asian-Americans
  • 1906 all Asian students in one school
  • Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 end immigration
    to US except for wives and children
  • 1913 CA banned aliens incapable of becoming
    citizens (Asians) from owning land

26
African Americans and WWI
  • Black leaders saw the war as an opportunity for
    advancement
  • World War I did not bring significant gains
  • navy barred blacks, army segregated units
    supply units
  • The Great Migration
  • The war opened thousands of industrial jobs to
    black laborer
  • 500,000 migrated north
  • increased presence and demands for change ?
    Dozens of blacks were killed during a 1917 riot
    in East St. Louis, Missouri
  • Also riots and lynching up in the South
  • Marcus Garvey launched a separatist movement
    African indep and black self-reliance
  • Violence led to a silent march of protest on NY
    5th Ave Mr. President, Why Not Make America
    Safe for Democracy?
  • deported for mail fraud

27
Wilsons 14 Points v. Treaty of Versailles
  • Wilson
  • Permanent league of nations (1 goal)
  • Open diplomacy
  • Free navigation of seas
  • Self-determination for nations
  • Succeeded in creation of Austria, Hungary,
    Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia
  • Embraced ideals of democracy and freedom
  • End imperialism only Germany
  • Versailles
  • Established League of Nations
  • Germany and Russia not invited to peace
    conference
  • Allies goal punish Germany
  • Demanded reparations from Germany

28
Wilson v. Senate
  • Wilson asked country to support his treaty in the
    congressional elections failed
  • Senate against the League of Nations
  • Didnt like premise of permanent US participation
    in European Affairs
  • Desire to return to isolationism
  • Against the call for collective security if a
    member nation was attacked
  • Undermine Congresss authority to declare war
  • Wanted US to pursue a unilateral foreign policy
  • Wilson speaking tour to gain support but had a
    stroke
  • Treaty never ratified by US

29
Aftermath of WWI - Labor
  • Workers thought they would retain gains after the
    war
  • The strike wave began in January 1919 in Seattle
    united AFL and IWW ? for 5 days commission of
    laborers ran the city until federal troops called
    in and strike ended
  • 1919 4m workers went on strike demanding
    freedom in the workplace
  • portrayed management as Kaiser
  • Boston police strike MA governor Calvin
    Coolidge (pres 1924) called out national guard
    cant strike against public safety
  • Great Steel Strike after war tried to get rid of
    the union and reverse wartime gains
  • striked for union recognition, higher wages, and
    an eight-hour day
  • immigrant workers questioned why they had
    supported the war
  • Steel magnates launched a concerted
    counterattack
  • associated the strikers with the IWW
  • became immigrant workers v. American workers
  • middle class turned against the unions
  • strike collapsed 1920

30
Aftermath of WWI Red Scare
  • Fear because of Russian Rev. and strikes
  • Attorney General Palmer in November 1919 and
    January 1920 dispatched federal agents to raid
    the offices of radical and labor organizations
    throughout the country
  • J. Edgar Hoover oversaw the Palmer Raids
  • 5000 arrested many w/o warrants, held for months
    w/o charges
  • hundreds of immigrant radicals deported Emma
    Goldman
  • compiled files of thousands of suspected radicals
  • Palmer criticized by Congress and the press
  • Secretary of Labor Louis Post began releasing
    imprisoned immigrants and the Red Scare collapsed
  • bomb outside of NY Stock Exchange didnt rekindle
    the red scare
  • 40 died biggest U.S. terrorist explosion before
    Oklahoma City 1995
  • in the long run Palmer raids led to protection
    of civil liberties, but in the short run it hurt
    radical and labor groups
  • IWW and Socialist Party destroyed
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