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Short Story Literary Elements

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Title: Short Story Literary Elements


1
Short Story Literary Elements
2
What is a short story?
  • A short story is a brief work of fiction.

3
Elements of a Short Story
  • Plot
  • Setting
  • Characterization
  • Point of View
  • Theme

4
Plot
  • The sequence of events in a literary work

5
Plot Structure
  • Exposition introduces the setting, the
    characters and the basic situation
  • Inciting Incident introduces the central
    conflict
  • Rising Action events leading up to the climax

6
  • Climax high point of interest or suspense
  • Falling Action events after the climax that
    lead to the resolution
  • Resolution (Denouement) general insight or
    change is conveyed

7
Setting
  • The setting is the time and place of the action.

8
Time
  • Time can include not only the historical period
    past, present, future but also a specific year,
    season or time of day.

9
Place
  • Place may involve not only the geographical place
    a region, country, state, or town but also
    the social, economic or cultural environment.

10
Characters
  • A character is a person or animal that takes part
    in the action of a literary work.

11
Protagonist
  • The main character, or protagonist, is the most
    important character in a story.
  • This character often changes in some important
    way as a result of the storys events.

12
Antagonist
  • An antagonist is the character or force in
    conflict with the protagonist.

13
Other Character Classifications
  • Characters are sometimes classified as round or
    flat, dynamic or static.

14
Round and Flat Characters
  • A round character shows many different traits
    faults as well as virtues.
  • A flat character shows only one trait.

15
Dynamic and Static Characters
  • A dynamic character develops and grows during the
    course of the story.
  • A static character does not change.

16
Characterization
  • Characterization is the act of creating and
    developing a character.

17
Direct Characterization
  • In direct characterization, the author directly
    states a characters traits.

18
Indirect Characterization
  • In indirect characterization, an author provides
    clues about a character by describing what a
    character looks like, does and says, as well as
    how other characters react to him/her.
  • It is up to the reader to draw conclusions.

19
Point of View
  • The writers choice of narrator determines the
    storys point of view, which directs the type and
    amount of information the writer reveals.

20
First Person
  • When a character in the story tells the story,
    that character is a first person narrator.

21
First Person
  • This person may be a major character, a minor
    character, or just a witness.
  • Readers see only what this character sees.
  • The first person narrator may or may not be
    reliable.

22
Third Person
  • When a voice outside the story narrates, the
    story has a third person narrator.

23
Third Person Omniscient
  • An omniscient, or all-knowing third person
    narrator can tell readers what any character
    thinks or feels.

24
Third Person Limited
  • A limited third person narrator sees the world
    through one characters eyes and reveals only
    that characters thoughts.

25
Theme
  • The theme is the central message or insight into
    life revealed in a literary work.

26
More Elements
  • Conflict
  • Foreshadowing
  • Mood
  • Irony
  • Symbol

27
Conflict
  • A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces.
  • Characters in conflict form the basis of short
    stories, novels, and plays.

28
External Conflict
  • In an external conflict, the main character
    struggles against an outside force
  • Another character
  • Societal standards or expectations
  • Nature

29
Internal Conflict
  • The character is in conflict with him/herself.

30
Foreshadowing
  • Foreshadowing is the use of clues that suggest
    events that have yet to occur.
  • This technique creates suspense, keeping readers
    wondering what will happen next.

31
Mood
  • Mood is the feeling created in the reader by a
    literary work or passage.
  • The mood is often suggested by descriptive
    details.

32
Irony
  • Irony is the general term for literary techniques
    that portray differences between appearance and
    reality, or expectation and result.

33
Verbal Irony
  • Words suggest the opposite of what is meant

34
Dramatic Irony
  • There is a contradiction between what a character
    thinks and what the reader or audience knows to
    be true.

35
Situational Irony
  • An event occurs that directly contradicts the
    expectations of the characters, the reader, or
    the audience.

36
Symbol
  • A symbol is anything that stands for something
    else.
  • In addition to having its own meaning, a symbol
    also represents abstract ideas.
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