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Bovine Ectoparasites Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt MPH DVM

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Bovine Ectoparasites Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt MPH DVM Chapter 13 References Holtgrew-Bohling, Kristin, Large animal clinical procedures for veterinary technicians, 2nd ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bovine Ectoparasites Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt MPH DVM


1
Bovine EctoparasitesDr. Dipa Brahmbhatt MPH DVM
  • Chapter 13

2
(No Transcript)
3
Bovine Ectoparasites
  • Limit production
  • Disease
  • Season
  • spring and summer
  • SE Texas's all year-round
  • Phylum Arthropoda
  • Flies Class Insecta and Order Diptera
  • Ticks, mites Class Arachnida Order Ixodida


Heartwater ticks shown feeding on a cow
4
Bovine Ectoparasites - Taxonomy
  • Biting Flies piercing mouthparts adapted for
    blood sucking
  • Horn fly Siphona (Haematobia) irritans
  • Stable Fly Stomoxys Calcitrans
  • Horse (Tabanus sp.) and Deer Flies (Chrysops sp.)
  • Screw worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax
  • Gnats Simulium and Culicoides
  • Non-biting Flies
  • Face fly Musca autumnalis
  • Myiasis
  • Common cattle grub Hypoderma lineatum
  • Northern cattle grub Hypoderma bovis
  • Screworm Cochliomyia hominivorax
  • Lice
  • Chewing lice Damalinia (Bovicola) bovis
  • Sucking lice
  • longnosed cattle louse Linognathus vituli
  • shortnosed cattle louse Haematopinus eurysternus
  • Mites
  • Sarcoptes
  • Chorioptes
  • Psoroptes
  • Demodex bovis
  • Mosquitoes
  • Ticks

5
Flies
  • 1 pair of wings
  • complete metamorphosis
  • 20 families of flies are of veterinary
    importance
  • House Fly
  • CREDITS J. F. Butler, University of Florida

6
Flies
Comparison of the horn fly to the stable fly,
house fly, and face fly. Photo Photo John B.
Campbell, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Face fly Musca autumnalis
7
Horn Fly Siphona (Haematobia) irritans
  • Serious pests in TX
  • C.S pain, irritation, weight loss, low milk
    production, /- open sores secondary infections
  • pierces the skin to blood feed
  • persistent biter.
  • Horn fly greatest economic loss in US cattle

8
Horn flies congregate along the back and sides of
cattle SMALL AVID FEEDERS
9
Horn Fly Siphona (Haematobia) irritans
  • Lifecycle 10 14 days
  • Eggs laid in fresh ( 10 min. of dropping)
    manure.
  • Larvae hatch 18 hours and feed on the dung gt
    through 3 stages in 3 - 5 days.
  • Pupal stage lasts 3 to 5 days gt adults which
    emerge have a preoviposition period of 3 days.
  • Mating on the host
  • females can lay about 200 eggs in their lifetime
  • Tx pyrethroid or organophosphate impregnated
    ear-tags and pour ons (ivermectin) General for
    all ectoparasites

10
Stable Flies Stomoxys calcitrans
  • Like house fly but the bayonet-like mouthparts of
    the differentiate it from the house fly.
  • both sexes biters.
  • C.S irritation, lethargy (blood loss in severe
    cases) bite wounds and secondary infections
  • Tx pour ons sprays, remove feces and spoiled
    hay and grain

SMALL AVID FEEDERS
  • mechanical transmitters
  • anthrax
  • anaplasmosis

11
Horse (Tabanus sp.) and Deer Flies (Chrysops sp.)
Deer Flies (Chrysops spp.)
  • BOTH
  • Only females bite.
  • Daytime feeders vicious biters.

Horse (Tabanus spp.)
  • painful bites stampedes
  • Transmit Anaplasmosis, tularemia,
  • anthrax

12
Gnats
  • Simulium and Culicoides are both small gnats that
    have painful bites.

Culicoides
13
Face Fly Musca autumnalis
  • Feeds on tears, saliva and mucus.
  • Annoying
  • Mechanical carries
  • Moraxella bovis
  • IBR
  • Thelazia spp (eyeworms)

14
Myiasis infestation of vertebrates by dipteran
larvae (maggots)
15
Myiasis
Heel flies
TX before esophagus/ spinal cord gt death Sprays
and dips using coumaphos or phosmet, Pour-on
formulations of famphur, fenthion, ivermectin,
and phosmet
  • U.S Cattle warbles
  • common cattle grub Hypoderma lineatum
  • LC eggs hair of cattle gt maggots skin gt
    esophageal gt pupa
  • northern cattle grub Hypoderma bovis
  • LC eggs hair of cattle gt maggots skin gt
    spinal cord gt pupa
  • Lifecycle 10-12 months
  • Clinical signs
  • damage - tissues and hide, reduction of weight
    gain

16
Myiasis
  • Screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax
  • LC 3 weeks Larvae gt fly will bore into live
    tissue maturing
  • Very pathogenic and high mortality
  • feeds exclusively on live flesh
  • Eradicated in US in 1966 introduced sterile
    males
  • REPORTABLE cost producers 75 million if back in
    US

17
LICE LOUSE Pediculosis
18
LOUSE
  • Entire lifecycle on host
  • Transmitted direct contact
  • introduction of carrier animals

19
LOUSE Mallophaga
  • Chewing lice order Mallophaga
  • Little red louse Damalinia (Bovicola) bovis
  • LC 4 wks.
  • Fall and winter brisket/leg/in between legs
  • C.S pruritus, unthrifty appearance and a rough
    coat

Damalinia bovis, male. Courtesy of Dr. Dietrich
Barth, Merial
20
LOUSE Anoplura
  • Sucking lice order Anoplura
  • longnosed cattle louse Linognathus vituli
  • shortnosed cattle louse Haematopinus eurysternus
  • Head/ neck/ brisket winter to early spring
  • LC 4 wks.
  • C.S pruritus, unthrifty appearance and a rough
    coat, anemia (rare severe infestation)

Linognathus vituli, female. Courtesy of Dr.
Dietrich Barth, Merial
Haematopinus eurysternus, female. Courtesy of Dr.
Dietrich Barth, Merial
21
MITES MANGE
22
Psoroptes
Sarcoptes
Chorioptes
Sarcoptes, Chorioptes, and Psoroptes can be
easily differentiated by leg stalk characteristic
and mouthparts. Speciation is more difficult and
usually requires an expert acarologist.
23
Mange Mites
  • Sarcoptes scabiel
  • Transmission contagious, spread by direct
    contact or indirectly by fomites.
  • LC 3 weeks
  • CS head, neck, and shoulders pruritus is
    intense, papules develop into crusts
  • Diagnosis deep skin scrapings
  • Zoonotic and reportable

Sarcoptes scabiei var bovis, female. Courtesy of
Dr. Dietrich Barth, Merial
24
Mange Mites
  • Psoroptes spp (most damaging)
  • LC 3 wks.
  • C.S. Intense pruritus, lichenification,
    secondary bacterial infections, weight loss, dec.
    milk production
  • Signalment calves
  • Dx skin scrapings

Psoroptes ovis, female. Courtesy of Dr. Dietrich
Barth, Merial
25
Mange Mites
  • Leg mange Chorioptes spp.
  • most common type of mange in cattle in the USA
  • L.C 3 weeks
  • C.S papules, crusts, and ulcerations on the legs
    and can spread to the udder, scrotum, tail, and
    perineal area
  • Reportable in some states

Chorioptes bovis, female. Courtesy of Dr.
Dietrich Barth, Merial
26
Mange Mites
  • Demodex bovis
  • C.S damages hide, follicular papules and
    nodules withers, neck, back, and flanks
  • Dx deep skin scrapings
  • Usually resolves with time

27
Mange lesions
28
Mosquitoes
  • Mosquitoes are small insects piercing-sucking
    mouthparts
  • Female mosquitoes suck blood
  • C.S painful bites, unthriftiness, and
    occasionally death by suffocation or heavy blood
    loss

29
TICKS
30
TICKS
  • Body is a fusion of the thorax and abdomen
    produces a sac-like, leathery appearance.
  • Class Arachnida
  • Bears recurved teeth
  • 4 developmental stages egg, 6-legged seed or
    larval stage, 8-legged nymphal stage and 8-legged
    adult.

31
Babesiosis
  • Babesiosis Red water fever
  • Boophilus annulatus
  • Vector for Babesia bigemina PROTOZOA
  • L.C May/June, moving cattle to new pasture
  • Signalment Cattle, small ruminants, water
    buffalo, reindeer, American bison
  • C.S inflammation, itching and swelling at the
    bite site, regenerative anemia red urine,
    abortion, unthrifty, neurological signs
    (seizures, blindness)
  • Dx blood smear
  • Tx tetracycline

Babesia/ Piroplasmosis in blood smear Wright or
giemsa stain
32
Anaplasmosis
  • Transmission
  • Vector borne
  • Ticks Dermacentor andersoni, Boophilus,
    Rhipicephalus , Ixodes , Hyalomma , and
    Ornithodoros
  • blood sucking flies and mosquitoes.
  • mechanical vector scalpels, needles, and tatoo
  • Organism Anaplasma marginale, rickettsial
  • Signalment cattle, sheep, goats, wild ruminants
    gt 3 yrs carriers for life, bos taurus

RMSF
33
Anaplasmosis
  • C.S progressive anemia
  • peracute
  • Acute febrile, lose condition rapidly, anorexia,
    dec. milk production, GI constipation, depressed
    rumination, brown urine (hemoglobinuria does not
    occur), abortions, cerebral anoxia gt aggressive
  • Tx tetracycline

Anaplasma marginale infection in bovine blood,
Wright-Giemsa, 100X oil immersion. Intracellular
organisms appear as basophilic, spherical
inclusions that are generally located near the
margin of erythrocytes. Frequent echinocytes are
present. The hemat Courtesy of Dr. John W. Harvey
34
References
  • Holtgrew-Bohling, Kristin, Large animal clinical
    procedures for veterinary technicians, 2nd
    edition, Elsevier, 2012
  • http//edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ig130
  • http//pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/
    Document-1932/VTMD-7000web.pdf
  • http//www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/bovin
    e_babesiosis.pdf
  • http//vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/extension/beef/cur
    rent-events/anaplasmosis-iowa
  • 5 minute veterinary consult Ruminant
  • http//www.vet.k-state.edu/depts/vmth/agpract/arti
    cles/Common_Flies.pdf
  • http//www.uwyo.edu/vetsci/courses/patb_4110/2-7/c
    lass_notes.htmEctoparasites_of_cattle
  • www.vetmed.isu.edu

35
References
  • http//www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-DA/INF-DA
    _HEARTWATER.HTML
  • http//www.animalhealth.bayer.com/3380.0.html
  • http//parasitology.cvm.ncsu.edu/quiz/ruminant/exa
    m3/ruminantquizFQ.php
  • http//vetpda.ucdavis.edu/parasitolog/Parasite.cfm
    ?ID40
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