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The Science of Biology

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Title: The Science of Biology


1
The Science of Biology
  • Chapter 1

2
1.1 The Diversity of Life
  • Taxonomists classify organisms into 6 Kingdoms
  • Prokaryotic Kingdoms (2)
  • Archaea
  • Includes bacteria (prokaryotes) that thrive in
    extreme environments
  • Bacteria
  • Includes common bacteria (prokaryotes)
  • Eukaryotic Kingdoms (4)
  • Protista
  • Includes eukaryotic organisms that are not a
    fungus, plant, or animals.
  • Fungi
  • Eukaryotic organisms that digest food by
    absorption
  • Plantae
  • Eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms
  • Animalia

KINGDOMS
3
1.2 Properties of Life
  • All living organisms share five basic properties
  • 1. Cellular Organization
  • All living organisms are composed of at least one
    cell
  • 2. Metabolism
  • All living organisms use energy
  • 3. Homeostasis
  • All living organisms maintain stable internal
    conditions
  • 4. Growth and reproduction
  • All living organisms grow and reproduce
  • 5. Heredity
  • All living organisms possess a genetic system
    that is based on DNA
  • (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

4
1.3 The Organization of Life
  • Living organisms function and interact with each
    other at many levels
  • These levels are organized in a hierarchy of
    increasing complexity
  • Cellular Level
  • Organismal Level
  • Populational Level

5
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6
1.3 The Organization of Life
  • Each higher level contains novel properties not
    present at the simpler level of organization
  • These properties are termed emergent properties
  • They are a consequence of the structural
    organization that is the hallmark of life
  • They characterize many aspects of the living world

7
1.4 Biological Themes
  • 1. Evolution
  • The genetic change in a species over time
  • It is a result of a process termed natural
    selection
  • Variation may also be caused by artificial
    selection
  • 2. The Flow of Energy
  • All living organisms require energy
  • The sun is the source of energy for ecosystems
  • Plants capture energy via photosynthesis
  • They then act as an energy source for other
    organisms

8
1.4 Biological Themes
  • 3. Cooperation
  • Cooperation between organisms is critical for
    evolution
  • Symbiosis occurs when two organisms of different
    species live in direct contact
  • 4. Structure Determines Function
  • Biological structures are well suited to their
    function
  • This is true at every level of organization

9
1.4 Biological Themes
  • 5. Homeostasis
  • All living organisms act to maintain a relatively
    stable internal environment
  • Maintaining homeostasis requires a lot of
    signaling back-and-forth between cells

10
1.5 How Scientists Think
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Using accepted general principles as a guide to
    explain specific observations
  • It is the reasoning of
  • Mathematics
  • Philosophy
  • Politics
  • Ethics
  • It is also how a computer works

11
1.5 How Scientists Think
  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Discovering general principles through
    examination of specific cases
  • It is used by scientists to develop hypothesis
    about how the world works

12
Inductive Vs Deductive Reasoning
13
1.7 Stages of a Scientific Investigation
  • The scientific process can be divided into six
    stages

1. Observation Careful observation of a process
or phenomenon 2. Hypothesis Guess regarding the
observation If more than one guess, alternative
hypotheses are formed 3. Prediction Expected
consequences based on the correct hypothesis 4.
Testing The hypothesis is tested through an
experiment 5. Controls A factor that influences
a process is called a variable In a control
experiment, all variables are held constant 6.
Conclusion Based on the results of the
experiment, a hypothesis is either accepted or
rejected
14
1.8 Theory and Certainty
  • A theory is a set of hypotheses that have been
    tested many times and not rejected
  • It indicates a higher degree of certainty
  • However, there is no absolute truth in science
  • So the acceptance of a theory is provisional

15
1.8 Theory and Certainty
  • The limitations of science
  • It is limited to organisms and processes that can
    be observed and measured
  • Supernatural and religious phenomena are beyond
    the scope of science
  • There are also practical limits
  • Science cannot be relied upon to solve all
    problems

16
1.9 Four Theories Unify Biology
  • 1. The Cell Theory
  • 2. The Gene Theory
  • 3. The Theory of Heredity
  • 4. The Theory of Evolution

17
The Cell Theory Organization of Life
  • Robert Hooke, 1665
  • Discovered cells
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek, 1670s
  • Discovered single-celled life
  • Components of the Cell Theory
  • All living organisms are composed of cells
  • Cells are the basic units of life
  • All cells come from other cells

18
The Gene Theory Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • The information that determines what an organism
    is like is encoded in its genes
  • Genes are located along DNA molecules
  • The entire set of DNA instructions that specifies
    a cell is termed its genome

19
The Theory of Heredity Unity of Life
  • This theory was first advanced by Gregor Mendel
    in 1865
  • It basically states that genes of an organism are
    inherited as discrete units
  • Later, other biologists proposed the chromosomal
    theory of inheritance
  • Genes are physically located on chromosomes

20
The Theory of Evolution Diversity of Life
  • Introduced by Charles Darwin (1859)
  • The diversity of the living world is attributed
    to natural selection
  • An essential component of this theory is that
    evolution involves descent by modification

21
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22
Darwin..
23
  • Biologists divide all living organisms into three
    great groups, termed domains
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya
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