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Basic Classification - Zoology

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Basic Classification - Zoology 6. Molluscs Snails, slugs, squid, octopi, and bivalves Soft and un-segmented body Most covered by a hard shell 7. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Classification - Zoology


1
Basic Classification - Zoology
2
Classification of Organisms
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
3
Kingdoms are divided into groups called
phyla Phyla are subdivided into
classes Classes are subdivided into
orders Orders are subdivided into
families Families are divided
into genera Genera contain
closely related species Species is unique

Thus, Categories within Kingdoms
4
How to remember?
  • Ken Poured Coffee On Freds Good Shirt.

C
O
G
S
K
P
F
  • Or how about this one . . . . . .
  • King Phillip Calls Opal For Great Soup.

Easier for your brain to remember one sentence
that 8 individual words
5
Scientific Names
  • We only know a fraction of all the
  • organisms that exist or have existed
  • on Earth.
  • Taxonomists give a unique scientific
  • name to each species they know
  • about whether its alive today or
  • extinct.

6
Scientific Names
  • The scientific name comes from one of two dead
    languages
  • Latin or ancient Greek.

Why use a dead language?
They are static dont change
7
So Why Use a Scientific Name?
Maybe if we use an example using an animal you
know.
8
Mountain Lion
9
Devil Cat
10
Ghost Cat
11
Screaming Cat
12
Puma
13
Florida Panther
14
Cougar
15
  • There are at least 50 common names for the animal
    shown on the previous 7 slides.
  • Common names vary according to region.
  • Soooowhy use a scientific name?

It is unique for that organism!
16
Scientific Names
  • Helps eliminate confusion as to which organism
    you are dealing with.
  • Thus the Mountain Lion is known as . . .
  • Felis concolor

17
Scientific Names
  • Man Homo sapiens
  • Dog Canis familiaris
  • White Oak Tree Quercus alba
  • House Cat Felis cattus
  • The Rules of the Name
  • Always binominal (2 parts)
  • Genus and species
  • Underline or italics
  • Capitalize genus, species lower case

18
Many (maybe even most) classification systems use
. . .
  • 2 main domains
  • Archaebacteria
  • Everything else
  • Along with 5 kingdoms

19
The Five Kingdom System
  • Monera
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
  • Plantae

20
Small Things in All KingdomsBut Mostly Protists
and Monera
21
Big Things in 3 Kingdoms
22
Monera Kingdom
  • Unicellular,microscopic
  • No nucleus
  • Prokaryotic
  • Most Heterotrophic
  • Saprophytic or parasitic
  • Bacteria, Archaea
  • Some Autotrophic
  • Cyanobacteria

23
Protista Kingdom
  • Generally single celled microscopic
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Autotrophic or heterotrophic

Amoeba
Euglena
24
Fungi Kingdom
  • Generally multi celled
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Made up of hyphae
  • No root, stem and leaf
  • Heterotrophic
  • Saprophytic or parasitic
  • Sessile
  • not move
  • Reproduce by forming spores

25
Plantae Kingdom
  • Generally multi celled
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Autotrophic
  • photosynthesis
  • Sessile
  • Not move
  • Can be divided into . .
  • Non-flowering plants
  • Flowering plants

26
Animalia Kingdom
  • Generally multi celled
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Heterotrophic
  • Mobile
  • Divided into 9 major phyla
  • Need to be able to identify by sight

27
Animal Kingdom
  • We are going to focus on the Animal kingdom and
    learn more about -
  • If I have a backbone I am a
  • VERTEBRATE
  • If I do not have a backbone I am an
  • -INVERTEBRATE

28
The following are the nine major you will need to
know for the team test
29
1. Porifera (Sponges)
  • Don't have mouths
  • have tiny pores in their outer walls through
    which water
  • is drawn. Cells in the sponge walls
  • Cells filter food from the water
  • Water is pumped through the body unidirectionaly

30
2. Coelenterata / Cnidaria
  • Comb jellies, corals, jellyfish,
  • sea anemones, sea pens,
  • and freshwater hydra.
  • Radially symmetrical
  • One opening
  • Mouth is surrounded by tentacles that are used
    to capture food, and opens into a cavity which is
    used for digestion.
  • Specialized stinging cells

31
3. Platyhelmethes (Flatworm)
  • Long and flattened body
  • Free living or parasitic
  • One opening

32
4. Nematode (Roundworms)
Long, cylindrical and body Most of them are
parasites
33
5. Annelida (segmented worms)
  • Long and segmented body
  • Have chaetae for locomotion
  • Two openings (mouth anus)

34
6. Molluscs
  • Snails, slugs, squid, octopi,
  • and bivalves
  • Soft and un-segmented body
  • Most covered by a hard shell

35
7. Arthropoda
  • Segmented body
  • Have a hard exoskeleton and several pairs of
    jointed legs
  • Divided into 4 classes
  • - Crustaceans
  • - Arachnids
  • - Myriapods
  • - Insects

36
8. Echinodermata
  • Starfish, Brittle Stars, Sea Urchins Sea
    Cucumbers
  • Marine animals with 5-radial plan body
  • Have external spines

37
9. Chordata
  • Notochord
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • All Vertebrates and a few inverts are included in
    this group

38
Which kingdom does each organism belong to?
                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                 
39
The Insect Orders
  • Most diverse group of animals on the planet
  • Arthropods
  • 3 body segments exoskeleton

40
The Insect Orders
  • Know These
  • 1. Orthoptera (grasshoppers crickets)
  • 2. Coleoptera (beetles)
  • 3. Lepidoptera (butterflies moths)
  • 4. Diptera (flies mosquitoes)
  • 5. Hymenoptera (ants, wasps bees)
  • 6. Hemiptera (true bugs stink bug, boxelder)
  • 7. Homoptera (sub order of Hemiptera) (aphids
    cicadas)
  • 8. Odonata (dragonflies)
  • 9. Isoptera (termites)
  • 10. Ephemeroptera (mayflies and shadflies
    short lived)
  • 11. Plecoptera (stoneflies)
  • 12. Mecoptera (scorpionflies)
  • 13. Trichoptera (caddisflies)

41
1. Orthoptera (grasshoppers crickets)
  • Two pairs of wings
  • Hind wing is membranous
  • held under the forewings when at rest.
  • Mandibulate mouth parts
  • Large compound eyes,
  • Hind legs are elongated for jumping.

Grasshopper
Cricket
Katydid
42
The Common Field Cricket
Ovipositor for laying eggs
43
2. Coleopetra (beetles)
  • Hardened shield-like forewings protect flying
    wings
  • 3 segments usually easy to ID.

Giant Click Beetle
Japanese Beetle
Lady Bug
44
3. Lepidoptera (butterflies moths)
  • 2 pairs of large showy wings
  • Caterpillar
  • Butterflies
  • daytime
  • Moths
  • mostly night

Hawk Moth
Sulfur or Cabbage Butterfly
Monarch Butterfly
Skipper Butterfly
45
Polyphemus Moth
Lunar Moth
Clearwing Hummingbird Moth
46
4. Diptera (flies mosquitoes)
  • 1 pair wings
  • Large eyes
  • Maggot

Flesh Fly
House Fly
Mosquito
47
5. Hymenoptera (ants, wasps bees)
  • 2 pairs wings
  • Narrow waist
  • stinger

Wasp
Honey Bee
Ant
Bumble Bee
Paper Wasp Pest
48
6. Hemiptera (true bugs)
  • Triangular shield on back
  • Wings

Sting Bug
Wheel Bug
49
7. Homoptera (aphids cicadas)
50
8. Odonata (dragonflies damselflies)
  • Large active hunters
  • 2 pairs wings
  • Fast fliers
  • Large eyes

51
9. Isoptera (termites)
52
10. Ephemeroptera - mayflies
Notice the three tails on adult and nymph.
Mayflies have three and stoneflies have two.
Insects in the order Ephemeroptera usually live
in water as a nymph or larvae for a year or more
and then emerge as an adult and live for a matter
of hours or days
53
Plecoptera (stoneflies)
All species of Plecoptera are intolerant of water
pollution and their presence in a stream or still
water is usually an indicator of good or
excellent water quality. Note the two tails
stoneflies have two tails while mayflies have
three
54
Mecoptera (scorpionflies)
scorpionflies and hanging flies Mecopterans
are overwhelmingly predators or consumers of dead
organisms
55
Trichoptera (caddisflies)
The larvae of many species make protective cases
of silk decorated with gravel, sand, twigs or
other debris. The name "Trichoptera" comes from
Greek ???? (thrix, "hair") pte??? (pteron,
"wing").
56
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