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Taxonomy, Classification

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Taxonomy, Classification. . . and some phylogeny too! Some definitions Phylogeny: evolutionary history of a species or group of species Taxonomy: discipline of naming ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Taxonomy, Classification


1
Taxonomy, Classification
  • . . . and some phylogeny too!

2
Some definitions
  • Phylogeny evolutionary history of a species or
    group of species
  • Taxonomy discipline of naming and classifying
    organisms
  • Systematics discipline that involves classifying
    organisms and determining their evolutionary
    relationships
  • Cladistics an approach to systematics in which
    common ancestry is a criterion for grouping
    organisms

3
Hierarchical Classification
  • Domain (recent addition)
  • Kingdom (on its way out?)
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

Binomial Nomenclature Linnaeus based on
structures
4
Dumb Kids Prefer Coke over Fanta Grape Soda Dodgy
King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti
5
Classification and Phylogeny
  • Classification is illustrated in phylogenetic
    trees
  • Groups within more inclusive groups
  • Shows evolutionary relationships

6
What do we use to construct phylogenetic trees?
  • Fossil Record
  • Comparative Anatomy
  • DNA comparison
  • Cladistics

7
What is a cladogram?
  • A way of illustrating a phylogenetic tree
  • Based on two-way branch points
  • Branch point represents divergence of two species
    from a common ancestor
  • The deeper the branch point, the longer ago the
    divergence
    occurred

8
Cladograms
  • Clade- a branch of the cladogram
  • Monophyletic ancestral clade all of its
    descendents
  • Paraphyletic contains an ancestral group, but
    not all descendants (Unacceptable)
  • Polyphyletic doesnt contain a shared common
    ancestor (unacceptable)

9
homologies
10
What are the challenges faced when constructing a
cladogram?
  • Convergent evolution (produces analogies)
  • Back mutations- revert back to a more primitive
    trait
  • Gene transfer between species
  • Conflicting evidence
  • Its only a hypothesis uses the most
    parsimonious explanation
  • Parsimony- The simplest explanation is usually
    the best
  • Not always the best

11
Classification
  • Old 5 Kingdom system
  • Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals
  • New 3 Domain system
  • reflects a greater understanding of evolution
    molecular evidence
  • Prokaryote Bacteria
  • Prokaryote Archaebacteria
  • Eukaryotes
  • Protists
  • Plants
  • Fungi
  • Animals

12
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