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Common Ovine and Caprine Diseases

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Chapter 17 Common Ovine and Caprine Diseases Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt VMD, MPH, MS Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis Causative agent: Retroviral (similar to ovine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Common Ovine and Caprine Diseases


1
Chapter 17
Common Ovine and Caprine Diseases Dr. Dipa
Brahmbhatt VMD, MPH, MS
2
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3
Objectives
  • clinical signs associated with specific diseases.
  • etiology of the diseases.
  • common treatments for disease.
  • common and scientific names of parasites
    associated with this species.
  • vaccinations

4
Reading Assignment
  • Chapter 17 Common Ovine and Caprine Diseases
  • Know table 17 -1 Diseases which can be prevented
    with vaccines

5
Key terms
  • Abortion
  • AGID
  • Blepharospasm
  • Conjunctiva
  • Coronary Band
  • ELISA
  • Epididymitis
  • Epiphora
  • Lochia
  • Microphthalmia
  • Opisthotonus
  • Phthisis Bulbi shrinkage eyeball
  • Prion
  • Prolapse Ring
  • Retractor Bulbi muscles
  • Serovar
  • Stillbirth
  • Tetraplegia

6
Previously covered disease
  • Anthrax
  • Botulism
  • Black leg
  • Foot rot
  • Leptospirosis
  • Listeriosis
  • Malignant Edema
  • Pinkeye
  • Johnes disease
  • Tetanus
  • Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Rabies
  • Freemartin
  • Milk Fever
  • Retained Placenta
  • Pregnancy toxemia/ ketosis

7
Paratuberculosis (Johnes Disease)
  • Previously covered disease.

8
Urinary Calculi
  • Previously covered disease.

9
Prolapse
  • Previously covered disease.

10
Prolapse (contd)
11
Prolapse (contd)
12
BACTERIAL DISEASES
13
Tetanus
  • Previously covered disease.

14
Big Head
  • Causative agent Clostridium novyi, C. sordellii,
    or C. chauvoei (black leg)
  • Clinical signs (sheep) Head butting and fighting
    causes bruising or laceration and edematous
    swelling.
  • Diagnosis Clinical signs
  • Treatment Penicillin, broad spectrum antibiotics
  • Prevention Vaccinate 7/8 way - ewe 1 month
    before lambing, lamb 1 month and 2-4 weeks later
    booster

15
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16
Black Disease
  • Causative agent Clostridium novyi Type B (soil)
  • Transmission ingestion of spores, flukes
    predispose them to black disease
  • Clinical signs Often found dead (endotoxins)
    respiratory distress, anorexia, and fever
  • Diagnosis Necropsy and culture/ gram stain -
    liver
  • Hemorrhage of SQ vessels, sub epicardial
    hemorrhage, kidney/liver - autolysis
  • Treatment Tetracycline
  • Control trematodes e.g. albendazole

17
Black disease. Dark brown swollen liver showing
necrotic areas (12 cm) in diameter surrounded by
a zone of hyperaemia Courtesy of FAO
18
Brucellosis
  • Causative agent Brucella ovis and B. melitensis
    (rare abortion) in sheep Brucella melitensis
    and B. abortus (ZOONOTIC) in goats. Gram
    coccobacillus
  • Malta fever in humans
  • Transmission sheep - veneral and goats
    ingestion of contaminated food, direct contact
    urine, feces, placenta, milk
  • Clinical signs
  • Sheep Abortion (rare), epididymitis,
  • goats abortion storms, lameness, mastitis,
    diarrhea, and depression
  • Diagnosis Agglutination tests or complement
    fixation
  • Treatment None

19
Caseous Lymphadenitis
  • Causative agent Corynebacterium
    pseudotuberculosis gram coccoid
  • Transmission direct contact with superficial
    wounds, ingestion, inhalation
  • Clinical signs Dyspnea, tachypnea, cough, and
    weight loss
  • Diagnosis Culture from TTW, radiographs,
    necropsy (hepatic abscess)
  • Treatment Isolation, hygiene and vaccine?

20
Caseous Lymphadenitis (contd)
21
Caseous Lymphadenitis (contd)
22
Chlamydophilosis Enzootic abortion ewes (EAE)
  • Causative agent Chlamydia psittaci (zoonotic)
    gram -
  • Transmission Direct contact uterine discharge,
    fetus, placenta veneral (rams are carriers)
  • Clinical signs Abortion (1 cause in goats)
    last trimester, weak or stillborn lambs,
    pneumonia, KCS, epididymitis, and polyarthritis
  • Diagnosis ELISA, fluorescent antibody staining,
    and culture isolation
  • Treatment Oxytetracycline females that have
    aborted should be isolated fetal tissue or
    placenta should be burned or buried and
    management
  • Prevention vaccine (prevent abortions)

23
Clostridium Perfringens
  • Causative agent Clostridium perfringens (normal
    flora GI sheep)
  • Clinical signs
  • Type A diarrhea neonates.
  • Type B (lamb dysentery endotoxin) acute bloody
    diarrhea young lambs gt high mortality.
  • Type C (lamb dysentery endotoxin) diarrhea in
    lambs lt 3 wks. And in adults struck.
  • Type D feedlot lambs high concentrate, eat
    excessive feed/ milk. Diarrhea (sheep can die w/o
    diarrhea in goats diarrhea than die),
    incoordination, excitement, circling, head
    pressing, convulsions and sudden death

24
Clostridium Perfringens
  • Diagnosis Clinical signs or necropsy
  • Treatment Penicillin and vaccinate with
    antitoxin in outbreak
  • Prevention vaccination, parasite control,
    gradual feed changes

25
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26
Joint ill
  • Causative agent Kids, Staphylococci,
    streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Actinomyces,
    and coliform bacteria
  • Transmission breaks in skin, umbilical cord, GI,
    respiratory tract
  • Clinical signs Warm, painful, swollen joints,
  • lameness, fever, umbilical cord abcessation,
  • and leukocytosis with left shift
  • Diagnosis Clinical signs
  • Treatment Penicillin's and joint flushing
    (saline)
  • Prevention avoid overcrowding and hygiene at
    partiurition, dipping umbilical cord

27
Vibriosis
  • Causative agent Campylobacter jejuni and C.
    fetus, gram rod
  • Transmission ingestion of organisms (intestines
    of sheep, birds, dogs)
  • Clinical signs Late-term abortion (1 sheep),
    stillbirths, and weak lambs
  • Diagnosis Culture
  • Treatment Antibiotics and vaccination

28
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) -
Scrapie
  • Causative agent Prion
  • Transmission?? Suffolk. Infected at birth.
    Genetics. (environment) and show c.s. at 3.5
    years.
  • Clinical signs Wool or hair loss, ataxia, weight
    loss, starring, aggressiveness, floppy ears,
    tremors, seizures, inability to swallow, and
    death. Chronic and degenerative
  • Diagnosis Finding prion protein with
    immunostaining of lymphoid tissue in 3rd eyelid
  • Treatment None
  • REPORTABLE, eradication program

29
OTHER DISEASES
30
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) -
Scrapie
31
Toxoplasma
  • Causative agent Toxoplasma gondii
  • Clinical signs Fetal death, abortion, embryonic
    death, stillbirth, and weak nonviable neonates
  • Diagnosis Serologic tests
  • Treatment Prevent cat access to sheep areas

32
VIRAL DISEASES
33
Bluetongue
  • Causative agent genus Orbivirus Family
    Reoviridae
  • Transmission Culicoides gnat/midge, cattle are
    reservoirs
  • Clinical signs Ulcerations on the mouth or nose,
    lame, fever, and abortion, neonate -
    hydroencephaly
  • Diagnosis Viral isolation
  • Treatment Insect control, vaccine
  • REPORTABLE

34
Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis
  • Causative agent Retroviral (similar to ovine
    progressive pneumoniae)
  • Transmission fomites (needles), colostrum
  • Clinical signs
  • Neurologic kids 1-4 months tetraplegia, ataxia,
    blindness, head tilt, facial paralysis,
    opisthotonus, generalized paresis
  • Arthritic
  • Mastitis

35
Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis
  • Diagnosis AGID (test for CAE antibody), CS, and
    necropsy
  • Treatment None
  • Prevention cull, colostrum heated 1 hour at 56 C

36
Contagious Ecthyma
  • contagious viral pustular dermatitis orf sore
    mouth contagious pustular dermatitis
    cutaneous pustular dermatitis, scabby mouth
  • Etiology Family poxviridae and genus
    Parapoxvirus
  • Transmission direct/ indirect with environment

Immunity and counter-immunity during infection
with the parapoxvirus orf virus David M Haig, ,
Colin J McInnes, 2002
37
Contagious Ecthyma
  • Clinical signs Lesions in oral cavity, eyelids,
    feet, and teats lameness, anorexia,
    dehydration, malnutrition, secondary bacterial
    infections
  • Diagnosis Clinical signs
  • Treatment Secondary bacterial infections and
    supportive
  • Prevention

38
Ovine Progressive Pneumonia
  • Causative agent Retroviridae family
  • Transmission milk and colostrum
  • Clinical signs Coughing, bronchial exudates,
    anorexia, fever, depression, encephalitis, and
    mastitis
  • Diagnosis Necropsy,
  • ELISA, AGID, and virus isolation
  • Treatment None
  • Prevention culling

39
Author Angie Warner, D.V.M.,D.Sc.
DescriptionThis slide shows gross lung tissue
from a sheep with ovine progressive pnemonia
(OPP). This is an example of a multifocal
pulmonary disease that may be diagnosed by lung
biopsy.
40
Noninfectious Diseases
41
Entropion
  • Causative agent Congenital, trauma, severe
    dehydration, weight loss, and painful ocular
    conditions
  • Most common ocular disease in neonatal lambs
  • Bilateral and lower lids

42
Entropion
  • Clinical signs Blepharospasm,
  • photophobia, epiphora,
  • keratoconjunctivitis,
  • and eye rubbing
  • Diagnosis Clinical signs
  • Treatment Surgical and
  • Penicillin, topical atropine,
  • topical antibiotics

43
Hereditary Chondrodysplasia spider lamb syndrome
  • Causative agent Inheritable
  • Clinical signs Skeletal defects primarily seen
    in Suffolk or Hampshire breeds
  • Lambs show clinical signs at 6 weeks of age
  • Longer legs
  • Chondrodysplasia skull, sternum, vertebrae

44
Hereditary Chondrodysplasia (contd)
45
Metritis
  • Causative agent Clostridium spp. After dystocia,
    retained placenta
  • Clinical signs Vaginal discharge malodorous
    brownish-red watery
  • Diagnosis Clinical signs
  • Treatment Prostaglandins and oxytocin

46
References
  • http//www.pipevet.com/content/Photosensitization.
    asp
  • http//www.arkanimalcare.com/sites/default/files/I
    nfoFiles/SheepGoat/Disease20of20Sheep_Goats.pdf
  • http//www.vet.k-state.edu/depts/vhc/agpract/artic
    les/Caseous_Lymph.pdf
  • http//www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/T0756E06.htm
    ch5.3.2
  • ftp//ftp.cdc.gov/pub/publications/mmwr/rr/rr4908.
    pdf
  • http//www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile
    htm/bc/50713.htm
  • http//www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_dis
    eases/scrapie/downloads/fs_ahscrapie.pdf
  • K Holtgrew-Bohling , Large Animal Clinical
    Procedures for Veterinary Technicians, 2nd
    Edition, Mosby, 2012, ISBN 97803223077323

47
References
  • http//ohioline.osu.edu/vme-fact/0004.html
  • http//www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/bluet
    ongue.pdf
  • http//www.uwyo.edu/vetsci/courses/patb_4110/3-28/
    class_notes.htm
  • Immunity and counter-immunity during infection
    with the parapoxvirus orf virus
  • David M Haig, ,
  • Colin J McInnes
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