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Renaissance (Rebirth) A New Vision of Humanity 1450

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Title: Renaissance (Rebirth) A New Vision of Humanity 1450


1
Renaissance (Rebirth)A New Vision of Humanity
1450 1600
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2
St. Peter's Basilica
  • St. Peter's Basilica is a Late Renaissance church
    located within the Vatican City.
  • It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian
    sites.
  • It has the largest interior of any Christian
    church in the world, holding 60,000 people.

3
  • It is the burial site of Saint Peter, who was one
    of the twelve apostles of Jesus and first Bishop
    of Rome.
  • Saint Peter's tomb, along with many other Popes
    is directly below the altar of the basilica.
  • Construction of the present basilica began on
    April 18, 1506 and was completed on November 18,
    1626.
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter's_Basilica

4
The Italian Renaissance
  • It originated in Italy around 1300.
  • These new ideas were well-received and flourished
    throughout Italy.
  • By 1500, these new ideas had also reached
    Northern parts of Europe.

5
Understanding the Beginnings of the Renaissance
  • To understand the beginnings of the Renaissance,
    you must go back /- 800 yrs, to the fall of the
    Roman Empire.
  • For 1 000 yrs, Rome ruled most of Europe,
    bringing advancements in technology, learning and
    government.
  • Once Rome fell to invaders in 542 CE, Western
    Europe fell into a stagnant period known as the
    Middle Ages.
  • Not advancing or developing

6
  • Society regressed People did not venture far
    from their small villages.
  • Local lords ruled by force and intimidation.
  • Learning took place only in religious houses.
  • Europeans grew up ignorant, illiterate, and
    superstitious.
  • Peasants and serfs did not find life beautiful or
    intriguing.

7
  • They lived in miserable conditions.
  • He had little hope of improving their lives.
  • If you were born a peasant, you would most likely
    die a peasant.
  • Their main goal in life was finding eternal
    salvation.
  • Life on Earth was a journey to suffer through, in
    order to reach Heaven.

8
New Beliefs at the End of the Middle Ages
  • Towards the end of the Middle Ages, new ideas and
    beliefs about life and its purpose began to
    spread.
  • This school of thought, known as humanism, was
    based on the belief that life on Earth had a
    point of its own.
  • It wasnt just a miserable pit-stop on the way to
    Heaven.
  • Humanists believed that life was beautiful and
    should be enjoyed.

9
The Rise of Merchants at the End of the Middle
Ages
  • The Black Death, wiped out hundreds of thousands
    of Europeans.
  • This caused a huge shortage of workers.
  • Wages rose as a result of a high demand for
    workers.
  • The standard of living rose as the wages
    improved.
  • This lead to the rise of wealthy merchants,
  • They would provide the money, resources and the
    incentive for the Renaissance.

10
The Renaissance brought Changes in Society
  • It was a cultural movement.
  • The social changes that took place during the
    Renaissance were slow, but steady.
  • Individuals had become for confident and felt
    more empowered.

11
Humanism was a key Component of the Renaissance
  • It was also an the intellectual movement
  • It was based on the study of classical Greek and
    Roman cultures.
  • Humanists believed that your accomplishments were
    important and defined who you were as a person.
  • The new attitude was Live for Today.
  • Hard-working merchants liked this movement
    because they were tired of the ruling nobles.
  • A person who is born into a privileged, wealthy
    family

12
Humanism and Renaissance Art
  • New techniques in art created astounding works of
    art.
  • A technique known as Perspective made scenes
    appear three dimensional.
  • Careful shading make objects look round and real,
    rather than flat.
  • Using human models helped artists portray the
    human body far more accurately than in Medieval
    art.

13
  • Renaissance art glorified the human body.
  • It placed importance of the individual and were
    secular (non-religious).
  • The works of the four great masters, Leonardo da
    Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Donatello set
    the standard for Renaissance art.
  • Davincis Mona Lisa portrays a simple woman,
    wearing a simple smile.
  • Artists turned to the classics of Ancient Greece
    and Rome for inspirations.

14
Pre-Renaissance Art
  • Early Medieval art was Romanesque style.
  • Romanesque paintings are naive the characters
    have unrealistic features and showed no emotion.
  • By 1100 AD, Medieval art had become Gothic
  • Gothic architecture can be recognized by the
    pointed arches on buildings.
  • Gothic art shows more concern for realism and
    emotion.

15
  • Gothic Architecture became popular in the late
    Medieval Period.
  • It was most commonly used for cathedrals and
    churches in Europe.
  • Westminster Abbey is a large, Gothic church.
  • It is the traditional place of coronation and
    burial site for English monarchs.

16
What did Humanism contribute to Western Culture?
  • Intellectuals began to spread scientific
    knowledge throughout Europe despite the Churchs
    opposition to it.
  • Humanists had great interests in history,
    philosophy, art and literature.
  • They looked backwards, at the cultures of Ancient
    Greece and Rome for inspiration.

17
  • The children of wealthy merchants and nobles
    started reading humanist philosophy.
  • According to Humanism, education should stimulate
    students creative powers.
  • Students were taught poetry, history, and public
    speaking.
  • Before the Humanist movement, the Church
    successfully controlled all aspects of our lives.
  • Europeans under humanist influence began to
    question the Churchs practises.

18
  • The Humanist belief was that people were able to
    reason well on their own, without the influence
    of the Church.
  • The belief also rejected the idea of being
    controlled or brainwashed by the Church.
  • In other words, people should be given the right
    to have individual freedom of thought.
  • à
  • They believed God should not be our central
    concern.
  • They preached for tolerance and peace instead of
    also engaging in religious wars.

19
Printing in the Renaissance
  • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg
  • The printing press revolutionized Renaissance
    society the same way TV and the internet have
    influenced the 20th and 21st centuries.
  • For the first time books were cheap enough for
    the masses learning and new ideas spread like
    wildfire throughout Europe.
  • The printing pressing enabled ideas to spread
    across Europe.

20
Scientific Progress During the Renaissance
  • Church taught that the Earth was flat and that it
    was at the center of the universe!
  • Any new idea which had conflicted with the
    biblical texts was forbidden (punishable by
    death!).
  • Scientists learned about human anatomy by
    dissecting corpses.
  • This lead to the advancement in medicine.
  • Dissecting corpses was forbidden by the church.

21
  • Martin LUTHER and The Reformation
  • Martin Luther started a movement to reform the
    Catholic Church.
  • He believed the church had become too rich,
    powerful and corrupt!

22
Criticism of the Church
  • Members of the clergy did not honour their vows
    of poverty and chastity.
  • The Pope and bishops lived in luxury and behaved
    like powerful noblemen.
  • Priests were ignorant, neglected their duties and
    were left unsupervised.

23
Pope Leo X the Selling of Indulgences
  • When the Church attached the sale of indulgences,
    Luther became increasingly enraged at this
    practice.
  • Indulgences meant that a person could buy their
    way out of purgatory or hell.
  • Church leaders commonly launched indulgence
    campaigns to finance large building projects
    (such as the building of St. Peter's in Rome).

24
  • In 1517, Martin Luther nailed the 95 theses onto
    the wooden doors of the church.
  • He revealed the corruption going on inside church
    walls.
  • -

25
  • His Letter stressed out the following issues
  • The Catholic Church believes that we only get
    into heaven by faith plus good works.
  • (Showing that you are a good Christian by
    helping the poor, helping your neighbor in need,
    encouraging others, volunteering etc.)
  • The bible teaches us that we go to heaven
    strictly by faith in Jesus Christ.

26
  • 2. The Bible is the living true authority of God,
    not the Pope.
  • 3. People can read and interpret the bible for
    themselves instead of relying on the priests or
    bishops to do it for them.
  • 4. People did not need to buy their rights to
    heaven.
  • 5. All people are created equal through the eyes
    of God.
  • 6. He encouraged worshiping God through praise
    and singing.

27
Luther Excommunicated
  • Martin Luther was excommunicated by the Pope in
    1520 after he publicly burned the Papal Decree
    (letters issued by the Pope).
  • In 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V put him on
    trial and condemned him as a heretic and an
    outlaw of the church.

28
  • They didn't execute him because that would've
    made him a martyr.
  • Frederick the Wise, of Saxony made a deal with
    the Catholic Church resulting in Martin Luther's
    safe passage to his home at Wartburg Castle.
  • While in exile, he rewrote the bible in German.

29
  • During the months he stayed there, he witnessed
    many social changes as a result of his
    revolution.
  • "Salvation is achieved through Jesus Christ
    alone" Martin Luther

30
The Churchs Reaction to the Reformation
  • In 1545, Pope Paul III assembled a council
    (meeting with important Church officials) in the
    city of Trent to discuss how to deal with the
    Reformation.
  • The council made the following decisions at this
    meeting
  • Priests had to be supervised and educated in
    colleges.

31
  • Published an Official Latin Bible.
  • Created new religious orders like the Jesuits.
  • Jesuits were educated priests that taught and
    spread the Roman Catholic faith throughout the
    world.
  • Heretics would be prosecuted in courts called the
    inquisition.
  • Protestants were considered heretics.
  • Enemies of the Church were put on trial and
    sentenced to death.
  • This council also decided to get rid of the
    selling of indulgences because it was bad for the
    Churchs image.

32
  • The church made a list of banned books.
  • These BAD books were listed in THE INDEX.
  • The Effects of the Counter-Reformation
  • The Council of Trent revived enthusiasm for the
    Roman Catholic Church.
  • The highly-educated Jesuits challenged Protestant
    preachers.
  • The Protestant movement was weakened.

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