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Foundations of Civilization

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Foundations of Civilization Prehistory-300 B.C. Understanding Our Past Section 1 What is History? What is Prehistory? Studying the Historical Past Prehistory= the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Foundations of Civilization


1
Foundations of Civilization
  • Prehistory-300 B.C.

2
Understanding Our Past
  • Section 1

3
What is History?What is Prehistory?
4
Studying the Historical Past
  • Prehistory the long period of time before people
    invented writing.
  • Historians are scholars who study and write
    about the historical past.
  • How do Historians learn about the past?

5
Artifacts
  • Artifactsare object made by humans
  • What is considered an artifact??

6
Investigating Prehistory
  • Scholars want to learn about the origins and
    development of people and their societies. This
    field of study is called Anthropology.
  • Anthropologist study things like bones and
    cultures.
  • What is a culture?

7
Investigating Prehistory
  • Archaeology is the study of past people and
    cultures through their material remains.
  • Remains include things such as tools, weapons,
    pottery, clothing, and jewelry.
  • Archaeologists find and analyze artifacts to
    learn about life during prehistory as well as
    during historical times.
  • Archaeologists work with other experts.

8
Video
  • What is Archaeology? YouTube video

9
You be the Archaeologist
  • Based on the artifacts we come up with in class,
    what can you tell about the person who owned the
    belongings? Be the Historian and write a brief
    history about this person.

10
Discoveries and Africa and Beyond
  • Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey searched in the
    Olduvai Gorge and found some ancient tools.
  • They concluded that whomever made them had
    learned to develop technologies to help them
    survive

11
Hominids
  • Mary Leaky found the skull of a hominid in 1959.
  • Hominids are a group that includes humans and
    their closest relatives, all walk upright and on
    two feet.
  • Donald Johanson found many pieces of a single
    hominid dating back to 3 million years ago.
  • Lucy

12
Group Work
  • Complete sections B on the note taking study
    guide. You may work with a partner. 10 minutes
    only!
  • 1. Australopithecines
  • 2. Homo habilis
  • 3. Homo Erectus
  • Homo sapiens

13
Early Hominid Groups
  • Australopithecines all lived in Africa about 7
    million years ago. (Lucy)
  • Homo Habilis (Handy man) lived 2 million years
    ago and were the first to invent tools.
  • Homo Erectus( upright man) appeared around 2
    million years ago. Larger brains and bones. They
    used new tools. FIRST TO USE FIRE!!!

14
Homo Habilis
15
Homo Erectus
16
Homo Sapiens
  • Between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago, Homo
    erectus disappeared and Homo sapiens appeared.
    MODERN HUMANS!
  • Neanderthals are another group of homo sapiens
    that appeared but they eventually disappeared.

17
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18
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19
Turning PointNeolithic Revolution
  • Section 2

20
Old vs. New Stone Age
  • 2 million B.C. - 10,000 B.C.
  • OLD Stone age (Paleolithic)
  • 10,000 B.C. to the end of prehistory
  • NEW stone age (Neolithic)
  • During the new stone age people began to develop
    skills and technologies that led to dramatic
    changes in their everyday lives.

21
Old Stone Age Nomads
  • Nomads are people who move from place to place to
    find food.
  • 20-30 people in small groups
  • Men hunted and fished while women and children
    gathered fruits, nuts, grains, or shellfish.

22
Developed strategies for survival during the Old
Stone age
  • Made tools with stone, bone, or wood
  • Developed language
  • Learned to travel across water

23
Neolithic Revolution
  • Known as the transition from nomadic life to
    settled farming.
  • Marked the beginning of the New Stone Age.
  • People settled in permanent villages and
    developed new skills and technologies.
  • Early farmers domesticated plants and animals.

24
Earliest Villages Established
  • Jericho (pg. 14)
  • Populations of a few thousands
  • Surrounded by a huge wall (2 soccer fields)
  • Catalhuyuk

25
  • What new technologies did people invent as a
    result of agriculture?
  • Read page 15. come up with a list.

26
Beginnings of Civilization
  • Section 3

27
First Cities and Civilizations Arise
  • All settled along major rivers.
  • These areas favored farming by spreading silt.
  • Farmers could produce surpluses of food.
  • This allowed for villages to grow into cities.

28
River Valley Civilizations
  • Civilization is a complex, highly organized
    social order.

29
First Civilizations in the Americas
  • First civilizations were located in the highlands
    of Peru, Mexico, and Central America

30
Basic features that define civilization
  • Organized Governments
  • Complex Religions
  • Job Specialization
  • Social Classes
  • Arts and Architecture
  • Public Works
  • Writing

31
Civilizations Change Over Time
  • Environment Affects Peoples Lives.
  • Need natural resources
  • Natural disasters

32
Civilizations Change Over Time
  • Cultural Diffusion The spread of ideas, customs,
    and technologies from one people to another.
  • Trade
  • Warfare

33
Civilizations Change Over Time
  • Cities Grow into City-States controlled by
    rulers, priests, and nobles.

34
First Empires
  • An Empire is a group of states or territories
    controlled by one ruler.
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