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Civilization

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Civilization What does it mean to be civilized ? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civilization


1
Civilization
  • What does it mean
  • to be civilized ?

2
Civilization
  • A civilization is built on what is required of
    men, not on that which is provided for them.
  • Antoine De Saint-Exupery 1900-1944, French
    Writer
  • Increased means and increased leisure are the two
    civilizers of man.
  • Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881, British Statesman
    Prime Minister
  • To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the
    last product of civilization.
  • Toynbee, Arnold1852-1883, British Economic
    Historian and Reformer

3
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization (self-knowledge, fulfillment
of personal potential) Esteem (autonomy,
achievement, recognition) Social (belonging,
affection) Safety (security, protection from
harm) Physiological (Hunger, thirst, shelter)
4
What does it mean to be civilized?
  • Historians have determined 6 characteristics of
    civilization
  • Cities
  • Organized central governments
  • Complex religions
  • Social classes
  • Job specialization and the arts
  • Writing

5
Rise of Cities
  • Central feature of ancient civilizations
  • Located in fertile river valleys

Nile River
6
Rise of Cities
  • Rivers provided
  • water supply
  • transportation
  • food supply from animals
  • Rivers provided challenges
  • flooding
  • irrigation

Euphrates River
7
Organized Central Governments
  • Early governments were first headed by priests
  • Later controlled by warrior chiefs or kings
  • These kings became hereditary rulers

8
Organized Central Governments
  • Governments became more complex as new
    responsibilities arose such as
  • tax collecting
  • law making
  • handling public works projects
  • organizing systems of defense

9
Complex Religions
  • Generally polytheistic
  • Many gods represented natural forces
  • Others controlled human activities
  • Priests and worshippers tried to gain gods favor
    through complex rituals and sacrifice

10
Complex Religions
  • Temples often built to honor specific gods and
    goddesses

Mayan temple
Egyptian temple
Mesopotamian ziggurat
11
Social Classes
  • People ranked according to their profession

Chief Priests Nobles Wealthy merchants Artisans Pe
asants/farmers Slaves
Egyptian social structure
12
Job Specialization and the Arts
  • Artisans specialized in various jobs, such as
  • Bricklayers
  • Blacksmiths
  • Created great architecture and art

13
Writing
  • Probably first used by priests
  • Earliest writing used pictograms

Chinese calligraphy
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Mesopotamian cuneiform
14
Writing
  • Symbols later added to represent words and then
    sounds
  • Scribes were specially trained to read, write,
    and record information

15
Where were the earliest civilizations located?
16
Why civilizations fall
  • External
  • War
  • Natural disaster
  • Disease
  • Internal
  • Overpopulation
  • Economic problems
  • Social disruption
  • Political struggles

17
How do civilizations collapse?
  • Population size and density decrease dramatically
  • Society tends to become less politically
    centralized
  • Less investment is made in things such as
    architecture, art, and literature
  • Trade and other economic activities are greatly
    diminished
  • The flow of information among people slows
  • The ruling elites may change, but usually the
    working classes tend to remain and provide
    continuity

18
Is it possible to prevent collapse?
  • Every society must
  • answer basic biological needs of its members
    food, drink, shelter, and medical care.
  • provide for production and distribution of goods
    and services (perhaps through division of labor,
    rules concerning property and trade, or ideas
    about role of work).
  • provide for reproduction of new members and
    consider laws and issues related to reproduction
    (regulation, marriageable age, number of
    children, and so on).
  • provide for training (education, apprenticeship,
    passing on of values) of individuals so that they
    can become functioning adults in society.
  • provide for maintenance of internal and external
    order (laws, courts, police, wars, diplomacy).
  • provide meaning and motivation to its members.
  • Thuman and Bennet

19
Civilization
  • What does it mean
  • to be civilized ?

20
Bibliography
  • Annenberg/CPB
  • American Association for the Advancement of
    Science
  • Unitedstreaming.com
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