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The Rise of Civilization

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The Rise of Civilization Or How we stopped swinging from trees and learned to play with fire! The Search for Early Humans Anthropology - the study of humanity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of Civilization


1
The Rise of Civilization
  • Or How we stopped swinging from trees and
    learned to play with fire!

2
The Search for Early Humans
  • Anthropology - the study of humanity - our
    physical characteristics as animals, and our
    unique non-biological characteristics we call
    culture. The subject is generally broken down
    into three subdisciplines biological (physical)
    anthropology, cultural (social) anthropology, and
    archaeology.

3
  • The first humanlike creatures are referred to as
    hominids.
  • Anthropologists found skeletal/fossil remains of
    early hominids in Ethiopia
  • 1974 Lucy
  • 1978 anthropologist Mary Leakey
  • These early hominids walked upright which
    allowed them to see over the grasslands and to
    use tools.

4
Lucy Mary Leakey
5
Great Rift Valley
6
  • Archaeologists study past cultures through human
    remains and artifacts discovered.
  • Stratigraphy determining the age of objects
    based upon the layer of soil/ice an object was
    found in.
  • Radiocarbon dating carbon 14

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The First People
  • About 200,000 years ago early hominids developed
    into Homo sapiens thinking man. Originating
    in Africa Homo sapiens moved out of Africa into
    Asia and eventually to Europe (Eurasia),
    Australia and eventually the Americas.
  • - Neanderthal disappeared by 30,000 B.C.E
  • - Cro-Magnon

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Hunter - Gatherers
  • Early society
  • Early humans lived in small wandering bands
    (NOMADS) as they ate wild plants and decaying
    animals.
  • As they developed a knowledge of tools and fire
    early humans learned to hunt animals for food.
  • This need for communication probably led to the
    development of language.

14
The Stone Age Meet the Flintstones
  • Paleolithic Old Stone Age ended about 10,000
    B.C.E.
  • Mesolithic Middle Stone Age ended about 8,000
    B.C.E.
  • Neolithic ended about 3,500 B.C.E.
  • Shifts in periods are based on the development of
    tool usage.

15
Paleolithic Age
  • Anthropologists believe the development of
    CULTURE occurred during the Paleolithic Age.
  • Culture customs, art, religious beliefs and
    sense of identity. Anthropologists cite the
    development of cave paintings and religious
    figurines as examples of early culture.

16
  • Early burials show ceremonial burials red
    ochre, possessions a sense of afterlife,
    religion, etc.

17
  • Many female goddess figurines are found from
    this early time. Is this the start of religion?
    Development of a human sense of connection to
    generations?
  • Fertility/Venus

18
Cave of Lascaux - France
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  • Culture and society led to a more complex
    relationship between people. This led to
    specialization of jobs and tools.
  • Chipped stone tools, bow, arrow, fishing tools,
    canoes etc all led to increased food sources
    and therefore increased SURVIVAL meaning
    greater population.

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  • Greater population also placed greater demands on
    groups.
  • Weather changes in the Middle East allowed for
    the spread of wild grains. Groups of people
    began to stay in areas for longer times as they
    gathered the grains. Early porridges and breads
    developed.

23
Agricultural Revolution
  • Domestication turning plants and animals from
    wild into tame.
  • Wild grains and wild animals became grains
    purposely grown and chickens and cows raised by
    hand PASTORALISM.
  • This meant
  • Surplus food
  • Increased population
  • Highly specialized farming

24
Development of Use of Pottery and Metal
  • Clay was turned into pottery which allowed
    infinite shapes and uses.
  • Metal ores were refined into usable metals
    copper and bronze (copper and tin).
  • Bronze is extremely strong better tools
    meaning
  • Plows, knives, swords, etc.

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CIVILIZATION
  • Surplus food, increased technology, etc. allowed
    nomadic hunter gatherers to stay in one place.
    This is seen as the start of civilization.
  • Permanence allowed security which allowed THOUGHT
    EDUCATION etc!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

27
River Civilizations
  • In present day Iraq the Euphrates and Tigris
    Rivers created a fertile crescent of land where
    civilization flourished.
  • MESOPOTAMIA the Greeks named this area
    Mesopotamia between the rivers.
  • Nomadic herders found that the fertile land and
    abundant water supply allowed them to permanently
    live in the area.

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The Fertile Crescent
29
  • Silt the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers flooded
    and left the land covered with silt mud rich
    with minerals.
  • The nomads who settled in Mesopotamia built dams
    and irrigation canals in order to control the
    flooding.
  • This allowed the people of Mesopotamia to settle
    and develop a permanent civilization that last to
    this day. The land of Iraq is known as the
    cradle of civilization.

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  • By 3500 B.C.E., the people of the fertile
    crescent established a series of city-states in
    an area known as SUMER.
  • The Sumerian city-states often fought which
    kept them from truly unifying and creating a
    strong kingdom.
  • The Sumerians practiced a form of religion that
    believed a spirit or god was found in every
    aspect of the physical world. A religion with
    more than one god is known as polytheism.

33
Sumer
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  • The Sumerians built great temples called
    ziggurats which were built in layers like a
    cake with each layer smaller than the one it
    was built on.

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  • With permanence came more time for all aspects of
    life especially agriculture which led to
    surplus.
  • Surplus led to selling the extra which led to
    trade which led to profit.
  • Extra money meant people could buy more and more
    things which meant someone had to make these
    new objects.

37
  • This created a stratified society with people
    occupying different functions and occupations in
    society.
  • The growing differences in peoples occupations
    and wealth led to the development of HIERARCHY.
    Where people are ranked by birth, wealth, etc.

38
  • Civilizations with great trade created forms of
    number keeping and writing allowing people to
    keep track of their possessions and debts.
  • The Sumerians developed CUNEIFORM a writing
    on small clay tablets with sharpened sticks.
  • The first literature known to archeologists was
    found written by the Sumerians.

39
Cuneiform
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The Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Perhaps the first important piece of literature
    written in history was The Epic of Gilgamesh.
  • Gilgamesh was a fictional king of the Sumerian
    city of Uruk. The epic follows Gilgamesh through
    travels to the land of the dead where he is
    told to forget about an afterlife and live life
    to the fullest.
  • Flood story

42
Ancient Images of Gilgamesh
43
3000-2000 B.C.E. Massive Western Asian Migration
  • For nearly one thousand years, a large number of
    western Asian peoples migrated in the areas known
    as Eurasia and the Middle East. Most are divided
    into two groups based upon the origins of their
    languages.
  • 1. Indo-European from north of the Black Sea
  • 2. Semitic from the deserts of the Arabian
    peninsula

44
  • Semitic peoples moved east into the land of
    Mesopotamia where the people of Sumer had
    already established city-states.
  • About (circa) 2330 B.C.E., the Semitic peoples
    conquered the people of Sumer and established the
    AKKADIAN EMPIRE.
  • The Akkadians were led by SARGON THE GREAT the
    empire builder
  • The Akkadians established an empire from
    Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sargon the Great
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  • The Akkadian Empire was eventually ruled by the
    kings of the city of UR.
  • The people of Mesopotamia prospered through trade
    with other parts of the Middle East.
  • Internal strife made the region susceptible to
    invaders.

48
Babylon
  • ca. 1800 B.C.E. a new group of Semitic people
    moved into Mesopotamia and established a city
    along the Euphrates River BABYLON.
  • The Babylonians soon controlled the cities of
    Mesopotamia.

49
HAMMURABI
  • The great leader of Babylon was HAMMURABI.
  • Hammurabi adopted the culture and civilization of
    the peoples of Mesopotamia adding his peoples
    culture as well.

50
The Code of Hammurabi an eye for an eye
  • The complexity of the land of Babylon inspired
    Hammurabi to issue a written series of laws
    (codified) for the empire.
  • The code was designed to keep social stability
    hierarchy.

51
The Assyrian Empire
  • The Assyrians were a Semitic people who settled
    in northern Mesopotamia ca. 2000B.C.E.
  • By 650 B.C.E. the Assyrians had established an
    empire throughout Mesopotamia and the western
    coast of the Mediterranean Sea modern Egypt,
    Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq.

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The Power of the Assyrian Empire
  • An army organized into regular units
  • Mandatory service in the army
  • Officers placed by merit rather than social class
  • Use of iron weapons
  • Cavalry infantry chariots
  • Standardized law and government throughout empire
  • Communication road slinking the empire
  • Mass deportations of conquered peoples
  • ca. 722 B.C.E. Assyrians conquered the Israel and
    forced the Israelites to move to Mesopotamia

54
The Chaldeans
  • ca. 600 B.C.E. the Assyrian Empire crumbled
    attacked by the CHALDEANS who had earlier settled
    around the city of Babylon.
  • The Chaldean king NEBUCHADNEZZAR conquered Israel
    destroyed the temple of Solomon and again
    forced the population to move to Babylon
    BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY Jewish DIASPORA.

55
The Chaldeans Babylonian Empire
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Lapis Lazuli
58
The Persians
  • By 539 B.C.E. The Chaldeans were overthrown by
    Indo-European invaders the PERSIANS.
  • ca. 1500 B.C.E many Indo-European people moved
    from their homes in southern Russia into what is
    today Iran.
  • Persians, Medes and other groups called
    themselves Aryans Iran Land of the Aryans.
  • The Persians/Aryans developed a society in the
    drier and harsher climate east of Mesopotamia

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ZOROASTER
  • A new religion developed among the Persians.
  • Zoroaster Zarathushtra
  • DOGMA
  • Denounced polytheism
  • One god Ahura Mazda - impersonal
  • Earth is a battle ground between good and evil
  • People were free to choose their paths in life-
    but they would be judged
  • Heaven for the good hell for the evil
  • Truth above all lying the greatest sin

61
Development of the Persian Empire
  • 550 B.C.E. the Persian king Cyrus II conquered
    his Aryan neighbors.
  • The Persians moved west and conquered the lands
    of the old Assyrian Empire
  • The Persians soon moved east into modern India
    and west into Turkey and even into Europe. King
    Darius I

62
  • Cyrus II
  • tomb

63
  • Darius I

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Reasons for the Success of the Persian Empire
  • Division of government and power into provinces
  • Imperial agents The Kings Eyes and Ears
  • Excellent road system
  • Allowed conquered people some self-rule
  • Organized economy silver shekel
  • Army made up of professional soldiers
  • 10,000 Immortals
  • Archers
  • Sickle wheeled chariots
  • navy

66
  • The Persian Empire grew in strength and size
    until a small nation of Europeans challenged the
    massive Persian army.
  • 331 B.C.E. the once great Persian army was
    forever destroyed by ALEXANDER THE GREAT of
    Greece.
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