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Regional Study 3 Western and Eastern Europe

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Title: Regional Study 3 Western and Eastern Europe


1
Regional Study 3 Western and Eastern Europe
  • A Continent in Transition

2
European Overview
  • Covers over 3.8 million square miles
  • Second smallest continent
  • Separated from Asia by the Ural Mountains of
    Russia and bounded by sea to the north, west, and
    south
  • Chain of mountains, the Pyrenees, Alps, and
    Carpathians stretch across the continent west to
    east
  • Separates the rugged lands that fringe the island
    filled Mediterranean Sea from the North European
    Plain, a belt of flat land that extends from the
    English Channel to the Urals
  • Farther north lie the broad, glacier-carved
    Scandinavian Peninsula and the large islands of
    Great Britain, Ireland and Iceland

3
European Overview
  • Europe is located on the western side of the
    Eurasian Plate and beneath Mediterranean Sea, the
    plate is colliding with the African Plate and the
    smaller Anatolian Plate
  • Southern Europe has quite a few earthquakes
    because of this movement

4
European Climate
  • Polar winds bring cold weather to northern Europe
    but a warm ocean current called the Gulf Stream
    helps create more temperate conditions in the
    west
  • Eastern interior experiences more extreme
    weather, very cold winters and hot summers
  • Southern Europe is protected from the northerly
    winds by the Alps, so it has warm, dry summers
    and mild, wet winters
  • Rainfall is uniformly distributed across Europe,
    but by the time the currents reach Eastern
    Europe, northeast of the Black sea, much of the
    moisture is gone

5
Vegetation of Europe
  • Most of western and central Europe were once
    covered with broadleaf deciduous forests of oak,
    ash, elm, beech, and birch
  • Boreal forests of fir, spruce, and pine still
    cloak extensive ares of Scandinavia and
    northwestern Russia, giving way in the far north
    to tundra
  • Steppe grasslands cover dry areas of the east
  • In the far south, on the shore of the
    Mediterranean Sea, the sparse woodlands and scrub
    are common
  • Emissions from the many cars, trucks, and
    factories in Europe have led to problems with air
    pollution and acid rain over a large part of the
    continent

6
Pollution in Europe
  • Land and water pollution from fertilizers,
    pesticides, and industrial waste is also
    widespread
  • Since 1960s, the amount of forest area in Western
    and Central Europe has increased, but nearly 60
    are damaged due to acidification, pollution,
    drought, or fires
  • Overfishing, especially in the North Sea, is a
    serious problem for marine ecosystems

7
Pollution in Europe
  • 50 out of 69 rivers are in poor ecological
    quality
  • 85 of the coastline is threatened by development
  • 1/3 of global greenhouse gas emissions,
    especially in Eastern Europe
  • Czech Republic has the continents highest levels
    of industrial waste
  • Moldovia has the highest levels of organic water
    pollutants
  • 260 species are on the brink of extinction and
    the populations of 1/3 of bird species are in
    decline

8
Improvements in Recent Years
  • Recent legislation has resulted in significant
    progress in reducing pollution
  • Greenhouse emissions have fallen 2 between
    1990-1998
  • Carbon dioxide emissions declined 8 in Eastern
    Europe between 1990-2000
  • Use of pesticides have declined in Eastern Europe
    and phosphorous discharges have dropped by 50 to
    80 in western Europe in the past 20 years
  • Levels of heavy metals, including mercury in seas
    fell by 80 in the 1990s.
  • Protected areas grow each year and Western Europe
    legislation has protected over 54 million acres
    of farmland

9
People of Europe
  • Europe has a population of about 720 million and
    has been one of the most densely populated areas
    in the world
  • Thousands of years of migrations, invasions, wars
    and changing alliances have made the cities
    architecture, art, languages, cultures and people
    diverse
  • 42 nations as well as the Eastern Thrace region
    of Turkey and eastern part of Russian Federation,
    often referred to as European Turkey and European
    Russia
  • Standards of living tend to be high, particularly
    in the northwest
  • Natural resources are high

10
Language Groups of Western Europe
  • 2 chief Indo-European language groups Romance
    and Germanic
  • French and Italian are Romance languages along
    with Spanish, Romanian and Portuguese
  • German, English are Germanic
  • Slavic Languages are separate category

11
Western Europe
  • Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden,
    Iceland, Belgium, Switzerland, Finland, France,
    Netherlands, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain Norway,
    Greece, Portugal, Denmark, Austria
  • 3 sides by water North by Arctic Ocean, South
    by Mediterranean Sea and East by Atlantic Ocean.
  • North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Celtic Sea, English
    Channel and Bay of Biscay flow into one another
    off of the west coast of Europe and the Baltic
    Sea separates Germany from Sweden

12
Western Europe
  • North European Plain Region (UK, German, most of
    France, some of Spain, part of Norway and all
    countries between Germany and France) have a
    marine west coast climate
  • Temperatures fairly warm and rainfall steady
  • Mediterranean Climate (southern France, southern
    Italy, southern Spain, Portugal and Greece) hot,
    dry summers and mild, moist winters

13
Religions of Europe
  • Primarily Catholic in Western Europe France,
    Spain, Italy, Ireland, Poland
  • Protestant in most of Germany (where Reformation
    began), Scandinavia region, Great Britain
  • Orthodox in Russia, Greece
  • Sunni Islam Turkey, Middle East

14
Human Impact on Europe
  • Early population growth and subsistence farming
    began around 4000 BC increased with the iron plow
    and commercial farming in the Middle Ages
  • Grew with industry of 18th Century, known as
    birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
  • Humans have removed over half of the continents
    original forest, along with large areas of
    natural steppe grasslands
  • Humans have modified about 65 of Europes
    surfacedouble of any other continent

15
Abundant Resources
  • Europes resources include fossil fuels, reliable
    supplies of fresh water, and arable land
  • Fertile in west, center and southeast produce
    large amounts of cereals (20 of worlds supply),
    root crops (including 2/3 of worlds potatoes),
    fruit, and livestock products
  • Dairy and beef cattle dominate in the north
  • South has farms of olives, grapes, citrus fruits,
    sheep and goats
  • Half of the worlds steel, 1/3 of chemicals and
    many consumer goods
  • ½ of the worlds exports and imports

16
Western European Economies
  • Benefited from close proximity to water
  • Shipping and trade significant along with
    colonization
  • Unified by geography, cooperative banking system,
    a shared transportation system, no trade barriers
    and under European Union it is hoped to unify
    currency with Euro Dollar

17
European Economies
  • Western Europe is a consolidation of high tech,
    market-driven, globally connected economies
  • Manufacturing and commercial agriculture are
    dominant
  • Crucial to continental economic integration is
    the European Union of 25 member nations whose
    combined economic power is in line with US and
    Russia

18
British Isles
  • United Kingdom (UK) are the three countries of
    England, Scotland and Wales plus northern Ireland
  • Great Britain are England, Scotland and Wales
  • England is the central power of UK- monarchy and
    parliament based here (London)

19
Englands Climate
  • Cool and moist
  • Sky often gray
  • Rains Regularly
  • 3 areas Highlands, hills that run along
    Englands west coast, Midlands most densely
    populated and a lot of coal, Lowlands southern
    and eastern England fertile soil and home of
    farms and cow pastures
  • Center of Industry, London is a natural seaport
  • River Thames that runs through London polluted as
    a result

20
Scotland and Wales
  • Honor Queen and send representatives to
    Parliament
  • Certain degrees of independence such as language
  • Scotland has own system of laws and educational
    system
  • Scotland has Highlands with moors (plains) and
    bogs. Fishing and sheep herding in this area.
    Central Lowlands most populous

21
Wales and Northern Ireland
  • Has Highlands and Lowlands as well, but more rain
  • Economy Wales mining and industry along with
    computers
  • Northern Ireland source of religious conflict
    with Catholics and Protestants leading to rise in
    independence

22
Nordic Nations
  • Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark
  • Called Scandinavia or Norden
  • Mostly Lutheran
  • Arctic conditions
  • Midnight Sun summers last for 20 hours and
    short, winters are long and dark
  • Climate moderate west coast due to warm currents
    of the North Atlantic
  • Moderate temperature below Arctic Circle

23
Nordic Nations
  • Iceland Land of Ice and Fire very volcanic and
    a lot of ice
  • Use geothermal energy
  • Standard of Living in these nations highest in
    the worldall have mixed economies, high taxes,
    but government provides day care, health care and
    college education
  • Neutral nations in international disputes
  • Fishing and agriculture very important,
    particularly whale hunting in Norway

24
European Unity
  • Economies of Europe are intertwined
  • Railroads, highways and waterways run across
    borders
  • The Chunnel, 31 mile long tunnel that was dug
    beneath the English Channel. People can travel
    by high-speed train from England to France
  • These things along with the European Union has
    made Europe closer to one another
  • Some are afraid of losing national identity and
    inequalities of EU members

25
France
  • France has mixed economy, name comes from Franks,
    Germanic tribe
  • Paris artistic, economic, and political capital
    of France
  • Diverse regions remain united by language and
    culture
  • Each region has its own specialty and contributes
    to French economy
  • Recently unemployment reached 14 due to
    immigration of many North Africans

26
France
  • Paris is not just the capital of France, but a
    world capital for style and fashion
  • 1800s art style called impressionism was born in
    Paris. Monet, Renoir and Degas painted natural
    everyday scenes and worked outdoors. They tried
    to catch first impressions

27
Germany
  • After World War I economic decline and racism led
    to rise of Hitler and Nazis
  • After World War II, Germany divided by Berlin
    Wall, part of Iron Curtain and reunited in 1990
  • Land rugged mountains in the south, hills, low
    mountains and tall plateaus in the center and
    flat plains in the north
  • Central Ruhr Valley is base of Germanys
    industrial activity, manufactures steel, iron,
    uses coal to power factories, which causes
    pollution, particularly in the east.

28
Germany Economy
  • One of first industrialized nations
  • Center of culture, art, music, philosophy and
    science
  • Capitalism
  • Western Germany used loans from U.S. to rebuild
    quickly after World War II and produced steel,
    automobiles, machinery, electronics and chemicals
  • Reunification there was a fear that Germany
    would build up its military
  • Eastern German factories tend to be old and many
    do not have jobs, economy as a whole has weakened
    because the west has been giving aid

29
BENELUX Countries
  • Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg (BE NE LUX)
  • Low countries
  • Belgium call selves the Walloons-French
    speaking people that make up 30 of population
  • Largest group in Belgium Flemish 55
  • Flemish and French official languages
  • Government decentralized to regional power
  • BENELUX Economic Union is a trade pact owned by
    Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg

30
Netherlands
  • Holland
  • 1/3 of country below sea level sometimes called
    Dutch
  • Elaborate system of canals that allow them to
    drain water from the land, pump it out to sea and
    then block its return with huge dikes
  • Reclaimed land is called polders
  • Rotterdam and Amsterdam are port cities on
    polders
  • 2 capitals in Amsterdam and the Hague

31
Luxembourg
  • Smallest country-smaller than Rhode Island
  • 2nd highest per capita GNP in the world
  • Manufacturer of steel and diversified economy in
    manufacturing, computers and services
  • Hydroelectric

32
Switzerland and Austria
  • Both neutral and not part of NATO
  • Both are in the Alps
  • Switzerland very ethnically diverse-Confederation
    of 26 cantons each have particular religions,
    customs, economic activities and languages
  • Majority speak German, but many speak French and
    Italian
  • Hydroelectric
  • Dairy farming importantchocolate and watches
  • Has more than 3,000 miles of railroad
  • Austria high in iron ore, hydroelectric

33
Mediterranean Europe
  • Spain and Portugal form Iberian Peninsula
    separated from rest of Europe by Pyrenees Mts.
  • Very close to Africa, 30 miles Strait of
    Gibraltar, where ships go through to get to
    Mediterranean
  • Spain and Portugal colonized extensively
  • Spain territory varied North coast rains after
    Sirocco, hot wind that blows over SE Spain from
    N. Africa makes region semi-arid
  • Much of Spain has plateaus, many rivers, but only
    a few are navigable or deep enough for ships
  • Spain is 1 of 4 European countries with
    coastlines on Mediterranean Sea along with
    France, Italy and Greece
  • Madrid is central hub, has one of largest
    ranching and grazing areas in Europe
  • Focus on industry

34
Basques and other Ethnic Groups in Spain
  • NE region of Spain
  • About 1 million
  • Basque Language not related to any other
    language in Europe
  • Many want separation from Spain
  • Around Barcelona are the Catalonians who speak a
    mixture of French and Spanish
  • Portugal, capital Lisbon is in coastal country,
    fairly damp, fertile soil and has also shifted to
    industry

35
Italy
  • Once center of Roman Empire
  • After fall of Rome, many independent city-states
    until mid 1800s, united in 1861
  • Northern Italy European Italy
  • Alps, Venice and fertile agricultural center of
    the Po Valley10 of work force
  • Central Italy is where Rome, Florence, Bologna
    and Vatican City are located
  • Vatican City separate country because it is the
    center of the Roman Catholic Church and home of
    the Pope
  • Florence birthplace of the Renaissance
  • Bologna is a food and agricultural center

36
Italy
  • Central and Southern Regions of Italy volcanic,
    Alps block the cold
  • Southern Region Mezzogiorno, largest city is
    Naples
  • Some of the worst unemployment in Europe in
    Southern Italy

37
Greece
  • Athens once home of Greek Civilization
  • Middle AgesTurkish Empire controlled it until
    1830 when Greece became independent
  • Many mountains and rocky soil
  • Wheat and grains can grow on coastal plains
  • Economy relies on sea, fishing, shipbuilding and
    trade
  • One of worlds largest commercial fishing fleets
    and ailing important transportationGreece has
    many tiny islands
  • Largest island is Crete where Minos civilization
    was
  • Island result of tectonic activity
  • Susceptible to volcanic activity and earthquakes
  • Solar energy used extensively
  • 1/3 of population lives in and around Athens

38
Eastern Europe
  • Area of ethnic fighting
  • Centrally located
  • After World War II, location of Eastern Europe
    between Soviet Union and Western Europe forced
    nations of region to act as a buffer
  • 2/3 are descended from Slavs who settles around
    Carpathian Mts. 2,000 years ago
  • Magyars arrived in Hungarian Basin from Asia
  • Breadbasket of Europe is eastern Hungary

39
Eastern Europe
  • Variety of religions Muslim, Orthodox
    Christian, and Roman Catholic
  • Languages are Slavic
  • 1989 Reunification of Germany and the breaking
    up of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia
  • Czech Republic and Slovakia, Yugoslavia, Serbia,
    Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and
    Slovenia
  • Communist governments oppressive, restrictive and
    closed borders

40
Danube River
  • 4 capital cities of Eastern Europe formed along
    Danube River Vienna, Austria, Bratislava,
    Slovakia, Budapest, Hungary, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
  • Important to Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary
    and Macedonia because they are landlocked

41
Russia and the New Republics
  • Before 1917, agricultural
  • Expansive grassland, known as steppes, farming
  • Russia biggest country in the world
  • Entire United States could fit into Russia with
    room left over for Western Europe
  • North to South covers 2,800 miles
  • East to West covers 5,600 miles
  • Stretches 11 time zones
  • People in west are waking up when the eastern
    edge is having dinner
  • Huge, low plains divided by Ural Mts.
  • Russia has polar climate in far north and full of
    ice most of the time
  • Permafrost, land never melts

42
Russia
  • Most of Russia has a continental climate that is
    the seasons are sharply different
  • Simmers are warm but short
  • Winters are long and very cold
  • Just enough rain for forests
  • In north most trees are evergreens, south are
    elms and maples
  • Ports of Russia freeze in winter and this has
    limited Russias contacts with the world and
    restricted trade and economic growth
  • Land expansion goal was to get control of
    warm-water ports

43
Siberia
  • Twice the size of European Russia
  • Cold winters and short summers
  • Forests
  • Siberia used as a prison
  • Many resources coal, tin, oil, iron, diamonds
  • Steel mills, chemical factories and science
    centers

44
Russia
  • Russians are Slavic and Vikings settled there too
    and adopted Slavic customs
  • Rurik, Viking prince source of Russian name by
    many, others say a Slavic group Rukhs-as
  • First kingdom in late 800s in Kiev on Dneiper
    River
  • Mongols invaded in A.D.1238 and ruled for 250
    years
  • Muscovy or Moscow grew as Mongols weakened in 1480

45
U.S.S.R.
  • Ivan the Third called himself Czar or emperor
  • By 1800s, Czar ruled empire from Arctic Ocean to
    the Black Sea
  • 1917 Communist Revolution and government
    controlled lifecollective farms
  • Revolution came about because of the oppressive
    rule of the czars
  • Communist changed the name of Russia to the Union
    of Soviet Socialist Republics or U.S.S.R
  • Soviets feared outside forces so concentrated on
    army and to ensure no enemies from within
    organized the secret police, Committee of State
    Security, KGB

46
New Revolution
  • 1980s economy was failing in U.S.S.R
  • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev came to power and tried to
    change the Soviet system
  • Glasnost openness for people to say what they
    thought without fear
  • Perestroika restructuring people could start
    private business
  • Ethnic groups grew restless
  • 1992 elections held and Communists lost power
  • Republics began declaring independence
  • New Commonwealth of Independent States
  • Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia did not join

47
St. Petersburg
  • Considered crown jewel of Russia and is a
    cultural center
  • Home of Russias ballet dancers and writers
  • Czar Peter the Great ordered its construction in
    1703 and became capital in 1712 for 200 years
  • Peter the Great named it for the patron saint
  • During WWI, the name changed to Petrograd and
    Soviets named it Leningrad
  • 1991 changed back to St. Petersburg

48
Former soviet States
  • Soviet Union was made up of 15 separate republics
    or states
  • 12 of these formed the Commonwealth of
    Independent States
  • To establish common rules for all states in areas
    of economics, foreign relations and military
  • There is a current push for privatization of
    farms, factories and businesses

49
Baltic States
  • Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on edge of Baltic
    Sea
  • Milder climate than Russia and ports do not
    freeze and are open for trade all year
  • Most developed areas of Soviet Union
  • All 3 have well educated work force and ½ of
    people live in cities

50
Baltic States
  • Latvia Russians and Belarussians make up about
    39 of population
  • Estonia Russians are a large minority
  • Russian is widely spoken
  • Latvia has no natural resources, so it imports
    raw materials
  • Latvia produces steel, ships, cement, fertilizer,
    and textiles
  • Estonia is near Finland and most of the people
    are Finns
  • Estonia has high standard of living and strong
    agriculture
  • Lithuania was part of Poland once and about 7
    are Polish, most are Roman Catholic
  • Lithuania has shipbuilding and manufacturing

51
Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova
  • Ukraine Little Russia Belarussians related to
    Russians
  • Belo in Russian is white
  • Belarus and Ukraine are agricultural Potatoes,
    beets and other roots grow in Belarus, sometimes
    called the land of potatoes
  • Minsk is important in production of machines,
    tools and goods

52
Ukraine
  • 3rd largest republic
  • 2nd highest population
  • Wheat and grains known as breadbasket of the
    Soviet Union due to rich dark soil called
    chernozem
  • 25 of Soviet Unions industrial goods produced
    in Ukraine
  • Rich resources oil, natural gas and iron
  • Hydroelectric power

53
Ukrain
  • 12.3 million acres of land affected by radiation
    that leaked into the air and land at Chernobyl
  • Vegetation and people as far as Germany affected
    including genetic mutations, birth defects and
    cancer

54
Moldova
  • Ruled by Turks and then Russians
  • Joined Romania briefly after World War I
  • Most Moldovians call themselves Romanian
  • Language is Romanian
  • Large population of Ukrainians and Russians

55
Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan
  • Rural villagers in the Caucasus Mts.
  • Tend to live long lives, many live to be more
    than 100 years old
  • Historically these republics have been more
    influenced by Turkey and Iran than Russia
  • Most are not Slavic

56
Georgia
  • Georgians have been warriors and hunters, most
    Kartvelians with some turke, Greeks, Armenians,
    Ossets and Kurds
  • Most are Georgian Orthodox
  • Farmers with orchards of cherries, apricots,
    grapes and other fruit
  • Grain and dairy as well

57
Armenia
  • First kingdom to make Christianity its official
    religion in A.D.314
  • Education important
  • Large pool of trained, educated workers
  • Physics Institute and other science centers
  • Soviet doctors, engineers and astronomers trained
    here
  • Long conflict with Azerbaijan over religion
    because Azerbaijan is Muslim
  • 1988 Armenia had a devastating earthquake

58
Azerbaijan
  • Between Armenia and Caspian Sea
  • Mostly Azeris, Turkish people with strong ties to
    Persia (Iran)
  • Crafts such as carpet weaving, metalworking, wood
    carving and jewelry making

59
Central Asian Nations of Former U.S.S.R.
  • Kazakstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzsten
    and Tajikistan
  • Mostly TurkishAzeir, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Turkish,
    Uzbek, Yakut
  • Russians a minority in all
  • Low-lying grassland and desert
  • Nomadic herding tradition and living in huge,
    round tents called yiuts
  • Forced to live in villages under Soviets and work
    in industries

60
Poland
  • Nationalism high
  • Homogenous
  • Polish and Roman Catholic
  • Many Jews in Poland before WWII
  • Ghetto minority group forced to live in
    confined area
  • 1980 Solidarity Labor Union pushed for reforms
  • 1989 Communism fell and new President elected in
    1990
  • High unemployment and inflation
  • Resources Coal and sulfur
  • 75 of work in factories
  • Countryside fertile soil

61
Balkan Peninsula
  • 4 Climate Regions Mediterranean along water,
    Humid Subtropical north, Marine West Coast, Humid
    Continental in east
  • Thick forests
  • High acid rain in north due to industry
  • Alps along Adriatic Sea and Hungarian Basin
  • Temperate grasslands in west
  • Includes countries of Croatia, Albania, Bulgaria,
    Montenegro, F.Y.R.O. Macedonia, Greece,
    Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia

62
Balkan Peninsula
  • Balkanize to break up into small, mutually
    hostile political units
  • Serious ethnic conflict
  • Yugoslavia mad up of hostile ethnic groups after
    World War I
  • Soon after Yugoslavia turned from Communism in
    1990, violence erupted
  • Nations of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Croatia,
    Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro formed
  • Serbia and Montenegro remained together and
    referred to selves as Yugoslavia
  • Slovenia wealthiest of republics and first to
    secede from Yugoslavia

63
Balkan Peninsula
  • 1992 brutal ethnic clash with Serbians, Croats
    and Bosnians in Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnians lasted until 1996
    by Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic because he
    did not want Bosnian region to secede from
    Yugoslavia
  • Kosovo in Serbian followed and Milosevic attacked
    Albanians in Kosovo

64
Albania
  • Europes Hermit
  • Self-imposed isolation from rest of the world
  • Transition from Communism very difficult and
    people extremely poor
  • 1990s food scarcity caused bread riots

65
Czech and Slovak Republics
  • Communist Czechoslovakia after World War II
  • Velvet Revolution election of democratic
    parliament to replace Communist rule without a
    struggle in 1993
  • First Prime Minister of Czech Republic
    philosopher and playwright, Vaclav Haval
  • Free Market System
  • Economy based on industry which causes pollution

66
Slovakia
  • Manufacturing and agriculture
  • Redistributing land to people biggest challenge
  • Both areas fairly mountainous
  • Eastern region of Czech republic known as Bohemia
  • Western half of Czech Republic is Moravia
  • Divided in half by mountains
  • Rest of land plateaus
  • Carpathian Mts. Define Czech Republics northern
    border
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