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Classification and Taxonomy

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Title: Classification and Taxonomy Author: Yvette Last modified by: Yvette Created Date: 9/23/2010 12:27:01 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification and Taxonomy


1
Classification and Taxonomy
2
World is so diverse
3
Classification
  • The grouping of information or objects based on
    similarities
  • We classify things all the time (creates order)
  • Stores
  • Lane
  • Text Book

4
Systematics (taxonomy)
  • The science of grouping and naming organisms
  • We need to be able to identify/name each species
  • Common names confusing
  • Scientific names specific to one species ONLY
  • that everyone uses

5
What is this called?
6
Common Names
  • Cougar
  • Puma
  • Panther
  • Mountain Lion
  • all are common names for same animal.
  • Scientific name Felis concolor

7
What is this called?
8
Common Names
  • Pill bug
  • Sow bug
  • Roly polies
  • Wood lice
  • Potato bug
  • ..all are common names for same bug
  • Scientific name Armadillidium vulgare

9
Why Latin?
  • Scientific names are given in LATIN (because its
    a dead language)
  • WHY USE A DEAD LANGUAGE?

10
Dichotomous keys
  • Used to identify organisms
  • Series of paired statements that describe
    possible characteristics
  • Leads you to smaller subset

11
Aristotle
  • 384-322 B.C. Greek philosopher
  • Divided animals into movement
  • land, air, water
  • PROBLEMS???

12
Linnaean Classification
  • Biological Taxonomy Hierarchical system
    proposed in the eighteenth century by Carl
    Linnaeus.
  • Categories based on the morphological characters
    shared with others.

13
Linnaean System
  • Hierarchical classification using seven
    categories or taxa, listed in order from largest
    to smallest groupings (Domain was later added
    before kingdom)
  • Kingdom King
  • Phylum Philip
  • Class Came
  • Order Over
  • Family For
  • Genus Green
  • Species Soup

Species - a group of individuals that actually or
potentially interbreed in nature
14

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Binomial Nomenclature - akaLinnaean 2 word
naming system
  • Genus (first word)
  • Noun, Capitalized
  • Species (second word)
  • Descriptive, Lower Case
  • Underlined or Italicized
  • Humans - Homo sapiens
  • Red Oak - Quercus rubra

21
Practice
  • Common Name Polar bear Scientific Name Ursus
    Arctos
  • Is this scientific name written correctly?
  • Which is the genus?

22
Answer
  • Ursus arctos
  • Ursus arctos
  • U. arctos
  • Ursus is the genus
  • arctos is the species

23
Practice
  • What is the two word naming system called?
  • Who developed it?

24
Answer
  • BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • LINNAEUS

25
Practice
  • Which taxa contains more organisms? Family or
    genus?

26
Answer
  • FAMILY has more organisms than GENUS
  • Kingdom (most general)
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species (most specific)

27
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia Eubacteria Plantae
Phylum Chordata Proteobacteria Pinophyta
Class Mammalia Gamma Proteobacteria Pinopsida
Order Primates Enterobacteriales Pinales
Family Hominidae Enterobacteriaceae Cupressaceae
Genus Homo Escherichia Sequoiadendron
Species H. sapiens E. coli S. giganteum
Binomial Name Homo sapiens Eschericia coli Sequoiadendron giganteum
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Phylogenetic Systematics
  • Phylogeny takes into consideration the
    evolutionary history of organisms, Not just based
    on similarities/differences of physical
    characteristics

30
Tree of Life
31
CLADOGRAMS are diagrams that look at evolutionary
relationships among organisms Derived
characteristics are traits that arose in the most
recent common ancestor of a particular lineage
and was passed along to its descendants
A clade is a group of organisms that includes an
ancestor and all descendents of that ancestor.
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NODE point where two groups branch off from
eachother/ last shared a common ancestor
34
Derived character is a trait shared by later
organisms but not earlier ones
35
The more derived characters two organisms share,
the more recently they shared a common ancestor
and the more closely they are related in
evolutionary terms.
36
Cladogram Chart Example
37
Modern Classification
  • Genes in DNA can be used as derived
    characteristics
  • The more genes two species share, the more
    closely related they are
  • Help make evolutionary trees more accurate
    instead of depending on appearance only

38
For Example
  • Which two of the three birds seem more closely
    related?

AFRICAN VULTURE
AMERICAN VULTURE
STORK
39
  • American vultures and storks share a common
    behavior
  • When overheating, they urinate on legs to cool
    down
  • African vulture doesnt do this
  • Not enough to prove, so DNA analysis was done..

40
Surprise!
  • DNA from American vultures is more similar to DNA
    in storks
  • Suggests they share a more common recent ancestor

41
Domains and Kingdoms
  • 6 Kingdom System
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

3 Domain System Archaea Eubacteria Eukarya
42
Kingdoms and Domains
The three-domain system
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
The six-kingdom system
Bacteria
Archaea
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
The traditional five-kingdom system
MONERA
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
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Prokaryote Basic Structure
45
Prokaryotes
  • Prokaryotes
  • (pro- means before, and -karyote means nucleus)
  • First type of cells to evolve
  • Very small
  • Unicellular
  • Two Types Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

46
Common Prokaryote Shapes
47
Domain Archaea
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotic and unicellular
  • Autotrophic/heterotrophic
  • Have cell wall w/o peptidoglycan
  • Anaerobic
  • Extremophiles
  • -Thermophilic bacteria (live in extreme temps)
  • -Halophilic bacteria (live in high
    concentrations of salt)

48
Snottites
Thermophiles
49
Domain Bacteria
  • Kingdom Eubacteria (eutrue)
  • Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
  • Aerobic/anaerobic
  • Have a peptidoglycan cell wall
  • No organelles
  • Common

50
EUBACTERIA
Salmonella
E. coli
Streptococcus pyogenes
51
Why do we need prokaryotes?
  • Decomposers (create nutrients as waste)
  • Mutualistic relationship
  • Commercial uses

52
Eukaryotes
  • Eukaryotes differ from Prokaryotes in that they
    are more complex and evolved later.

53
Kingdom Protista
  • Protists are highly debated in their
    classification.
  • Characteristics
  • Simple unicellular or multicellular organisms
  • Aerobic/anaerobic
  • Some w/ cellulose cell walls/photosynthetic
  • Autotrophic/heterotrophic

54
PROTISTA
AMOEBA
DIATOMS
PARAMECIUM
EUGLENA
VOLVOX
55
Why do we need protists?
  • Produce a large bulk of worlds oxygen
  • Important part of food chain
  • Decomposers
  • Medicinal/industrial uses

56
Kingdom Fungi
  • Multicellular, except yeasts
  • Heterotrophic
  • Cell walls w/ chitin
  • Found in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts
  • Become noticeable when fruiting, either as
    mushrooms or molds.

57
FUNGI
MOLD
RUSTS
MUSHROOMS
YEASTS
58
Why do we need fungi?
  • decomposes organic matter and important for
    nutrient cycling/exchange

59
Kingdom Plantae
  • Have organelles including chloroplasts
  • Are all multicellular
  • Are all autotrophic, mostly
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Have a cellulose cell wall

60
NON-VASCULAR
FERNS
MOSSES
VASCULAR
Flowering plants
Conifers
61
Kingdom Animalia
  • Naked cells (no cell wall)
  • Heterotrophic
  • Multicellular
  • Two major types
  • -Vertebrates
  • -Invertebrates (Most animals fit here)

62
VERTEBRATES- Has a vertebral column
Mammals
Reptiles
Bony Fish
Birds
Amphibians
63
INVERTEBRATES- lacks vertebral column
Sponges
Jellyfish
Earthworms
Ants
Starfish
Octopus
Butterfly
Shrimp
64
Some are motile
Some are sessile
65
SYMMETRY
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