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Chapter 7 The Vitamins

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Chapter 7 The Vitamins Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney Vitamin C Toxicity Safe doses Recommendations Tobacco use Physical stressors Food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 7 The Vitamins


1
Chapter 7 The Vitamins
  • Nutrition Concepts Controversies, 12e
    Sizer/Whitney

2
Learning Objectives
  • List the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins,
    and describe how solubility affects the
    absorption, transport, storage, and excretion of
    each type.
  • Explain how vitamins and minerals work in
    combination to maintain the health of the bones.
  • Name some functions of vitamin D not associated
    with the bones.

3
Learning Objectives
  • Define the term antioxidant, and name the
    vitamins that act as antioxidants in the body.
  • Discuss the roles of B vitamins in body tissues,
    and explain in a general way how B vitamins
    assist with energy metabolism.
  • Present arguments both for and against vitamin
    fortification of foods.

4
Learning Objectives
  • Suggest foods that can help to ensure adequate
    vitamin intakes without providing too many
    calories.
  • Justify this statement It is better to get
    vitamins from food than from supplements.
  • List some valid reasons why supplements may be
    required by some people.

5
Definition and Classification of Vitamins
  • Vitamin
  • Essential, noncaloric, organic
  • Role of vitamins
  • Vitamin precursors
  • Classes
  • Absorption
  • Roles

6
Vitamin Names
7
Characteristics of the Fat-Soluble and
Water-Soluble Vitamins
8
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • A, D, E, and K
  • Food sources
  • Storage
  • Toxicity
  • Deficiency
  • Roles within the body

9
Vitamin A
  • Precursor
  • Beta-carotene
  • Active forms in the body
  • Retinol
  • Retinal
  • Retinoic acid
  • Food sources

10
Vitamin A Roles and Deficiency
  • Gene regulation
  • Retinoic acid
  • Eyesight
  • Process of light perception
  • Maintenance of healthy cornea
  • Rhodopsin molecule

11
An Eye
12
Vitamin A Roles and Deficiency
  • Night blindness
  • Deficiency
  • Xerophthalmia and blindness
  • Keratinization
  • Deficiency
  • Cell differentiation
  • Immune function
  • Growth

13
Vitamin A Deficiency and Toxicity
  • Deficiency
  • Worldwide problem
  • Blindness
  • HIV
  • Toxicity
  • Symptoms
  • food sources
  • Liver

14
Vitamin A Deficiency and Toxicity
  • Toxicity
  • Supplements
  • Higher risk groups
  • Recommendations
  • DRI recommendation based on body weight
  • Food sources
  • Animal origin
  • Liver
  • Plant origin

15
Vitamin A Deficiency and Toxicity
16
Vitamin A Snapshot
17
Beta-Carotene
  • Plant-based foods
  • Colorful groups
  • Macular degeneration
  • Dietary antioxidant
  • Measuring beta-carotene
  • Retinol activity equivalents (RAE)
  • Toxicity
  • Food sources

18
Excess Beta-Carotene Symptom Discoloration of
the Skin
19
Vitamin D
  • Body can synthesize all it needs
  • Sunlight
  • Transformation
  • Liver and kidneys
  • Estimated deficiency prevalence

20
Vitamin D Roles
  • Bone integrity
  • Hormone
  • Dangers with deficiency

21
Vitamin D Too Little, Too Much
  • Deficiency
  • Rickets
  • Recommendations for prevention
  • Osteomalacia
  • Recommendations
  • Toxicity
  • Signs of toxicity

22
Rickets
23
Vitamin D
  • Ultraviolet B light rays
  • Cholesterol
  • Sunbathing risks
  • Sunscreen
  • Exposure times
  • Intake recommendations
  • Food sources

24
Factors Affecting Vitamin D Synthesis
25
Vitamin D - Snapshot
26
Vitamin E
  • Roles of vitamin E
  • Antioxidant
  • Deficiency
  • Symptoms
  • Toxicity
  • Dietary intake vs. supplemental intake
  • Recommendations
  • Food source

27
Free-Radical Damage and Antioxidant Protection
28
Vitamin E Snapshot
29
Vitamin K
  • Roles
  • Blood clotting
  • Bone proteins
  • Deficiency
  • Toxicity
  • Jaundice
  • Requirements
  • Sources

30
Vitamin K Snapshot
31
The Water-Soluble Vitamins
  • Dissolve in water
  • Absorption
  • Transport
  • Excretion
  • Sources
  • Food
  • Supplements

32
Vitamin C
  • Roles
  • Connective tissues
  • Collagen
  • Antioxidant
  • Protects iron
  • Prooxidant
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Scurvy

33
Scurvy Symptoms Gums and Skin
34
Vitamin C
  • Toxicity
  • Safe doses
  • Recommendations
  • Tobacco use
  • Physical stressors
  • Food sources
  • Destruction of vitamin C

35
Vitamin C Snapshot
36
The B Vitamins in Unison
  • Function as part of coenzymes
  • Combines with enzyme to activate it
  • Coenzyme shape
  • Roles in metabolism
  • Help the body use the energy-yielding nutrients
    for energy
  • Cell multiplication

37
Coenzyme Action
38
Some Roles of the B Vitamins in Metabolism
Examples
39
The B Vitamins in Unison
  • Deficiencies
  • Every cell is affected
  • Symptoms
  • Rarely are isolated deficiencies

40
Thiamin
  • Energy metabolism of all cells
  • Nerve cell membranes
  • Deficiency
  • Beriberi
  • Alcohol abuse
  • DRI recommendation
  • Food sources

41
Thiamin Snapshot
42
Riboflavin
  • Role in energy metabolism of all cells
  • Deficiencies
  • Examples
  • Destruction of vitamin
  • UV light
  • Irradiation
  • Heat

43
Riboflavin Snapshot
44
Niacin
  • Participates in energy metabolism
  • Deficiency
  • Pellagra
  • Toxicity
  • Physician administration
  • Niacin flush

45
Niacin Snapshot
46
Folate
  • Helps synthesize DNA
  • Normal metabolism of several amino acids
  • Deficiency
  • Causes
  • Outcomes of deficiency
  • Anemia, diminished Immunity, abnormal digestive
    function
  • Cancer risk
  • Interaction with medications

47
Folate
  • Birth defects
  • Neural tube defects (NTD)
  • Toxicity
  • UL
  • Recommendations
  • Food sources of folate
  • Destruction of folate

48
Incidence of a Common NTD, Spina Bifida, Over Time
49
Folate Snapshot
50
Vitamin B12
  • Closely related to folate
  • Helps maintain sheaths around nerve fibers
  • Deficiency
  • May be masked by folic acid intake
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Vitamin B12 absorption
  • Intrinsic factor
  • Food sources

51
Vitamin B12 Snapshot
52
Vitamin B6
  • Roles
  • Participates in over 100 reactions
  • Additional roles
  • Deficiency
  • General symptoms
  • Toxicity
  • Intake recommendations
  • Food sources

53
Vitamin B6 Snapshot
54
Biotin and Pantothenic Acid
  • Important for energy metabolism
  • Biotin
  • Cofactor for enzymes
  • Gene expression
  • No UL
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Key coenzyme

55
Non-B Vitamins
  • Choline
  • Nonvitamins
  • Carnitine
  • Inositol
  • Lipoic acid

56
Vitamin Supplements Do the Benefits Outweigh the
Risks?
  • Controversy 7

57
Some Valid Reasons for Taking Supplements
58
Arguments Against Taking Supplements
  • Food rarely causes nutrient imbalances or
    toxicities
  • Toxicity
  • Supplement contamination
  • Lift-threatening misinformation
  • Unknown needs
  • False sense of security
  • Whole foods are best

59
Can Supplements Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer?
  • Oxidative stress
  • Vitamin C
  • Population studies
  • Animal studies
  • Cell studies
  • Intervention studies
  • Vitamin E
  • Beta-carotene

60
Supplements Safety and Risks
  • Safety
  • Food and Drug Association (FDA)
  • Risks
  • Dangers for your body

61
Selecting a Supplement
  • Choose type
  • Read labels
  • Target your needs
  • Choosing doses
  • Quality
  • Avoid marketing traps
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