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Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

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Title: Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes Author: Timberlake Last modified by: sschenfield Created Date: 8/22/2000 4:31:26 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes


1
The Structure of an Atom.
2
What are the 3 major parts of an atom?
  • Proton-positively charged particles found in the
    atomic nucleus.
  • Neutron-uncharged particles found in the atomic
    nucleus.
  • Electron- negatively charged particles that
    surround the atom's nucleus.

3
A chemical element is a pure chemical substance
consisting of one type of atom distinguished by
its atomic number.
4
(No Transcript)
5
Draw the structure of Lithium
6
Molecules
  • A molecule is defined as a group of at least two
    atoms in a definite arrangement held together by
    very strong chemical bonds.

7
Molecules in Cells
  • Build cells
  • Lipids and proteins build the cell membrane
    carbohydrates build the cell wall
  • Regulate cell activities
  • Enzymes-proteins that are catalysts in chemical
    reactions

8
Molecules in Cells
  • Store energy
  • Carbohydrates (sugars and starches), proteins,
    lipids (fats)
  • Store genetic information
  • Nucleic acids-DNA and RNA

9
Proteins
  • Food/energy storage
  • Antibodies-work in our immune system to fight
    off disease
  • Enzymes-made of subunits called amino acids
  • Make up hemoglobin in red blood cells

10
Proteins
  • Made of amino acids-there are 20 different kinds
    of amino acids.
  • 50 or more amino acids linked together make a
    protein.
  • All 20 amino acids do not need to be present in a
    protein.
  • The arrangement of amino acids determines the
    type and use of the protein.

11
Nucleic Acids
  • Made of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
  • DNA-arrangement of nucleotides is a code for the
    order of amino acids in a protein.
  • RNA-uses the code in DNA to arrange the amino
    acids in proper order to build the protein.

12
Lipids
  • Used for
  • energy storage
  • Makes up the
  • two layers in
  • a cell membrane.
  • Fat in animals
  • Oil in plants
  • Cannot mix with water

13
Carbohydrates
  • Sugars-simplest and most common is glucose (6
    carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen
    atoms)

Made of sugars Can be simple or complex Starch in
plants Source of stored energy
14
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrate molecules are thousands of glucose
    molecules linked together.
  • Starches are chains of sugars linked together.
    Storage for energy in plants.
  • Glycogen-storage of energy in animals and humans.
  • Cellulose-carbohydrate that makes up the cell
    wall.

15
Cellulose
  • Most animals cannot
  • digest because they lack the necessary enzyme.
  • Dietary fiber-moves softer foods through the
    digestive tract.
  • Makes paper, linen cloth, cotton, and cellophane
    used to wrap products to keep them fresh.

16
ATP-Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Major fuel used for the cells activities
  • Energy in lipids and carbohydrates is transferred
    to this molecule.
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