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Early Mesozoic Era

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... Early Mesozoic Life on Land Sauropods Largest of all dinosaurs Morrison Formation Early Mesozoic Life on Land Allosaurus Largest carnivore Early Mesozoic Life ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Mesozoic Era


1
Chapter 16
  • Early Mesozoic Era

2
Guiding Questions
  • What groups of animals were conspicuous in
    Triassic and Jurassic seas?
  • What kinds of plants played major roles on land
    in early Mesozoic time?
  • Why did dinosaurs replace therapsids as the
    dominant vertebrate animals on land?
  • What groups of vertebrate animals evolved the
    ability to fly during early Mesozoic time?

3
145 Million years 202 Million years 251 Million
years
4
Early Mesozoic
  • Bounded by mass extinctions
  • Recovery from Permian mass extinction of
  • Fusulinids
  • Lacy bryozoans
  • Rugose corals
  • Trilobites

5
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Mollusks are abundant
  • Ammonoids
  • 2 genera diversity to 100
  • Stromatolites returned to shallow water
  • Bivalves abundant
  • Sea urchins

6
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Reefs
  • Hexacorals
  • Dominant reef builder
  • Some resemble rugose corals

7
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Pelagic Realm
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Calcareous nannofossils
  • Ammonoids
  • Rapid evolution
  • 1 million year range

8
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Belemnoids
  • Squid-like relatives of Ammonoids
  • Ammonoids were important guide fossils

9
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Fishes
  • - More modern - Scales covered bodies
  • - Skeletons of cartilage - Simple Jaws
  • - Peg-like teeth

10
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Marine reptiles
  • Placodonts
  • Blunt-toothed shell crushers
  • Broad armored bodies

11
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Marine reptiles
  • Nothosaurs
  • Early Triassic
  • May be first marine reptiles

12
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Plesiosaurs
  • Evolved from nothosaurs

13
Early Mesozoic Life
  • Ichthyosaurs
  • Fish lizards
  • Bore live young

14
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Tree-forming Gymnosperms
  • Cycads
  • Cycadeoids
  • Ginkgos

15
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Mesozoic forests looked very different from
    modern forests

16
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Early Mammals
  • Mammals evolved from therapsids
  • Small
  • Thecodonts
  • Dinosaur ancestors
  • Upper portion of legs extended downward rather
    than sprawling

17
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Thecodont descendents
  • Dinosaurs
  • Bipedal
  • Different skull
  • More highly developed teeth
  • Crocodiles

18
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Dinosaur evolution
  • Bird- hipped
  • Herbivores
  • Lizard-hipped
  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores

19
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Sauropods
  • Largest of all dinosaurs
  • Morrison Formation

20
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Allosaurus
  • Largest carnivore

21
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Pterosaurs
  • Long wings
  • Hollow bones
  • Flight

22
Early Mesozoic Life on Land
  • Archaeopteryx
  • Missing link
  • Feathered
  • Breastbone

23
Paleogeography
  • Pangaea began to separate

24
Paleogeography
  • Tethys seaway formed
  • Site of modern Mediterranean

25
Paleogeography
  • Rifting began first in north, then spread south

26
Paleogeography
  • Salt domes
  • Thick evaporites built up in modern Gulf of
    Mexico
  • Formed salt domes
  • Petroleum reserves

27
Triassic Mass Extinction
  • Global warming
  • Volcanic activity released high volumes of CO2
  • Number of leaf stomates increased
  • Cells that utilize CO2

28
Tectonic Events in Eastern U.S.
  • Rifting created fault basins
  • Evaporites accumulated as seawater leaked into
    basin

29
Tectonic Events in Eastern U.S.
  • Basins
  • Filled with clastic sediments
  • Arkose rich
  • Rapid deposition

30
Tectonic Events in Eastern U.S.
  • Palisades Sill
  • Mafic intrusion associated with rifting
  • Near New York City

31
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Petrified Forest
  • Chinle formation
  • Utah and Arizona

32
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Sundance Sea
  • Global sea level rose
  • Pacific flooded western U.S.

33
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Grew by accretion of exotic terrane
  • Island arc terranes
  • Accreted Golconda Arc
  • Microplates
  • Accreted Sonomia
  • Southeastern Oregon
  • Northern California and Nevada

34
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Accretion
  • Golconda Arc
  • Sonomia

35
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Subduction led to intrusions
  • Sierra Nevada batholiths

36
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Additional accretion
  • Accretionary wedge
  • Franciscan rocks
  • Great Valley turbidites

37
Tectonic Events in Western U.S.
  • Sundance Sea
  • Retreated as it filled with sediments
  • No flysch deposition
  • Significant molasse
  • Morrison Formation

38
Dinosaurs
  • Morrison Formation
  • Excavation of dinosaur fossils

39
Dinosaurs
  • Parasauralophus
  • 3 m long
  • Resonating chamber in the head

40
Dinosaurs
  • Maiosaura hatchling
  • 50 cm long

41
Dinosaurs
  • Oviraptor
  • Egg stealer
  • small at 0.7 m in size

42
Dinosaurs
  • Protoarchtopterix
  • Precursor of feathers
  • 60 cm in size

43
Dinosaurs
  • Protoarchaeopteryx
  • Fossilized tail feathers

44
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45
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