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The Progressive Era: 1889-1919


The Progressive Era: 1889-1919 When America moved into the 20th century with new business, technology, and interest in world events. * * Theodore Roosevelt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Progressive Era: 1889-1919

The Progressive Era 1889-1919
  • When America moved into the 20th century with
    new business, technology, and interest in world

Stats From the Past
  • In 1910 census, the U.S. had 92.5 million people.
    The life expectancy had gone from 46.3 years in
    1900 to 48.4 years in 1919.
  • The average salary was 750 a year. A Model T
    automobile cost 450. The Wright Brothers flew at
    Kitty Hawk. The radio was invented.
  • Basketball, Baseball, Football, and the Kentucky
    Derby were all introduced in U.S.
  • Toys Tinker Toys, Lincoln Logs, Teddy Bears
    are all invented in this era. Blue Laws were
    written to keep businesses closed and no sports
    to be played on Sundays.

The Progressive Movement
  • The Progressive Movement believed that the
    government was the best way to gain improvements
    for society. They believed that mankind could
    make progress in living.
  • Progressives wanted three things fight poverty,
    break up monopolies, and increase voters
    influence in government.

The Progressive Movement
  • One example of Progressives in action was Upton
    Sinclairs book The Jungle. In this book,
    Sinclair described the horrific conditions of the
    meat-packing plants in Chicago. This led to
    Congress passing the Meat Inspection Act of 1907.
    Writers like Sinclair were called Muckrakers.

Changes in the Prison System
  • People like Rebecca Felton wrote in the AJC about
    the abuses of the convict lease program.
  • Chain gangs replaced them, so the prisoners still
    had to work, but now for the state.
  • In 1901, a federal penitentiary was built in
  • In 1915, Georgia became the 1st state to have a
    juvenile court system, where young offenders were
    tried and sentenced differently than adults.

Labor Unions
  • As big businesses grew, the workers organized
    into unions to get better wages. If they were not
    paid more, then all the workers would go on
  • Georgians, as well as other southern states did
    not generally support unions.
  • Children often quit school to work in factories.
    For example, Mary Phagan earned 12 cents an hour
    and worked 66 hours a week in the National Pencil
    Factory in Atlanta (her boss was Leo Frank).

The Temperance Movement(the prohibiting of
making selling of alcohol)
  • Women formed groups called the Womens Christian
    Temperance Union The Anti-Saloon League were
  • Carrie Nation, a 6 tall woman, would carry a
    hatchet into a saloon and destroy all the alcohol
    that she saw. She was arrested 30 times and sold
    souvenir toy hatchets to help her pay her fines
    for the destroyed alcohol.
  • By 1881, 48 counties in Georgia had banned
    alcohol. They were considered dry counties.
  • By 1919, the 18th amendment was passed for the
    U.S. Constitution that banned alcohol in the
    entire United States.

Womans Suffrage MovementFighting for the
right to Vote
  • Women such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Rebecca
    Felton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony led
    protests to get the right to vote to women,
    including a march in Atlanta in 1915.
    Suffragettes finally saw the 19th Amendment of
    1920 allow women the right to vote.. Ironically,
    Georgia was one of 5 states that did not vote for
    the amendment. 36 states did vote it into power.
  • Rebecca Felton said, It is embarrassing to
    apologize for the ignorance and stupidity of
    (Georgias) state legislature!
  • Did you know Georgias 1st woman mayor was Alice
    Strickland of Duluth in 1922?

Juliette Gordon Low
  • Juliette Low visited England in 1911 and saw the
    British Boy Scouts and their activities. When she
    got back to GA, she called a friend and said,
    Come right over. Ive got something for the
    girls of Savannah and all America and all the
    world and were going to start it tonight!
  • So, on March 12, 1912, the 1st Girl Scout troop
    was started in Savannah.

Martha Berry
  • Martha Berry started a school on 28,000 acres in
    Rome, GA to educate rural children. It was first
    opened in 1901. It later became a full 4 year
    college in 1932.
  • She believed these children were Georgias future
    who just needed an opportunity.

Tom Watson A Populist
  • A populist leads the common people in their
    struggle against the elite Tom Watson was
    Georgias best known Populist.
  • The Farmers Alliance and labor unions joined
    together to form the Populist Party, also known
    as the Peoples Party.

Tom Watson A Populist
  • His down-to-earth style helped get him elected
    to the GA General Assembly in 1882, and to the
    U.S. Congress in 1890 as a Democrat.
  • In 1891, Watson joins the new Populist Party to
    fight for Georgia farmers Before I give up this
    fight, I will stay here til the ants tote me out
    of the keyhole

Tom Watson A Populist
  • Watson only served one term, but he got the Rural
    Free Delivery (RFD) Bill passed which told the
    U.S. Postmaster to deliver the mail free to rural
    area farms. It led to the building of roads,
    bridges, and other items to get the mail
    delivered to those farms.

Tom Watson A Populist
  • The Democratic party worked hard to defeat their
    former member, and Watson lost his re-election
    bid, even though he worked to get the
    African-American vote. He then turned to the
    newspaper business and started The Weekly
    Jeffersonian and Watsons Jeffersonian.
  • In 1896, he was the Populist Party choice for
    Vice-President in 1904, he was their choice for
    President. He lost both elections, and then
    returned to the Democratic Party.

Tom Watson A Populist
  • When he re-joined the Democratic Party, he
    changed his views on civil rights. He now opposed
    more rights for African-Americans or Jewish
  • His newspapers carried harsh articles about Leo
    Frank during his murder trial (over Mary Phagan).
  • Watson used this new publicity to get elected to
    the U.S. Senate in 1920, but died 2 years later.

Leo Frank the Murder of Mary Phagan
  • On April 26, 1913, 13 year old Mary Phagan
    stopped to pick up her paycheck on the way to the
    Confederate Memorial Day Parade with her friends.
    At the National Pencil Factory she usually worked
    66 hours a week for
  • 12 cents a day. She went in the building, but
    never walked back out alive.

Leo Frank the Murder of Mary Phagan
  • On the way inside, she passed the custodian, Jim
    Conley, who appeared to be drinking from a
    bottle. Then she went upstairs to the office of
    29 year old- Leo Frank, her Jewish employer who
    had emigrated from the North to run the National
    Pencil Factory for his father-in-law. The time
    was 1145 a.m. It was right before the parade at

Leo Frank the Murder of Mary Phagan
  • At 330 a.m. (Sunday morning), the night watchman
    (Newt Lee) found her body in the basement of the
    National Pencil Factory. He called the police and
    they quickly narrowed the suspects Leo Frank,
    Jim Conley, Newt Lee.

Leo Frank the Murder of Mary Phagan
  • It became obvious to detectives that either Leo
    Frank or James Conley were lying. Conley claimed
    he heard noises from Franks office, and then Mr.
    Frank told him to hide the body. Mr. Frank said
    he gave her the check, and she left for the
    parade. District Attorney Hugh Dorsey wanted a
    conviction to help his political career. He began
    to use any evidence he could to convict Leo
    Frank, but he ignored evidence that pointed to
    Jim Conley.

An Atlanta political cartoon criticized the slow
investigation into Mary Phagans Murder by
detectives Lady Justice I wonder if theyre
all asleep in there?
Leo Frank the Murder of Mary Phagan
  • Tom Watsons paper wrote for Franks conviction,
    as did the other Atlanta papers. Finally, the
    jury found him guilty and sentenced him to death.
    Governor James Slaton, the popular governor of
    GA, thought the evidence was incomplete and
    changed the sentence to life in prison so that
    Leo Frank had a chance to appeal to another court.

Leo Frank the Murder of Mary Phagan
  • Some citizens in Mary Phagans hometown of
    Marietta were incensed when Franks sentence was
    changed. About 30 cars of people drove to Athens,
    broke Frank out of jail, brought him back to
    Marietta, and killed him. And sadly, Governor
    Slaton never was elected by Georgians again. This
    was called the Trial of the Century later in
    1982, Governor Joe Frank Harris pardoned Leo
    Frank 67 years after his death it appears Jim
    Conley killed her after she saw him drinking on
    the job. In his drunken stupor, he was afraid
    shed tell Mr. Frank, who had threatened to fire
    him if he drank again. As he struggled to stop
    her, she was choked and hit her head. Then, he
    hid the body in the basement. Later, Conley is
    sentenced on a charge of robbery and works on a
    chain gang for many years. It was a sad chapter
    in Georgias history.

Parade The Musical
  • After Leo Frank was pardoned, a musical called,
    Parade was written that told the story of Mary
    Phagans murder and Leo Franks trial. It was
    performed in Atlanta and on Broadway in NY.
  • What are TWO reasons that Parade is a good name
    for this sad story?

The Knights of Mary Phagan
  • Another sad moment in Georgias history was in
    July (1915), a group met at Stone Mountain to
    form this group of hate and discrimination.
    Later, it used a name from the past the Ku Klux

Newspaper Men Run for Governor
  • In 1906, two newspaper men ran for governor in
    GA. Clarke Howell ran as a Democrat Hoke Smith
    ran as a reform candidate. Tom Watson supported
    Smith if he would vote to disenfranchise (take
    away the vote of) African-American citizens.
    Smith also promised to take power away from the
    urban areas and give it to the rural areas.
  • Also, in 1906, a horrible race riot broke out in
    downtown Atlanta. President of Atlanta
    University,John Hope, worked with city leaders to
    calm down citizens of both races.

The County Unit System (1917)Neill Primary Act
  • One way that Governor Smith got power for the
    rural counties was the county unit system. It was
    based on population, and it allowed smaller
    counties in the farming areas to outvote the
    larger counties in the cities.
  • This system gave the 8 largest counties 6 votes
    each (8 X 6 48 county votes if they all vote
    together). These counties were mainly urban
  • The next 30 counties got 4 county unit votes
  • The remaining 121 counties got 2 county unit
    votes (242). Most of these counties were rural
    ones, and so they could overwhelm the urban vote.
  • This was declared an unconstitutional system in
    1962 by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Businesses in Georgia
  • In 1895, Atlanta was hosted 800,000 visitors to a
    3 month long Cotton States International
    Exposition. With 8,000 exhibits and a speech by
    Booker T. Washington (The Atlanta Compromise
    Speech) it was considered a huge success for
    Atlanta and its growing prosperity.

Morris Rich Department Store
  • In 1867, Morris Rich opened up a small store it
    was the first store to have glass store windows.
    Eventually, it became THE place to shop in
    Atlanta. Later, it was known for the Pink Pig
    and the Christmas Tree Lighting in downtown
    Atlanta. (Today, it has merged with Macys).
  • Later, Richs would accept scrip (or IOUs) from
    teachers during the Great Depression in the 1930s.

Dr. John S. Pemberton Coca-Cola
  • In 1885, Doc Pemberton was looking to make a
    nerve tonic that tasted good. In his backyard
    lab, he created the formula for Coca-Cola -
    named for its two main ingredients coca plant
    and the kola nut. It sold for 25 cents in
    drugstores. Later, a druggist named Willis
    Venable added soda water to the syrup (rather
    than tap water) Coca-Cola was born!
  • In 1888, as his health was declining, Pemberton
    sold Coca-Cola rights to Asa Candler. Candler
    became a millionaire and gave much money to
    Emory, who turned it into an international
    product. University.
  • Robert Woodruff later purchased the rights to the
    product. It is now used by 470 million people a

Alonzo Herndon 1st AA Millionaire
  • Alonzo Herndon was 7 years old when the Civil War
    ended. His first year of freedom, he earned 25
    for his former master.
  • Later, Herndon learned to be a barber and he
    moved to Atlanta. He created the fanciest
    barbershop in Atlanta!

Alonzo Herndon 1st AA Millionaire
  • In 1905, Herndon paid 140 for the Atlanta Mutual
    Insurance Company he found that many African-
    Americans were not able to get insurance, so he
    hired young businessmen to expand his company for
    African- American workers. When Herndon died in
    1927, he had become the first African- American
    millionaire. (Its now known as the Atlanta Life
    Insurance Company).

The Jekyll Island Club
  • During the Progressive Era, many men became
    millionaires by building monopolies in many
    businesses. Andrew Carnegie (steel), John D.
    Rockefeller (oil), Cornelius Vanderbilt (RR), and
    J. P. Morgan (banks) would come spend their
    winters on Jekyll Islands. With big mansions,
    animals brought to hunt, and golf, it was a very
    exclusive place to have a vacation. (In 1978, the
    Jekyll Island Clubhouse was declared a National
    Historic landmark).
  • 1/6 of the worlds wealth was represented
    U-boats income tax made them leave!

Jekyll Island, Georgia
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Theodore Roosevelt later took on the monopolies,
    and gained the title of Trust Buster. He felt
    that too much power money was ending up in the
    hands of a few millionaires.

Theodore Roosevelt
  • He rose to prominence during the Spanish-American
    War. He had built up the navy, then joined the
    army to lead the Rough Riders (Cavalry) in Cuba
    (against the Spanish).
  • This splendid little war led to the U.S. to
    consider issues, events, and countries outside of
    its borders for the 1st time.
  • Describe the political cartoon at left.

Georgia During World War I
  • Georgias Fort Pulaski and Camp Benning were used
    to train soldiers during the Spanish-American
    War. Fort McPherson was used to house prisoners
    in World War I. Also, Presidents Grover
    Cleveland, Teddy Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson
    visited Georgia.

The Great Atlanta Fire of 1917
  • On May 21, 1917, fire broke out in a warehouse in
    western Atlanta and spread to mill workers
    homes. In 12 hours 1900 houses and 1553 other
    buildings were destroyed. Amazingly, nobody died
    in the fire, though 10,000 people were homeless.
  • Soldiers helped fight the fire and beautiful
    homes along Ponce de Leon Ave. were dynamited to
    make a fire break to stop its spread.

Jim Crow Laws
  • States passed laws to create separate but
    equal facilities for blacks and whites. (The
    court case, Plessy v. Ferguson was over who
    could ride in Pullman railroad cars)
  • Rev. Rev. Henry McNeal
    McNeal Turner called the new segregation laws

Booker T. Washington
  • President of Tuskegee
    Institute in Alabama
  • Believed that economic independence was the only
    road to social and political equality for African
  • His Atlanta Compromise Speech proposed that
    blacks and whites should agree to benefit from
    each other.

W. E. B. DuBois
  • Atlanta University Professor
    of economics and political science.
  • Said truth and knowledge would help different
    races understand and accept each other.
  • Promoted social and political integration and
    higher education.
  • Talented Tenth higher education for 10 of
    African Americans to become leaders

W.E.B. DuBois (continued)
  • Racial unrest and lynchings caused him to change
    his mind knowledge and truth alone are not
  • Action was needed to under- stand
    accept each other.
  • Wanted self respect
    regardless of economic

John Hope
  • Son of a white father and black mother,
    he did not have money or
    social acceptance, but
    graduated from Brown University in MA
  • 1906 first black president of Atlanta Baptist
    College (renamed Morehouse in
  • President of Atlanta University in 1929.
  • Close friend of W.E.B. DuBois the only college
    president at the 1909 protest meeting in New York
    that led to the founding of the NAACP
  • Worked to restore calm to the city after the race
    riot in 1906.

  • Created to work for the rights of African
    Americans in 1909
  • Oswald Garrison Villard (grandson of the
    abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison) organized
    white supporters and The Niagara Movement (black
    educators and professional men) in the struggle
    for equality

National Urban League
  • Many African Americans moved from the rural South
    to cities in the North looking for better jobs
    and less racial segregation.
  • In 1910, an interracial
    group worked to solve
    social problems facing
    African Americans who
    lived in cities.

  • Georgia
  • and
  • World War I

Georgia and World War I
  • In 1914 President Woodrow
    Wilson tried to keep the US
    neutral when war broke out
    in Europe after the assassination
    of Austria-Hungarys Archduke
    Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo.
  • US entered the war in 1917 after Wilsons 1916
    re-election campaign of He kept us out of war.

Georgia and World War I (cont.)
  • Allied Powers France, Great Britain, Russia, US
  • Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary
  • Caused by extreme nationalism in Europe,
    especially in Germany

Central Powers Allies
Georgia and World War I
  • Wilson asks Congress to go to war to make the
    world safe for democracy.
  • Several factors propelled the US to become

1. Sinking of the Lusitania
  • In1915 a German submarine
    sank Lusitania, a British
    passenger ship with
  • aboard, they
  • suspected the British
  • of smuggling weapons
  • from the US

2. British Propaganda
British propaganda worked on American feelings,
especially when German spies tried to sabotage
American industry.
3. Zimmerman Telegram
  • Finally, in 1917, German subs sank American ships
    and the Zimmerman telegram asked Mexico to attack
    the US to regain the SW states lost in the
    Spanish-American War

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Georgia and World War I
  • 85,000 100,000 Georgians joined the armed
  • Training took place at Camp Benning, Fort
    McPherson, and Camp Gordon

Georgia and World War I
  • New weapon technology
  • Trench warfare
  • Tanks instead of cavalry
  • Airplanes
  • Mustard Gas

War is Over!
  • Peace treaty? No it was an armistace
  • Signed on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the
    11th month.
  • Now we celebrate it as Veterans Day

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