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Coping Power Program: A school-based violence prevention program

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Title: Preventive Effects of Social-Cognitive Interventions for Aggressive Children Author: Cathy Morrell Last modified by: mdodd Created Date: 11/20/1996 4:08:40 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coping Power Program: A school-based violence prevention program


1
Coping Power ProgramA school-based violence
prevention program
  • Nicole Powell, Ph.D., Caroline Boxmeyer, Ph.D.,
    Kathy Andrews, M.A.
  • The University of Alabama
  • September 25-27, 2006

2
Workshop Agenda
  • Monday
  • 82010 a.m. Etiology and Treatment of Youth
    Aggression (Whole Group)
  • 101015 a.m. Break
  • 1015 Noon Coping Power Outcome Research (Whole
    Group)
  • Noon1 p.m. Lunch
  • 1305 p.m. (Break into 3 Groups) Child
    Component Start-up and Sessions 1-6
  • Tuesday
  • 82010 a.m.. Child Component 7 11
  • 101015 a.m. Break
  • 1015- Noon Child Component 12 21
  • Noon1 p.m.. Lunch
  • 1305 p.m Child Component 22 29
  • Wednesday
  • 82010 a.m.. Child Component 30 34
  • 101015 a.m. Break
  • 1015 Noon Parent Component Start-up and
    Sessions 1 8
  • Noon1 p.m. Lunch
  • 1305 p.m Parent Component 9 16 and
    Feedback Survey

3
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4
What is Coping Power?
  • Manualized cognitive behavioral prevention
    program
  • For late elementary and middle school students
  • Can be readily implemented by school counselors
    and mental health professionals
  • Demonstrated preventive effects on delinquency
    substance use among at-risk youth (Lochman
    Wells, 2002a,b 2003 2004)

5
What is Coping Power (cont.)
  • Developed by John Lochman Karen Wells
  • Facilitate transition to middle school and
    prevent delinquency and substance abuse
  • Screener used to identify at-risk aggressive
    students (2-30)
  • Full program
  • 34 Child group session
  • 16 Parent group sessions
  • 11 child meetings and teacher consultation
  • Abbreviated 1-year program available (24 child,
    10 parent sessions)

6
Why does Coping Power target aggressive children?
  • An important aspect of any prevention program is
    that it targets key developmental risk factors
    for the specific problem of interest
  • Childrens aggressive behavior predicts later
    negative outcomes such as delinquency and
    substance abuse

7
What is the course of aggressive behavior in
childhood?
  • Frequency of physical aggression steadily
    decreases from age 2 to 12 (Tremblay
    LeMarquand, 2001)

8
Is aggressive behavior a stable behavior pattern?
  • Subgroup of chronic aggressive children are at
    risk of most physical violence during adolescence
    (Nagin Tremblay, 1999)

9
Does childrens aggressive behavior predict later
negative outcomes?
  • School problems and school failure
  • Substance use
  • Delinquency

10
Summary of Stability and Predictive Utility of
Childrens Aggression
  • Although absolute rates of aggressive behavior
    decline in normative samples after age 2,
    aggressive behavior remains a stable individual
    difference variable from age 2 through the early
    childhood years
  • Aggressive behavior during early childhood
    predicts adolescent delinquency, substance use,
    and school problems
  • Thus, preventive interventions can target high
    risk aggressive children, and, from a prevention
    science perspective, these interventions should
    address the malleable risk factors that produce
    and maintain childrens aggressive behavior

11
Risk Factors on the Developmental Trajectory for
Aggressive Behavior(e.g., Coie Dodge, 1998
Hawkins, Catalano Miller, 1992 Loeber
Farrington, 2001 Pennington, 2002)
  • Child Factors biology and temperament
  • Family Context
  • Neighborhood Context
  • Peer Context
  • Later Emerging Child Factors social cognitive
    processes and emotional regulation

12
Contextual Social Cognitive Model
13
Parenting Context
  • Childrens aggression has been linked to (e.g.
    Patterson, Capaldi Dishion, 1992 Shaw et al,
    1994)
  • Nonresponsive parenting at age 1, with pacing and
    consistency of parent responses not meeting
    childrens needs
  • Coercive, escalating cycles of harsh parental
    nattering and child noncompliance, starting in
    the toddler years, especially for children with
    difficult temperaments
  • Harsh, inconsistent discipline
  • Unclear directions and commands
  • Lack of warmth and involvement
  • Lack of parental supervision and monitoring, as
    children approach adolescence

14
Social Cognitive Processes Acquired by Aggressive
Children Stages of Social Information
Processing(Crick Dodge, 1994)
  1. Cue encoding
  2. Interpretation of intent and of meaning of cue
  3. Social goals
  4. Generate cognitive solutions to perceived problem
  5. Decide which solution to select, based on
    expected outcomes and values for the expected
    outcomes
  6. Enactment of solution

15
  • Group Activity

16
Sean
  • H Theres a kid, Herman he didnt know it I
    took his lunch money
  • N Theres a kid in my class named James, and
    he wears braces
  • P When Kelvin was sick I took him his school
    work
  • H One day. I wish someone would break Garys
    arm so he wouldnt hit
  • H Theres a boy named Jeff, and I ripped all
    the buttons off of his shirt
  • H I hit my friend Donny so hard his lip
    started bleeding. That was funny
  • P Theres this crippled kid at school, and I
    help him with his lunch tray
  • N Yesterday Tyrone and I finished our work at
    the same time
  • H Theres a kid, JamieI hate him so much that
    I wish his head would fall off

17
Hostile Attribution Bias
18
Hostile Attributions Can be Adaptive
19
Social Cognitive Processes in Aggressive
Children Appraisal Steps(Crick Dodge, 1994
Lochman, Whidby FitzGerald, 2000)
  • Cue encoding difficulties, by excessively
    recalling hostile social cues
  • Hostile attributional biases, and distorted
    perceptions of self and other in peer conflict
    situations

20
Problem-Solving Measure for Conflict(Lochman
Lampron, 1986 Dunn, Lochman Colder, 1997)
  • Story 1
  • Some of Eds friends borrowed his soccer ball
    during the lunch period, but they did not return
    it. When Ed came out of school at the end of the
    day, the other boys had already started playing
    with it again. Ed was supposed to go right home
    after school, and he wanted to have his soccer
    ball back // The story ends with Ed walking home
    with his soccer ball. What happens in between Ed
    not having his soccer ball, and later when he
    walked home with it?

21
PSM-C
22
Social Problem-Solving
  • Number of solutions generated
  • Content, or types of solutions generated

23
PSM-C Content Codes
  • Verbal Assertion (Regular and Negative)
  • Direct Action (Regular and Negative)
  • Help-seeking
  • Non-confrontational
  • Physical Aggression
  • Verbal Aggression
  • Bargaining
  • Compromise

24
PSM-C Story 1 Solutions James (12 year old)
  1. Ed went up and act like he was fixing to play
    with the soccer ball, but took the ball and
    walked away with it.
  2. He could have just took the soccer ball without
    playing with them
  3. He could have went home and next morning seen
    them playing with it, and gone up to them and
    taken it without asking
  4. Next morning if its in the locker he could have
    went in the locker and took it out

25
PSM-C Story 1 Solutions David (11 year old)
  1. He told them to give him back his soccer ball so
    he could go right home
  2. Started a fight

26
PSM-C Story 1 Solutions Mark (16 year old)
  1. They wont let Ed have the soccer ball, right? So
    went to the principal, told him the situation, he
    went back to kids and told them to give Eds
    soccer ball back. And if they messed with Ed,
    they would be expelled from school. See, Ed is
    the kind of person who doesnt like violence or
    to fight, and has values and stuff.
  2. He could have went up there, say if he had a
    knife or something he could have cut one of them
    up
  3. He could have come over to the school with his
    mom his mom could have got the ball back

27
Social Cognitive Processes in Aggressive
Children(Crick Dodge, 1994 Lochman, Whidby
FitzGerald, 2000)
  1. Cue encoding difficulties, by excessively
    recalling hostile social cues
  2. Hostile attributional biases, and distorted
    perceptions of self and other in peer conflict
    situations
  3. Non-affiliative social goals
  4. Generate less competent problem solutions, with
    fewer verbal assertion, compromise and bargaining
    solutions
  5. Expect that aggressive solutions will work, and
    value aggressive solutions more
  6. Poor enactment of solutions, due to weak social
    skills

28
Outcome Expectations Aggression can work for him
29
Outcome Values Aggression can be pleasurable
30
Subtypes
31
Social Cognitive Difficulties May Vary for
Subtypes of Aggressive Children
  • Severely vs moderately aggressive children
  • Reactive vs proactive aggressive children

32
Emotion Regulation Socialization of Anger
  • Childrens aggressive behavior has been related
    to high levels of anger (Eisenberg et al, 1994)
  • Anger is the emotion that people have most
    difficulty controlling
  • Socialization of childrens anger begins with
    early parent-child interactions, and continues
    with peers
  • Anger is facilitated by unsupportive parenting
    practices, including harsh and avoidant reactions
    (Eisenberg Fabes, 1994)
  • Exposure to environmental anger, such as marital
    discord, increases childrens anger (e.g.
    Cummings et al, 1991)

33
Emotion Regulation Socialization of Anger
  • Childrens language skills can assist in
    fostering their self-regulation and social
    interaction
  • Aggressive childrens weak verbal abilities can
    make it difficult for them to directly
    communicate their needs and ideas
  • Among aggressive deaf children, poor
    communicative competence has been directly linked
    to their aggressive behavior (r.49), and
    intervention focusing on anger management and
    problem solving has enhanced their communication
    competence (Lochman, FitzGerald, Gage, Kannaly,
    Whidby, Barry, Pardini, McElroy, 2003)

34
Effects of Anger-Related Processes on Social
Information Processing
  • Schemas and expectations, affecting encoding and
    interpersonal perceptions
  • Threat inductions, affecting attributions
  • Revenge and dominance social goals, affecting
    selection of solutions to social problems
  • Automatic vs deliberate processing, affecting
    selection of solutions to social problems

35
Social Goals and Adolescent Boys Problem-Solving
(Lochman, Wayland White, 1993)
  • You are changing classes at school, and are
    hurrying down the hall to the next class. Several
    guys are standing by the wall laughing with each
    other, and they are watching kids as they go by.
    While youre noticing these guys, a new kid at
    your school whom you dont know very well is
    coming down the hall from the other direction,
    and suddenly bumps into your shoulder hard,
    knocking your books to the floor.

36
Social Goals and Adolescent Boys Problem-Solving
(Lochman, Wayland White, 1993)
  • In this situation how important would these goals
    be to you?
  • Get away from the situation as soon as possible.
  • Let him know whos boss, in charge
  • Get back at him
  • Work things out and get to know him better

37
Social Goals and Adolescent Boys Problem-Solving
(Lochman, Wayland White, 1993)
38
Social Goals Solutions for Attaining Dominance
Goal
Solution Aggressive Nonaggressive
Verbal Assertion 23 17
Bargaining 3 7
Aggression 63 53
Other (HS, NON, DA) 10 18
X23.3, ns
39
Social Goals Solutions for Attaining Affiliation
Goal
Solution Aggressive Nonaggressive
Verbal Assertion 20 15
Bargaining 50 57
Aggression 0 0
Other (HS, NON, DA) 30 28
X20.6, ns
40
Social Goals Solutions for Attaining Main Goal
Solution Aggressive Nonaggressive
Verbal Assertion 39 20
Bargaining 16 48
Aggression 23 8
Other (HS, NON, DA) 23 25
X211.8, plt.01
41
Social Goals and Developmental Patterns Problem
Solving Selmans Structural Model of
Interpersonal Negotiations
  • Level 0 - hit, grab, fight, ignore, hide, flee,
    whine
  • preadolescent and adolescent aggressive
  • Level 1 - one-way negotiation assert, command,
    bully
  • preadolescent nonaggressive adolescent
    aggressive
  • Level 2 - reciprocal exchange accommodate,
    barter, reason, influence
  • adolescent nonaggressive
  • Level 3 mutual, collaborative negotiations

42
Automatic Processing
Automatic Processing
Automatic Processing
43
Effects of Deliberate vs Automatic Processing on
Problem Solving (Lochman, Lampron Rabiner,
1989 Rabiner, Lochman Lampron, 1990)
  • When emotionally activated, children use more
    automatic processing
  • Aggressive children use more impulsive automatic
    processing
  • Assessed deliberate processing with aggressive
    and nonaggressive elementary school boys by
    requiring them to wait 20 seconds before giving
    solutions to hypothetical vignettes of social
    problems, and by using multiple choice response
    formats
  • Assessed automatic processing by requiring boys
    to immediately give a solution to vignettes, and
    by using open-middle response formats

44
Effects of Deliberate vs Automatic Processing on
Problem Solving
  • Both aggressive and nonaggressive boys who use
    automatic processing produce 50 fewer verbal
    assertion solutions and three times more direct
    action solutions than when they use deliberate
    processing (e.g. instructed to wait 20 seconds
    before responding)

45
Effects of Automatic Processing on Problem Solving
Memory Bin
Response Enactment
Stimulus
Perceived Threat
Direct Action
Direct Action
Verbal Assertion
Help Seeking
. . .
46
Effects of Deliberate Processing on Problem
Solving
Memory Bin
Response Enactment
Stimulus
Perceived Threat
Direct Action
Verbal Assertion
Verbal Assertion
Help Seeking
. . .
47
Effects of Automatic Processing on Problem Solving
Memory Bin
Response Enactment
Stimulus
Perceived Threat
Verbal Assertion
Verbal Assertion
Direct Action
Help Seeking
. . .
48
Summary Developmental Sequencing of Risk Factors
  • As children move on escalating trajectories
    towards serious adolescent conduct problems,
    there is a developmental stacking of risk factors
    (e.g., community temperament parenting peer
    rejection social cognitive deficiencies
    school failure deviant peers) over time
  • Later interventions must address multiple risk
    factors
  • Thus, early preventive interventions can impact
    childrens increasingly stable aggressive
    behavior before additional risk factors
    accumulate

49
  • Coping Power Intervention Research

50
Coping Power Intervention Research Supported By
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse
  • Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (SAMHSA)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • US Department of Justice

51
Coping Power Intervention Research
  • Ongoing Field Trial in 57 Alabama schools
  • Ongoing effectiveness study in Tuscaloosa
  • Studies of Anger Coping program (original
    child-only intervention)
  • 2 efficacy and effectiveness studies in Durham,
    NC
  • Clinical trial in a child psychiatry outpatient
    clinic at Utrecht University, the Netherlands
    (with children with ODD/CD).
  • Dissemination studies
  • With aggressive deaf children in a residential
    school in NC
  • After school YMCA program in Rochester, NY
  • School districts in Baltimore, MD, Portland, OR,
    and Newton, NJ
  • Adapted for use Puerto Rico and Spain

52
CSAP-funded Study of Coping Power Indicated and
Universal Preventive InterventionsLochman
Wells (2002) Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,
16, S40-S54
53
Indicated and Universal Interventions
  • Indicated preventive interventions are targeted
    at high risk individuals, such as aggressive
    school children the Coping Power Program is an
    example
  • Universal preventive interventions are provided
    to all individuals within a certain population,
    such as all fifth grade children in a school

54
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55
Sample
  • 245 moderate to high risk children, in the top
    30 of teacher-rated aggression on a screening
    measure administered in the 4th grades of 17
    schools
  • 66 male
  • 78 African American
  • No baseline differences across conditions in sex,
    ethnic status, cognitive ability, or aggression
    screen score
  • 84 assessed at one-year follow-up, 83 assessed
    at two-year follow-up

56
Post Intervention Effects on Proactive and
Reactive Aggressive Behavior
  • Coping Power produced significant reductions in
    proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression

57
Parent-Rated Proactive Aggressive BehaviorTime X
Indicated F(2,416)2.68
58
Teacher-Rated Proactive Aggressive BehaviorTime
X Indicated F(1,183)3.02
59
Other Post Intervention Effects
  • Significant intervention effects also evident on
    potential mediating processes such as supportive
    parenting
  • The combined indicated and universal intervention
    condition had uniquely strong effects on
    teacher-rated aggression, outcome expectations
    for aggression, and childrens perceived social
    and academic competence

60
One-Year Follow-up Outcomes for the CSAP-funded
StudyLochman, J.E. Wells, K.C. (in press),
Behavior Therapy
61
Substance Use Outcome
  • Youth self report of use of Tobacco, Alcohol, and
    Marijuana in the past month

62
Substance UseCoping Power vs Control
F(1,120)10.8, p.001
63
Delinquency Outcome
  • Youth self report of theft, assault, property
    destruction, fraud, and drug selling (sum score),
    in the past month This was only collected at
    the 1 Year Follow-Up

64
Self-Reported Delinquent Behavior Coping Power
vs Control F(1,129)4.30, p.04
65
School Behavior Outcome
  • Teachers ratings of fighting and of harming
    others, from the TOCA-R

66
Teacher-rated Peer Aggressive Behavior Coping
Power vs Control F(1,80)4.18, p.04
67
Conclusions
  • Across 2 studies, Coping Power has significant
    outcome effects (at 1-year f/u) on childrens
    substance use, delinquent behavior, and
    teacher-rated aggressive and problem behaviors
  • Coping Power has stronger effects on proactive
    than reactive aggression
  • Intervention-produced improvements are mediated,
    in part, by improvements in childrens
    attributions and anger, expectations about the
    utility of aggression, locus of control, and
    parenting behaviors

68
Key References
  • Larson, J., Lochman, J. E. (2002). Helping
    School Children Cope with Anger A
    Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. New York
    Guilford.
  • Lochman, J. E., Wells, K. C. (2002a).
    Contextual social-cognitive mediators and child
    outcome A test of the theoretical model in the
    Coping Power Program. Development and
    Psychopathology, 14(4), 945-967.
  • Lochman, J. E., Wells, K. C. (2002b). The
    Coping Power Program at the middle school
    transition Universal and indicated prevention
    effects. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16
    (4S), S40-S54.
  • Lochman, J.E., Wells, K.C. (2003).
    Effectiveness study of Coping Power and classroom
    intervention with aggressive children Outcomes
    at a one-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 34,
    493-515.
  • Lochman, J.E., Wells, K.C. (2004). The Coping
    Power Program for preadolescent boys and their
    parents Outcome effects at the 1-year follow-up.
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
    72(4), 571-578.
  • Lochman, J. E., Wells, K. C., Murray, M (in
    press). The Coping Power Program Preventive
    Intervention at the Middle School Transition. In
    P. Tolan, J. Szapocznik, S. Sambrano (Eds.),
    Preventing substance abuse 3 to 14. American
    Psychological Association Washington, DC.

69
  • NIDA-Funded Coping Power Field Trial Study

70
Research Question
  • How do factors such as
  • intensity of training
  • organizational and student population
  • characteristics of schools
  • characteristics of school site staff
  • impact intervention outcomes, intervention
    integrity, and sustained use?

71
Design
  • 57 schools from 5 public school systems in
    West-Central Alabama assigned to one of 3
    training conditions
  • 19 Basic Training
  • 19 Intensive Training
  • 19 Control

72
Field Trial School Counselor Characteristics
Control Basic CP Training Intensive CP Training
N 19 19 19
Years of Experience 8.8 9.9 11.0
African-American 58 53 53
73
Students participating in Coping Power Field
Trial
  • 353 students assigned to intervention condition
  • Participated in Coping Power groups at their
    schools during latter half of 4th grade and all
    of 5th grade

74
Field Trial Child Characteristics
Control Basic CP Training Intensive CP Training
N 178 185 168
Male 71 63 60
African-American 87 89 76
75
Ongoing Use of Coping Power
  • Survey completed by first group of school
    counselors trained for NIDA-funded Coping Power
    Field Trial
  • 12/12 counselors responded after 1 semester
  • 11/12 counselors responded after 1 year

76
Coping Power Field Trial Ongoing Use
6 months 1 year
Used Coping Power Child material 9/12 9/11
Used Coping Power Parent material 4/12 5/11
77
Ongoing Use
  • Child characteristics
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Academic difficulties
  • Kindergarten through sixth graders
  • Settings
  • Individual student guidance
  • Classroom wide instruction
  • Small groups for targeted students
  • Parenting resource

78
Ongoing Use
  • Most frequently used from Child Component
  • General Resources
  • Handouts
  • Goal Sheets
  • Homework Assignments
  • Group Structure
  • Group Rules
  • Positive Feedback

79
Ongoing Use
  • Most frequently used from Child Component (cont)
  • Coping Power Topics
  • Goal-Setting material
  • Strategies for Achieving School Success
  • Anger Management Anger Thermometer, Distraction
  • PICC Model (Problem Solving)
  • Social Skills Positive Qualities of Friends

80
Ongoing Use
  • Most frequently used from Parent Component
  • Academic Support at Home
  • Tracking and Praising Positive Behavior
  • Establishing Rules and Consequences

81
Ongoing Use
  • Changes made to the program
  • Select specific activities to fit student needs
  • Use activities and worksheets but not incentive
    system
  • Reduce content due to time constraints
  • Reasons for not using the materials
  • Lack of time/too many competing responsibilities
  • Lack of funds
  • Cant find the materials

82
Adaptations
  • Adaptation of intervention structure
  • Extra sessions to complete videotape activity
  • Covering sessions out of order Friendship, peer
    relationship activities
  • Extra activities guided imagery, extra games
  • Inclusion of extra rapport-building sessions
    additional parties, field trip
  • Adaptation of session content
  • Changes to activities due to client
    characteristics homework during session,
    videotaping rather than writing

83
Take Home Message
  • Coping Power provides a theory-based framework
    for intervening with students at risk for
    negative outcomes including aggression,
    delinquency, and substance abuse.
  • Positive outcome effects of Coping Power are
    based on close adherence to the full treatment
    program. However, in practice, group leaders
    often adapt the program to suit available
    resources (e.g., time, funding) as well as the
    needs of individual students and groups of
    students.

84
Contact Information
  • Coping Power Program
  • (205) 348-6551
  • http//bama.ua.edu/lochman
  • Developers Trainers
  • John Lochman, Ph.D. Nicole Powell, Ph.D.
  • Karen Wells, Ph.D. Caroline Boxmeyer, Ph.D.
  • Kathy Andrews, M.A.

85
  • Coping Power
  • Child Group

86
Coping Power Child Component
  • 34 sessions
  • 5 to 6 children and 1 to 2 leaders per group
    recommended
  • Periodic 1-to-1 sessions
  • Reinforce generalization of skills to other
    settings
  • Tailor goal setting and problem-solving
  • Enhance relationship with adult co-leaders
  • Case-centered teacher consultation

87
Start-up
  • Identify students and assign to groups
  • Schedule group time
  • Group meeting space
  • Meet with teachers to identify behavioral goals
  • Prepare needed materials (listed for each
    session)
  • Make contact with parents to get intervention
    consent, and to plan time for parent groups

88
Outline of Child Component Sessions
  • Session 1 Structure and purpose of group
  • Sessions 2-3 Long-term and short-term goals
  • Session 4 Organizational and study skills
  • Sessions 5-6 Physiological arousal and feelings
  • Sessions 7-10 Anger management training
  • Session 11 Relaxation and overcoming barriers to
    self-control
  • End of Year Review
  • Session 12 Review of year 1
  • Session 13 Organizational and study skills
    review
  • Sessions 14-16 Perspective-taking
  • Session 17 Perspective-taking and problem
    solving

89
Outline of Child Component Sessions (continued)
  • Sessions 18-21 Social problem solving training
  • Sessions 22-24 Creation of PICC videotapes
  • Session 25 Problem solving with teachers
  • Sessions 26 Social skills making friends and
    being a friend
  • Session 27 Problem solving group entry and
    peer negotiation
  • Session 28 Problem solving sibling conflict
  • Sessions 29-30 Peer pressure and refusal skills
  • Session 31 Coping with neighborhood problems
  • Sessions 32-33 Joining positive peer groups
  • Session 34 Review and termination

90
First Session
  • Discuss purpose and structure of group (What
    does coping mean to you?)
  • Generate group rules
  • Describe point system, including strikes
  • Group cohesion tasks (pass-the-ball group naming
    task paired interviews group flag)
  • Begin goal-setting

91
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92
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting (Sessions
    1-3)
  • Organizational and study skills
  • Accurate awareness feelings related to anger and
    vulnerability
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
  • Social problem-solving in a variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups

93
Goal Setting
  • Purposes
  • Teachers (or parents) monitor childrens
    behaviors and provide daily feedback to children
    about their classroom (or home) behavior
  • Provide weekly feedback to staff concerning the
    childs behavior
  • Leads to reinforcement of childrens behavioral
    improvements in their real-world settings in the
    classroom, or at home

94
Goal Setting
  • Structure
  • Weekly goals are set by children in consultation
    with staff and teachers.
  • Goals are written on a goal sheet which is signed
    daily by the teacher or other adult.
  • Reward incentives are offered for meeting goals.

95
Goal Setting
  • Presentation of goal setting to children
  • Define goal Something you work towards or
    Something you are working for.
  • Goals should be defined in terms of observable
    behavior.
  • Children should be responsible for goal sheet.
  • Encourage children to discuss goals with
    teachers.
  • Set out rewards for reaching weekly goals.

96
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97
View Goal Setting Clip
98
Points System for Goals and Group Behavior
  • Start with easy to moderate goals to stimulate
    childrens motivation
  • Provide quick, honest feedback in group with
    group rules points
  • Allows for reinforcements for child, plus larger
    group rewards for group

Chris B. 9/8 9/15 9/22 9/29
Group Rules 1 0 1 1
Partici-pation 1 1 1 1
Goal _ 1 1 2
Current Points 2 1 4 0
Total Points 2 4 7 11
99
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100
Points System for Goals and Group Behavior Price
List
  • Have a set of small, changing items to provide
    quick rewards for behavior change
  • Have larger rewards to encourage delay of
    gratification
  • Coupons and non-material incentives are terrific

ITEM POINTS
Pencils, markers 2
University stickers 2
Matchbox cars 4
Baseball cards 8
Comic books 12
Water bottle 15
Basketball 30
101
Group Reward
  • Offer group incentive such as pizza party
  • Provides positive peer pressure to actively
    participate, follow rules, return goal sheets and
    homework, etc.
  • Allow group to earn slice toward pizza party if
    they earn certain portion of points possible
    (e.g., 70) each week

102
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103
Goal Setting Common Problems for Children
  • Forgetting to return goal sheets
  • Not taking responsibility for getting goal sheet
    signed
  • Lacking motivation to work on goals
  • Social anxiety/sense of failure

104
Goal Setting Common Problems for Teachers/Parents
  • Believing goals are inappropriate or too easy
  • Not understanding the importance of shaping new
    behaviors in small steps
  • Feeling group members are reinforced for negative
    behaviors
  • Disrupting class/home tasks

105
Goal Setting Problem Solutions
  • Reminder cards, set up a buddy system
  • Contacts between child and leader
  • Positive feedback
  • Set less challenging goals
  • Solicit suggestions from teachers/parents
  • Encourage teacher/parent comments on goal sheets
  • Regular contact with teachers/parents
  • Co-leaders review goal sheets each session

106
Setting Long and Short Term Goals
  • Introduce the concept of setting and realizing
    goals
  • Help students identify goals they want to achieve
  • Help students understand the importance of
    setting long range goals and the steps
    (short-term goals) needed to attain them
  • Help students identify barriers to achieving
    goals and how to overcome them

107
Reinforce Understanding of the Goal Setting
Process
  • Videotape depicting adults discussing steps taken
    to reach their personal/professional goals
  • Have students interview a teacher, parent or
    other adult about goal setting

108
View Goal Setting Video
109
Coping Power Email
  • Coping_at_bama.ua.edu

110
Common Elements of Child Group Sessions
  • Opening Activities
  • Review goal sheets
  • Recall main topics from prior session
  • Review homework
  • Closing Activities
  • Positive Feedback
  • Point Check and Prize Box
  • Free Time (optional)

111
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting
  • Organizational and study skills (Session 4, 13)
  • Accurate awareness of feelings related to anger
    and vulnerability
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
  • Social problem-solving in variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups

112
Strategies for Achieving Academic Success
  • Importance of organizational and study skills
  • Help students identify areas of strength and
    weakness in school performance
  • Point out the correlation between not completing
    assignments and teacher conflicts
  • Facilitate activities related to organizational
    and study skills
  • Practice newly learned skills

113
Organizational Skills Activities
  • Organize book bags
  • Card game organizing cards into categories
  • Index cards positive and negative study skills
  • Leader modeled role play
  • Video tape Taming the Homework Monster
  • Homework contract

114
Positive and Negative Study Skills Activity
  • Sort cards into those useful for studying or not
  • Any additional skills?
  • How could children use the ideas in the useful
    pile to learn more effectively

115
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116
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting
  • Organizational and study skills
  • Accurate awareness of feelings related to anger
    and vulnerability (5-6)
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
  • Social problem-solving in variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups

117
Different Emotional States
  • Brainstorm list of emotions
  • Discuss what makes a person feel a certain
    emotion ie., I get scared when I enter a dark
    room.
  • What triggered the emotion?
  • How do I feel inside?
  • What can people see?
  • What are the thoughts inside my head?

118
Identification of Feeling StatesEMOTION HAPPY
  • What People What You Feel
    Thoughts In
  • Can See Inside Your Body
    Your Head

119
Identification of Feeling StatesEMOTION ANGRY
  • What People What You Feel
    Thoughts In
  • Can See Inside Your Body
    Your Head

120
Identifying Different Feeling States
  • Can you always tell what someone is feeling by
    how they look or what they do?
  • Are you always able to express your feelings?
  • Are there some feelings that are easier for you
    to express than others?
  • Sometimes you cannot tell how someone else is
    feeling or how you are feeling?

121
Anger AwarenessPhysiological Cues
  • Awareness of Signs of Anger
  • Facial Expression
  • Tone of Voice
  • Body Position/Movement
  • Internal Body States
  • Increased Heart Rate, Rapid Breathing, Feeling
    Flush
  • Sweating Palms, Tight Muscles, Clenched Fists

122
View Physiological Cues of Anger Clip
123
View Physiological Cues of Anger Clip 2
124
Anger Awareness Anger Thermometer
  • Using thermometers, children label own levels of
    anger, and of their triggers at each level
  • Can better problem solve at low to moderate
    levels of anger
  • Use large version of thermometer on the floor to
    show anger changes during role-play activities
  • Aggressive children tend to report their anger in
    on-off terms as angry or not-angry








  • Enraged, Furious
  • Steaming Mad
  • Irritated, Annoyed
  • Frustrated

125
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting
  • Organizational and study skills
  • Accurate awareness of feelings related to anger
    and vulnerability
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
    (Session 7-11)
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
  • Social problem-solving in variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups

126
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127
Anger Management Training
  • Key points and activities during sessions
  • Easier to cope with problems if we dont feel so
    angry
  • How can we reduce our feelings of anger?
  • Distraction, focusing attention on something else
    (e.g. fun things to do later in the day)
  • Deep breathing
  • Self instruction or self-statements

128
Anger Management Training Sample Self-Statements
  • Stay calm. Just relax.
  • As long as I keep my cool, Im in control.
  • What she says doesnt matter.
  • Ill grow up, not blow up.
  • Its too bad he has to act like this.
  • I dont need to prove myself to any one

129
Anger Management Training Practice Using
Self-StatementsA Sequence of Activities
  • Memory Game using deck of playing cards
  • Dominoes- build a tower using one hand
  • Puppet Exercise puppets tease each other
  • Self-control taunting exercise children in
    center of circle for 30 seconds, coping with
    peers teasing (Goodwin Mahoney, 1967)

130
View Self Statements Clip
131
Discussion Questions
  • What was the puppet thinking or saying to
    himself/herself?
  • What level of anger did the puppet experience
    during the teasing?
  • What skills did the puppet use to maintain
    control over her/his anger?
  • Did the puppet use different coping statements
    for different levels of anger?
  • What other feelings did the puppet experience?

132
Anger Management Training Rules for Self-Control
Exercises
  • Cannot curse or swear.
  • No racial comments.
  • No physical contact.
  • No Your Momma taunts.

133
Anger Management TrainingTips for Self-Control
Exercises
  • Leaders model first
  • Leaders can serve as coaches in the circle
  • Peer buddies can serve as coaches
  • Prohibit certain teases/taunts which are related
    to triggers at the very top of the anger
    thermometer (a physcial defect, etc)
  • Can reduce time of the role-play, when child is
    excessively aroused
  • Can have child face away from taunters
  • Can have group members tease in turn, versus all
    at once, to reduce arousal

134
What Else Can I Do?
  • Walk away from provocative peer
  • Remind self that it is not worth getting into
    trouble
  • Try to compromise with a parent
  • Ignore something that makes you angry
  • Tell an adult that someone/something is bothering
    you
  • Talk to the person who is making you feel angry
  • Write down how you are feeling
  • Express yourself through art, music or physical
    activity
  • Use anger thermometer record form

135
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136
Making Good Choices Doesnt Always Result in
Feeling GoodWhat then?
  • Play sports Exercise
  • Talk to a friend Play a game
  • Draw Play with a
    pet
  • Listen to music Watch a movie
  • Go for a walk Do something
    nice for someone

137
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting
  • Organizational and study skills
  • Accurate awareness of feelings related to anger
    and vulnerability
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
    (Session 12-15)
  • Social problem-solving in variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups

138
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139
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140
Perspective Taking
  • Role-play situations in DUSO Cards, leading to
    different views of same situation
  • After brief role-play action, freeze the
    children
  • A child serving as a local TV reporter who
    happened on the scene unfreezes and interviews
    each child in turn about what they saw, and why
    they thought it happened
  • Summarize the differences in perception

141
Why is he sitting there and not playing ?
142
Why is she throwing a tomato ?
143
Perspective Taking
  • Wise Men Activity
  • Have participants form groups of 4-5
  • Select a group leader for each group
  • Have group leader facilitate discussion for their
    group

144
Perspective Taking
  • Motive in the Hat activity
  • Identify possible reasons for a behavior (e.g.
    walking past other kids inviting him to play)
  • Write them on slips of paper
  • Have a child select one motive from a hat (e.g.
    I need to get home it was an accident doesnt
    like them)
  • Have the child briefly enact the motive
  • Have group vote on which motive they thought was
    present
  • When votes are inaccurate, discuss how it is
    sometimes difficult to quickly determine the
    reason for anothers behavior goal is to move
    from inferred hostility to dont sometimes know

145
Why is he walking by and not stopping ?
146
Perspective Taking
  • Teacher interview tapping teacher expectations
    and goals in handling classroom issues
  • Child interviews teacher about what school was
    like for the teacher when she/he was in 5th grade
    (e.g. teachers favorite teacher, and why
    teachers memory of working with others on a
    class project)
  • Child interviews teacher about what she/he most
    likes to teach now, and what the teachers goals
    are when the teacher is leading a math class
    (e.g. to provide useful information to all of the
    students) or trying to restore order in the
    classroom (e.g. to promote all students
    learning)
  • Permits child to hear that teachers intentions
    are not to get students in trouble, and promotes
    a positive interaction between teacher and student

147
Audiotape of Teacher Interview
148
Understanding the Teachers Perspective prelude
to PICC Session 25
  • Divide group and ask each subgroup to think of
    the top 10 responses that teachers gave to What
    do you expect from students in the classroom?
  • Importance of understanding teachers desires, as
    a lead-in to problem-solving with a
    teacher-student problem
  • Can use a Family Feud type format

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150
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting
  • Organizational and study skills
  • Accurate awareness of feelings related to anger
    and vulnerability
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
  • Social problem-solving in variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • (Session 17-28)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups

151
Social Problem-SolvingThe PICC Model
  • Problem
  • Identification
  • Choices
  • Consequences

152
Social Problem-SolvingThe PICC Model
  • Problem Identification
  • What is my goal?
  • How am I feeling?
  • Choices Consequences

153
Social Problem-SolvingApplying the PICC Model
  • Problem Identification
  • John pushes ahead of me in line at a kickball
    game.
  • What is my goal? I want my place back in line
  • How do I feel? Im a little angry
  • Choices Consequences

154
Problem Identification John pushes ahead of me
in line at a kickball game.
  • Choices
  • 1. Call him names .
  • 2. Kick him
  • 3. Tell him to move back.
  • 4. Talk to the teacher.
  • Consequences

155
Problem Identification John pushes ahead of me
in line at a kickball game.
  • Choices
  • 1. Call him names .
  • 2. Kick him
  • 3. Tell him to move back.
  • 4. Talk to the teacher.
  • Consequences
  • 1. John will yell back and push. We will both
    get into trouble.
  • 2. John will kick back. I will be suspended.
  • 3. John might move.
  • 4. John might get into trouble and be mad at me.

156
Social Problem Solving Activities
  • Group discussions, using PICC with hypothetical
    and real social problems
  • Viewing videotape modeling of social problem
    solving in action
  • Role-playing of alternate solutions to social
    problems
  • Groups create videos depicting competent
    solutions to problems
  • Blockers and Solvers Game

157
View Larson Tape (10)
158
Trouble at Sea Boat Activity Session 18
  • You are members of a fishing party on a boat that
    has run into bad weather and has engine trouble.
    Because of rough weather, the captain says the
    boat needs to be lighter. You crew members must
    decide which items to throw overboard. You need
    to decide as a group which items to throw
    overboard first.

159
Objects in Boat
  • Box of matches Radio (ship to shore)
  • Compass Navigational map
  • 10 gallons of water Signal flares
  • Life rafts 100 Feet of rope
  • Flashlight Life jackets

160
Trouble At Sea
  • What was the problem in this situation?
  • Did different people have different ideas about
    which items to throw overboard?
  • How did you decide which items to keep and which
    ones to throw overboard?
  • Did thinking about the consequences help you
    decide which items to keep?

161
Automatic Responding Versus Thinking Ahead
  • Using a DUSO Card or real life problem, ask group
    members to generate as many solutions to the
    problem situation as possible.
  • Using the same problem, ask the group to do the
    exercise once again. This time they are to first
    think about the consequences of each choice, and
    then only respond with choices that will have a
    positive outcome.
  • Discuss with students the idea that, if they are
    able to stop and think before responding, they
    will often be able to think of better solutions.

162
Obstacles and Persistence Blockers/Solvers
Activity Session 19
  • Divide group into Solvers vs Blockers (tries to
    think of blocks or obstacles that would make a
    solution fail)
  • Problem will be about peer conflict
  • Blockers have 2 minutes to think about the best
    obstacle
  • Solvers have 2 minutes to think of alternative
    solutions
  • And so on, until no new blocks or solutions

163
Solve That Problem example
  • You are in a group at school. Your group has the
    chance to earn a party if they earn enough
    points. However, to earn enough points for the
    party, each member of the group needs to return
    their goal sheet every week with at least one
    signature. Your group may not be getting the
    party because several members of the group keep
    forgetting their goal sheets or are having
    difficulty meeting their goals. What can you do?

164
Solve That Problem example cont.
  • Solutions
  • Threaten the students
  • Use a buddy system to remind members about goal
    sheets
  • Bribe the teachers to sign the sheet
  • Help members pick better goals.
  • The team chooses solution 2.) to use buddies.
  • Obstacles
  • The Blockers come up with the obstacle of the
    buddy becoming sick all week and so he/she is not
    there to remind the member to bring the goal
    sheet to group.

165
Additional Problem Scenario
  • You have been saving for a long time and finally
    have 20.00 in your bank account. You have just
    been invited to a birthday party for your best
    friend. You also want to buy something for
    yourself that costs 15.00. If you buy what you
    want for yourself, you will not have enough money
    to buy your friend a nice gift. What can you do?

166
Tips for Videotaping Success
  • Have children create a script before
    videotaping
  • Rehearse before videotaping
  • Can use cue cards to remind them what to say or
    do
  • Decide if group members will have jobs of
    filming and using cue cards
  • After taping a sequence, have group review the
    segment, discussing the problem-solving points
    they were trying to illustrate, and if they
    should tape anything differently
  • Remind group that group rules will be in effect
    place limits on silly behavior, and edit silly
    behavior out before replays

167
PICC Video
168
Create PICC Picture Book
169
Foci for Coping Power Child Component
  • Behavioral and personal goal setting
  • Organizational and study skills
  • Accurate awareness of feelings related to anger
    and vulnerability
  • Anger management training, including methods for
    self-instruction, distraction, and relaxation
  • Perspective-taking and attribution retraining
  • Social problem-solving in variety of situations
    (peer, teacher, family)
  • Resistance to peer pressure, and focus on
    involvement with non-deviant peer groups (Session
    29-33)

170
Peer Pressure
  • Peer Pressure Defined
  • Discussion of Positive vs. Negative Peer Pressure
  • Discussion of Refusal Skills
  • Discussion of Involvement in Non-Deviant Peer
    Groups
  • Group creates a poster indicating how to handle
    peer pressure, and posting it at school

171
Peer Pressure Why Kids Might Give In
  • Group Acceptance (to be accepted by the group)
  • Approval (so that other kids will like you)
  • Repetition (someone keeps bugging you until you
    give in)
  • Being Threatened Physically/Socially (someone
    threatens to hurt them if they do not do
    it/threatens to tell everyone what a wimp you are
  • Being Put Down (kids do not want to be teased)
  • Reassurance (other kids say that there is no way
    you can get caught)

172
Activities
  • Group Discussion group members generate
    different reasons why children may give in to
    peer pressure
  • Role Play Write down the general categories on
    slips of paper and have group members act out a
    short skit depicting that reason
  • Pictures/DUSO Cards ask group members to
    discuss the motivation for giving in to pressure
    depicted in the picture

173
Peer Pressure Refusal Skills What Can I Do?
  • Say No Thanks
  • Broken Record
  • Make an Excuse
  • Leave the Situation
  • Change the Subject
  • Make a Joke
  • Try to Use Peer Mediation
  • Act Shocked
  • Flattery
  • Suggest a Better Idea
  • Return the Challenge
  • Find Other Kids to Hang Out With

174
View Peer Pressure Video
175
Deviant Peer Group and Group Membership
  • Cliques/Clubs?Groups at School
  • Group Identification and Status
  • Position within Group
  • Neighborhood Survey
  • Joining Positive versus negative Peer
    Activities/Groups
  • Positive Leadership Qualities in Self and Others

176
Activities Promoting Positive Development
  • Create poster to display in school
  • Strength Bombardment (identifying positive
    qualities in self)
  • Positive leadership qualities in self and others

177
End on Positive Note
  • Provide end of year party, particularly if earned
    group reward
  • Play review game to recall and discuss skills
    learned
  • Highlight positive behavior changes each student
    has made
  • Present certificates of completion
  • Say goodbyes and discuss how to maintain positive
    behavior changes

178
  • Coping Power Parent Component

179
Coping Power Parent Component
  • Group format with two co-leaders.
  • 5 to 10 sets of parents in each parent group
  • 16 sessions
  • Reminders by phone/mail
  • Phone check-ins

180
Foci for Coping Power Parent Component
  • Positive attention and rewards for appropriate
    child behavior
  • Ignoring minor disruptive behavior
  • Provision of clear commands, rules, and
    expectations
  • Use of consistent consequences for negative child
    behavior (response cost, time-out, withdrawal of
    privileges)
  • Monitoring of childrens behavior in the
    community

181
Foci for Coping Power Parent Component (cont.)
  • Improvement of family communication and
    increasing family activities
  • Improvement of parents own stress management
  • Informing parents of childrens current work on
    social-cognitive skills (e.g., problem-solving
    skills) in their group, so parents can reinforce
    childrens use of these new skills
  • Academic support at home

182
Outline of Parent Sessions
  • Session 1 Parent Orientation
  • Session 2 Academic Support at Home
  • Session 3 Stress Management Part 1
  • Session 4 Stress Management Part 2
  • Session 5 Getting Ready for Summer
  • Session 6 Academic Support in the Home - Review
  • Session 7 Tracking and Praise
  • Session 8 Ignoring Minor Disruptive Behavior

183
Outline of Parent Sessions
  • Session 9 Giving Instructions
  • Session 10 Rules and Expectations
  • Session 11 Consequences Discipline and
    Punishment
  • Session 12 Discipline and Punishment Part 2
  • Session 13 Family Cohesion Building
  • Session 14 Family Problem Solving
  • Session 15 Family Communication
  • Session 16 Long-Term Planning/Termination

184
Supporting Parental Involvement
  • (1) External Motivational Factors
  • Provide transportation to meetings.
  • Run groups at convenient times for parents.
  • Provide supervised child waiting rooms.
  • Provide snacks.
  • Provide transportation and stipends (with grants)
  • (2) Foster Self-Motivation Ownership of Program
  • Facilitate group cohesion and support network
    forming between parents.
  • Present parenting strategies as options that
    parents can choose, promoting problem solving.

185
Program Orientation Session Goals (Session 1)
  • To familiarize staff and parents with one another
  • To finalize meeting plans
  • To orient parents to the structure of the group
  • To provide overview of the program
  • To introduce topic pertaining to academic support
    in the home

186
Academic Support at HomeSession Goals (Sessions
2, 6)
  • Review reactions to first session
  • Offer rationale for timing of session
  • Discuss steps to set up homework assignment check
  • Provide a structure and monitoring routine
    wherein parents can supervise homework

187
Academic Support in the Home Setting Up a
Homework Structure
  • Set expectations Set a total
    duration
  • Identify a time/place Set a good example
  • Remove distractions Show an interest
  • Review assignments Vary the structure
  • Provide supplies Be available to
    help
  • Written contract Monitor
    progress

188
Parent-Teacher Conference
  • Setting up a meeting
  • Be sensitive to parents past experiences
  • Examples of questions to ask
  • Being proactive versus reactive
  • Be prepared
  • Be on time
  • Make a plan for ongoing communication

189
Stress Management Session Goals (Sessions 3-4)
  • To introduce topic of stress management
  • To present a working definition of stress
  • To use ABC chart to discuss stress and stress
    management
  • To talk about stress in parenting
  • To introduce topic of taking care of yourself
  • To introduce and practice active relaxation
  • To present a cognitive model of stress and mood
    management

190
ABC CHART
  • Antecedents Behavior Consequences

191
Pie Chart Activity
  • Please draw a large circle.
  • Make the circle into a pie by separating it
    into Life Segments. Make sure to include
    segments for each role that you play in life,
    making sure to include all roles that take up
    your time, energy, and space.
  • Roles
  • ___________ ____________ ____________
    _________
  • ___________ ____________ ____________
    _________
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