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Emerging Industrial Society in West

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Chapter 23 pgs. 512-536 Themes & Context The Enlightenment led to three developments that make Europe a global power during the long 19th century: revolution ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emerging Industrial Society in West


1
Emerging Industrial Society in West
  • Chapter 23
  • pgs. 512-536

2
Themes Context
  • The Enlightenment led to three developments that
    make Europe a global power during the long 19th
    century revolution, industrialization,
    imperialism.
  • The shift from agrarian and handicraft economies
    to industry and machine manufacturing was
    propelled by agricultural productivity, greater
    specialization urbanization, the rise of fossil
    fuels, steam power, iron, and the factory system.
  • Virtually every society was forced to react to
    the West as new technology spurred greater global
    contact than ever before

3
Age of Revolutions 1775-1850
Forces of Change
  • Age of revolution caused by 3 major forces
  • Cultural changes of Enlightenment
  • Population revolution
  • Created increased competition for power wealth,
    leading to new class struggles
  • Commercial change w/ proto-industrialization
  • New wealth of middle-class challenges aristocracy
  • Increased manufacturing market relationships
    among working class

4
American Revolution
  • Causes
  • British interference
  • Increased commerce ? reduced social equality
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Formalized rebellion won w/ perseverance aid
    from French
  • Results
  • Enlightenment inspired constitution w/ checks
    balances, guarantees of liberties, widespread
    voting

5
French Revolution
1 of 2
  • French crisis in 1789 ? restructuring of Europe
  • Causes
  • common forces ineffective gov economic slump
  • 1st step
  • Louis XVI bends to new middle-class majority
  • Declaration of Rights of Man storming of
    Bastille
  • Peasants seize manorial records lands
  • New constitution limited monarchy, limited
    democracy, established liberties

6
French Revolution
2 of 2
  • 2nd step
  • Robespierre radicals push revolution forward
  • Near civil war breaks out w/ increased
    aristocratic church opposition ? Reign of
    Terror
  • Centralizes gov but fails to win widespread
    support
  • 3rd step
  • Napoleon adds authoritarianism expansion
  • Limits expression, but promotes religious
    freedom, equality, education
  • Spreads revolutionary ideals throughout Europe

7
Revolutionary Legacy
  • The establishment responds at Vienna
  • Conservatism opposed change
  • Used territorial realignments to stabilize Europe
  • Political movements to challenge conservatives
  • Liberalism limited gov, representation,
    freedoms
  • Radicalism, Socialism, Nationalism
  • Continued revolution reform
  • in Greece, Spain, Italy, Germany, France,
    Belgium, Britain, U.S.

8
Liberty Leading the People
  • -a romantic view of nationalism the 1830
    revolution in France

9
Industry Revolution - 1848
  • Industrialization added pressure for social
    reform, nationalism, revolution
  • EX Chartist Movement
  • Revolutions of 1848 largely failures
  • BUTserfdom abolished, transportation reduced
    famine, industrial classes based on wealth
    replace feudal classes

10
Consolidating Industrial Order 1850-1914
Adjustments of Industrial Life
  • Cultural changes
  • Birth rates drop ? children emotional
    satisfaction
  • Womens moral roles emphasized
  • Health changes
  • Pasteur discovers germs ? death rates plummet
  • Commercial changes
  • Rise of corporations labor unions
  • Peasants improve efficiency focus on cash crops

11
Political Trends New Nations
  • After 1850, major issues of revolutionary period
    resolved w/ compromise
  • Most of West parliamentary democracy, basic
    freedoms
  • Nationalism increasingly a force
  • Cavour consolidates Italy
  • Bismarck consolidates Germany

12
New Government Functions
  • Functions power of gov expand
  • Expanded bureaucracy ? gov regulation
  • Development of welfare programs
  • Social issues central - new movements
  • Socialism (Karl Marx) added tough-minded
    revolution to class struggle
  • Becomes key minority political force in Europe
  • Feminism (Pankhurst)

13
Cultural Transformations _
Emphasis on Pleasure
  • Consumption grows to meet pace of production
  • Marketing advertising emphasize need for
    products
  • Mass leisure culture
  • Newspapers, theater, movies, vacations all boom
  • Sports big business, but reflects values
  • Consumption leisure reflect new secularism

14
New Science Art
  • Science advances rationalism due to prosperity
    education
  • Darwin evolution
  • Einstein physics
  • Freud social sciences
  • Art experiences opposite trends, turning toward
    emotion away from rationalism
  • Romanticism
  • Western culture lacked the ease congruence of
    its appearance

15
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16
Western Settler Societies _
  • Industrialization fueled W. Europes expansion
  • Economically need for colonies, new markets, raw
    materials
  • Militarily new steamships, rifles, machine guns
  • Demographically population growth leads to
    massive emigration
  • Settler societies play key role in extending
    Western patterns

17
The U.S.
  • Prior to Civil War, U.S. was not significant
  • Exports less profitable than Latin America
  • Efforts focused on internal development
  • Post-Civil War sees U.S. become global player
  • Industrialization westward expansion leads to
    economic success, exporting food to Europe
  • Still, U.S. diplomatically, artistically,
    intellectually seemed dependent on Europe, only
    gaining ground at end of period

18
Canada, Australia, New Zealand
  • Commonalities part of British empire, given
    limited self-gov to prevent revolution, greater
    economic cultural dependence than U.S.
  • Canada French history prevents unity
  • Australia founded as penal colony, economy based
    on sheep gold
  • New Zealand difficulties w/ Maori, economy based
    on sheep

19
Diplomatic Tensions WWI _
  • Imperialist expansion rise of Germany threaten
    balance of power in Europe
  • Alliance system grows to protect national
    interests
  • Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia
  • Balkan nationalism fuels conflict rivalry
  • Conflict result of political divisions, using
    nationalism to quiet protest, military buildup
  • WWI starts, capping period of long 19th century

20
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21
Global Connections _
  • Imperialism industrialization pushed European
    interests to all corners of globe
  • Global force like no previous civilization
  • Revolutionary ideals spread too often used in
    response to European force
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