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Strategies to promote language use in multilingual South Africa

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Strategies to promote language use in multilingual South Africa Mtholeni N. Ngcobo Department of Linguistics UNISA ngcobmn_at_unisa.ac.za Introduction Promoting the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Strategies to promote language use in multilingual South Africa


1
Strategies to promote language use in
multilingual South Africa
  • Mtholeni N. Ngcobo
  • Department of Linguistics UNISA
  • ngcobmn_at_unisa.ac.za

2
Introduction
  • Promoting the use of all official languages - one
    of the aims of National Language Policy Framework
  • Impediment inadequate development for some of
    these languages
  • Pressure the government (policy implementation)
    and people (attitudes)
  • Solutions modern strategies
  • Availability of information and language use in
    communication

3
Intro
  • Information and medium, i.e. ICTs for modern
    society
  • Reaching wide audience
  • an endangered language will progress if its
    speakers can make use of electronic technology.
    (Crystal 2000141)
  • Pre-democracy and language status ideological
    motivation
  • Underlying line of argument modern approach
  • Normalisation extending the use of language
    into an optimum range of domains, i.e. the public
    sector and technology (Williams, 1993)

4
Intro
  • Data extracted and adapted from PNC on ISAD
    draft report, through structured interviews
  • Theory Language Management Behaviour-towards-
    language language is considered as
    communication (the process of language use)
  • Communication is a process between people and
    people want to communicate (Jernudd, 2001)

5
The language management perspective
  • Represents an independent alternative to language
    planning (LP)
  • Considers macro language planning (government
    sanctioned) and micro language planning
    (individuals) a dialectic relationship
  • Organised management vs. simple management
  • Origins, Neustupny (1978) interactions
    (discourses) are a source of language problems.
  • LP starts with language problems in discourse and
    LP is complete if the removal of problems is
    implemented in discourse

6
The LM perspective
IMPLEMENTATION (Individual interaction)
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION (Individual interaction)
ADOPTION OF MEASURES (Planning institution)
7
The LM perspective
  • Stages of LM development- deviation from a norm,
    notation of deviation, selection of adjustment
    plan, implementation of a plan.
  • Two processes which characterise language use-
    1. production and reception of discourse 2.
    activities aimed at the production and reception
    of discourse, i.e. metalinguistic activities
    (Language Management)

8
Distal, Proximal and Immediate circumstances
  • LP in SA is at macro level micro is obscured
    but the two dimension of social phenomena
    should elaborate on one other (Nevakpil and
    Nekula, 2006)
  • Social structure as condition and consequence of
    the production of interaction (Giddens, 1993)
    Explained in terms of distal (e.g. gov.
    regulations), proximal (e.g. planning by schools)
    and immediate circumstances (correction by
    teachers in particular interactions) Visa versa
    problems from interactions can lead to a gov.
    legislation

9
A comprehensive LM programme
  • Status corpus spread
  • Spread linguistic landscape, signage, place
    names (toponyms), street names (odonyms),
    language used on radio, TV and press.
  • Perceptions can be changed through value

10
Factors that influence perception (Robbins 2001)
11
circumstances
  • Language as a perceived object
  • The role of information and communication
    changing perceptions
  • Transformed expectations

12
Promoting language use through information and
technology
  • As a strategy
  • Not provision only, but also access
  • What does access mean? What arrangements do we
    need to ensure public access to information and
    services? How do we monitor and review access to
    information and services?
  • Information that is linked to services

13
information
  • English dominance vs. little understanding
    exclusion
  • Language preference

African 64
English 26
Both 9
14
information
  • Mediums/tools
  • ICTs fastest and largest depositories
  • Access to ICTs

15
information
Radio 96
TV 83
Cell phone 63
Landline 52
Internet 9
16
information
  • Localizing content
  • Language use vs. ICT use
  • Empowerment, participation in development,
    building an information society
  • Encouraging information exchange and
    communication
  • Access to information as a basic human right

17
information
  • Websites with local content acknowledge, raise
    awareness, facilitate and promote the use
  • Dependency on language facilitated through ICTs
    (an innovation that facilitates adoption, Norman,
    1999)
  • ICTs and content external activators.
  • Increased valence (relative attractiveness)
    encouraging choice

18
information
  • SA Constitution of 1996 emphasis on equal rights
  • Government interventions
  • Institutions
  • Problems

19
Communication and the role of public service
figures
  • The role of government figures
  • Communication essence
  • Communication as the process of language use
    (Jernudd, 2001)
  • Preferred medium

Face-to-face 65
Telephone 19
More than 1 16
20
Communication
  • English a de facto language of government
  • The violation of equity
  • Communication difficulties
  • Creating subjective conditions
  • Expectancy as a motivational factor an internal
    activator

21
Conclusion
  • What became apparent majority of information
    readily available in English, Inaccessibility,
    ICT potential and increased value, the importance
    of the role of public figures (a motivational
    expectancy).
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