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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • by David G. Myers
  • Worth Publishers
  • (2007)

2
Chapter 12 Motivation and Work
Youre the one!
Eat Something!
Work Harder
Keep Moving Forward
What Moves You?
3
What moves you?
500
400
300
200
100
4
Eat something!
500
400
300
200
100
5
Youre the one!
500
400
300
200
100
6
Work Harder!
500
400
300
200
100
7
Keep moving forward!
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. When salmon are motivated to swim upstream to
mate and die, it is called
  • A) instinct.
  • B) homeostasis.
  • C) an incentive.
  • D) extrinsic motivation.

9
2. Drive reduction explains motivation by
stressing our biological need to sustain
  • A) a state of biological need.
  • B) drive equilibrium.
  • C) homeostasis.
  • D) a high level of arousal.

10
3. ___ is to push as ___ is to pull.
  • A) drive incentive
  • B) instinct drive
  • C) arousal homeostasis
  • D) incentive motivation

11
4. People are often motivated to seek out
stimulation. This is explained by the ___
theory.
  • A) incentive
  • B) drive
  • C) attention
  • D) arousal

12
According to Abraham Maslow, some of our
motivation must be attributable to
  • A) meeting our basic psychological needs first.
  • B) our desire to be the best we can be.
  • C) wish fulfillment of our wants.
  • D) sensation seeking.

13
6. Experimental rats were made to become obese by
  • A) stimulating the lower-mid hypothalamus.
  • B) destroying the lower-mid hypothalamus.
  • C) blocking the production of Ghrelin.
  • D) forcing them to watch the Cooking Network.

14
7. The bodys weight thermostat keeps us from
deviating much from our current weight, keeping
us at our
  • A) natural body type.
  • B) homeostatic equilibrium.
  • C) set point.
  • D) healthiest level.

15
8. Nausea for certain foods during pregnancy
peaks around the 10th week. This may be adaptive
because the fetus
  • A) is more vulnerable to toxins.
  • B) is moving more in the womb.
  • C) is developing its own sense of taste.
  • D) none of the above.

16
9. People with ____ experience extreme episodes
of binge eating, followed by purging through
laxatives or vomiting.
  • A) anorexia nervosa
  • B) binge-purge disorder
  • C) bulimia nervosa
  • D) weight cycling

17
10. Because eating disorders such as anorexia are
more common in the US, and not in India,
suggests
  • A) eating meat contributes to eating disorders.
  • B) the amount of media viewed contributes to
    eating disorders.
  • C) India has a more effective treatment.
  • D) thinness is valued differently by our culture.

18
11. After orgasm, the male experiences the
typical response of
  • A) sexual orientation.
  • B) heightened arousal.
  • C) leaving quietly.
  • D) a refractory period.

19
12. For women, the addition of the hormone
testosterone is used therapeutically in order to
  • A) increase facial hair.
  • B) increase sexual arousal.
  • C) increase aggression.
  • D) nothing, this is a male hormone and not used
    with women.

20
13. Viewing X-rated films effects most people by
  • A) reducing interest in sex with their partners.
  • B) increasing interest in sex with their
    partners.
  • C) encouraging sex outside of their marriage.
  • D) having no significant effect on the
    relationship.

21
14. American teen-age females have less sex than
Europeans, but have greater rates of pregnancy
due to
  • A) lack of sex education.
  • B) greater guilt related to sexual activity.
  • C) TV portrayals of unprotected sex without
    consequences.
  • D) all of the above.

22
15. Based on scientific evidence, most
psychologists believe that homosexuality
  • A) is a psychological disorder.
  • B) is caused by faulty parenting.
  • C) is inborn, has genetic roots, and is resistant
    to change.
  • D) is caused by peer pressure and recruiting by
    other gays.

23
16. Between the anxiety of being overwhelmed and
stressed and the apathy of being bored is the
state of
  • A) homeostasis.
  • B) flow.
  • C) meditation.
  • D) bliss.

24
17. The field of psychology which applies
psychological concepts to the work setting is
  • A) clinical psychology.
  • B) personnel psychology.
  • C) business psychology.
  • D) industrial-organizational psychology.

25
18. Which of the following is least effective in
selecting the best employee?
  • A) work samples
  • B) unstructured interview
  • C) job knowledge tests
  • D) past performance history

26
19. The results of Robert Owens management of a
cotton-mill in Scotland was a landmark study
which illustrated
  • A) the positive correlation between job
    satisfaction and productivity.
  • B) hiring the right people can make a significant
    difference in productivity.
  • C) reward and punishment techniques could be
    applied to the workplace.
  • D) a strong leader is more effective at getting
    the job done.

27
20. The leadership style called ___, is best for
building morale.
  • A) charismatic leadership
  • B) task leadership
  • C) social leadership
  • D) command-and-control leadership

28
21. Most people who are very happy, attribute it
to
  • A) social status.
  • B) achievement motivation.
  • C) close, satisfying relationships.
  • D) financial wealth.

29
22. Masters and Johnson identified four stages of
the human sexual response cycle, which included
all of the following except
  • A) orgasm.
  • B) excitement.
  • C) stimulation.
  • D) plateau.

30
23. When a supervisor likes an employee, the
supervisors ratings may be biased to rate the
employee higher than deserved. This is called
  • A) social management.
  • B) brown nose outcome.
  • C) prejudicial treatment.
  • D) a halo error.

31
24 Allen and Gorski (1992) conclude that
anatomy influences sexual orientation. They
found the ___ is 1/3 larger in homosexual men.
  • A) cranial diameter
  • B) anterior commissure
  • C) shoe size
  • D) speech center

32
25. There is evidence that eating disorders have
the following as contributing causes except
  • A) childhood sexual abuse.
  • B) genetics.
  • C) culture.
  • D) poor self esteem.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. When salmon are motivated to swim upstream to
mate and die, it is called
  • A) instinct.
  • B) homeostasis.
  • C) an incentive.
  • D) extrinsic motivation.

470
36
2. Drive reduction explains motivation by
stressing our biological need to sustain
  • A) a state of biological need.
  • B) drive equilibrium.
  • C) homeostasis.
  • D) a high level of arousal.

471
37
3. ___ is to push as ___ is to pull.
  • A) drive incentive
  • B) instinct drive
  • C) arousal homeostasis
  • D) incentive motivation

471
38
4. People are often motivated to seek out
stimulation. This is explained by the ___
theory.
  • A) incentive
  • B) drive
  • C) attention
  • D) arousal

472
39
According to Abraham Maslow, some of our
motivation must be attributable to
  • A) meeting our basic psychological needs first.
  • B) our desire to be the best we can be.
  • C) wish fulfillment of our wants.
  • D) sensation seeking.

472
40
6. Experimental rats were made to become obese by
  • A) stimulating the lower-mid hypothalamus.
  • B) destroying the lower-mid hypothalamus.
  • C) blocking the production of Ghrelin.
  • D) forcing them to watch the Cooking Network.

475
41
7. The bodys weight thermostat keeps us from
deviating much from our current weight, keeping
us at our
  • A) natural body type.
  • B) homeostatic equilibrium.
  • C) set point.
  • D) healthiest level.

476
42
8. Nausea for certain foods during pregnancy
peaks around the 10th week. This may be adaptive
because the fetus
  • A) is more vulnerable to toxins.
  • B) is moving more in the womb.
  • C) is developing its own sense of taste.
  • D) none of the above.

478
43
9. People with ____ experience extreme episodes
of binge eating, followed by purging through
laxatives or vomiting.
  • A) anorexia nervosa
  • B) binge-purge disorder
  • C) bulimia nervosa
  • D) weight cycling

478
44
10. Because eating disorders such as anorexia are
more common in the US, and not in India,
suggests
  • A) eating meat contributes to eating disorders.
  • B) the amount of media viewed contributes to
    eating disorders.
  • C) India has a more effective treatment.
  • D) thinness is valued differently by our culture.

479
45
11. After orgasm, the male experiences the
typical response of
  • A) sexual orientation.
  • B) heightened arousal.
  • C) leaving quietly.
  • D) a refractory period.

483
46
12. For women, the addition of the hormone
testosterone is used therapeutically in order to
  • A) increase facial hair.
  • B) increase sexual arousal.
  • C) increase aggression.
  • D) nothing, this is a male hormone and not used
    with women.

484
47
13. Viewing X-rated films effects most people by
  • A) reducing interest in sex with their partners.
  • B) increasing interest in sex with their
    partners.
  • C) encouraging sex outside of their marriage.
  • D) having no significant effect on the
    relationship.

485
48
14. American teen-age females have less sex than
Europeans, but have greater rates of pregnancy
due to
  • A) lack of sex education.
  • B) greater guilt related to sexual activity.
  • C) TV portrayals of unprotected sex without
    consequences.
  • D) all of the above.

487
49
15. Based on scientific evidence, most
psychologists believe that homosexuality
  • A) is a psychological disorder.
  • B) is caused by faulty parenting.
  • C) is inborn, has genetic roots, and is resistant
    to change.
  • D) is caused by peer pressure and recruiting by
    other gays.

492
50
16. Between the anxiety of being overwhelmed and
stressed and the apathy of being bored is the
state of
  • A) homeostasis.
  • B) flow.
  • C) meditation.
  • D) bliss.

498
51
17. The field of psychology which applies
psychological concepts to the work setting is
  • A) clinical psychology.
  • B) personnel psychology.
  • C) business psychology.
  • D) industrial-organizational psychology.

499
52
18. Which of the following is least effective in
selecting the best employee?
  • A) work samples
  • B) unstructured interview
  • C) job knowledge tests
  • D) past performance history

502
53
19. The results of Robert Owens management of a
cotton-mill in Scotland was a landmark study
which illustrated
  • A) the positive correlation between job
    satisfaction and productivity.
  • B) hiring the right people can make a significant
    difference in productivity.
  • C) reward and punishment techniques could be
    applied to the workplace.
  • D) a strong leader is more effective at getting
    the job done.

506
54
20. The leadership style called ___, is best for
building morale.
  • A) charismatic leadership
  • B) task leadership
  • C) social leadership
  • D) command-and-control leadership

508
55
21. Most people who are very happy, attribute it
to
  • A) social status.
  • B) achievement motivation.
  • C) close, satisfying relationships.
  • D) financial wealth.

495
56
22. Masters and Johnson identified four stages of
the human sexual response cycle, which included
all of the following except
  • A) orgasm.
  • B) excitement.
  • C) stimulation.
  • D) plateau.

482
57
23. When a supervisor likes an employee, the
supervisors ratings may be biased to rate the
employee higher than deserved. This is called
  • A) social management.
  • B) brown nose outcome.
  • C) prejudicial treatment.
  • D) a halo error.

504
58
24 Allen and Gorski (1992) conclude that
anatomy influences sexual orientation. They
found the ___ is 1/3 larger in homosexual men.
  • A) cranial diameter
  • B) anterior commissure
  • C) shoe size
  • D) speech center

490
59
25. There is evidence that eating disorders have
the following as contributing causes except
  • A) childhood sexual abuse.
  • B) genetics.
  • C) culture.
  • D) poor self esteem.

479
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers (2007)

61
Answers
1. A
2. C
3. A
4. D
5. B
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. D
11. D
12. B
13. A
14. D
15. C
16. B
17. D
18. B
19. A
20. C
21. C
22. C
23. D
24. B
25. A
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