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The Greatness of Grammar

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Title: The Greatness of Grammar


1
The Greatness of Grammar
  • Phrases

2
Why study phrases?
3
What is a phrase?
  • It is a group of related words that does not
    contain both a subject and its verbthere is no
    subject verb relationship.
  • They can act as verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and
    nouns.
  • Ultimately, this group of words is functioning as
    one part of speech in a sentence.

4
Verb Phrase
  • A verb phrase is made up of an auxiliary verb
    (verb helper) plus the past or present participle
    form of a verb.
  • will have gone
  • am going
  • Notethe verb phrase can be interrupted by
    modifiers.
  • will have soon gone
  • am surely going

5
Noun Phrase
  • A noun phrase can function as a subject, object,
    or an appositive phrase defining or renaming a
    preceding noun or pronoun (Raimes 326).
  • An extremely grateful girl hugged her parents.
    (noun phrase as subject)
  • The woman gave a hearty round of applause. (noun
    phrase as direct object)

6
What is a prepositional phrase?
  • It is a phrase beginning with a preposition and
    ending with a noun or pronoun called its object.
  • The phrases job is to connect its object to
    another word in the sentence.
  • This word is ultimately the word the prep. phrase
    modifies.

7
Adverb Phrase
  • An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that
    acts as an adverb (it modifies a verb, adverb,
    adjective, or verbals)
  • It can answer the questions where?, when?, how?,
    how much?, to what extent? and sometimes why?
  • Use a comma after two consecutive adv. phrases
    that begin a sentence.
  • Adv. phrases can be located anywhere within a
    sentence.

8
Adjective phrase
  • An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase
    that modifies a noun, pronoun, or verbals that
    act as nouns.
  • They answer what kind? which one? or how many?
  • An adjective phrase must follow the word it
    modifies unless after another phrase/clause that
    modifies the same word.

9
  • The adv phrase with some
  • modifies the verbal roaming and answers the
    question how
  • of your buddies is modifying some, answers the
    question what kind? adj. phrase

10
For the gifted modifies schoolWhat kind of
school? Adj. phrase
For a horses rear end modifies expression. What
kind of expression? Adj phrase
11
To dogs modifies the verb say and answers the
question where?. It is an adverb phrase. Of the
garbage modifies the adverb out. It answers the
question where. It is an adverb phrase.
12
To him modifies the verb phrase do listen. It
answers the question how? and is therefore an adv
phrase. Into a tree modifies the verb ran and
answers where? It is an adv. phrase.
but what is the phrase TO MISS HIM?
13
Verbals The Posers
  • Verbals are verb forms used as other parts of
    speech infinitives, gerunds, and participles.

14
In this comic to miss him is called an infinitive
phrase. An infinitive is made up of the word
to plus a verb. An infinitive phrase is made
up of any objects or modifiers to the
infinitive. Infinitives can function as nouns,
adjectives, or adverbs.
DO NOT SPLIT INFINITIVES IN YOUR WRITING.
15
I will work to carefully write my paper. No!
Help me Bilbo!!!! William Strunk is coming to
get me! I will work to write my paper
carefully. Phew, much better! Gandolf would be
proud. The infinitive in the above sentence is
acting as an adv.
16
The infinitive phrase to kill him is a direct
object to am going and is therefore a noun. Him
is part of the infinitive phrase because it is a
direct object to the infinitive.
17
Gerund
  • A gerund is a verb form ending in ing but
    functions as a noun within a sentence.
  • Gerunds act as subjects, direct objects, objects
    of prepositions, indirect objects and predicate
    nominatives.

18
  • Writing essays is a skill you will utilize
    throughout the rest of your educational careers.
    (subject)
  • Honors Comp. is the perfect class for learning to
    write effective essays.
  • (object of a preposition)

19
  • Scamming innocent people out of their money is a
    gerund phrase (scamming is the object of the
    preposition for)
  • To cancel guilt is an infinitive phrase acting as
    an adverb.

20
Participles are verb forms acting as adjectives.
  • Present Participles are made up of a verb form
    -ing.
  • Past Participles are made up of a verb form a
    d or ed ending.
  • Note There are some irregular verbs that have
    different forms of past participles. Brought,
    bought, gone

21
Some notes about participial phrases
  • Although participles and participial phrases can
    be located anywhere in sentence, they should be
    placed well.
  • A participial phrase that begins a sentence must
    modify the grammatical subject.
  • Other part. phrases should be as near as possible
    to the word they modify.

22
Astonishing modifies the noun incompetence To
jump is an infinitive acting as a noun (direct
object)
23
Note an ing word is only a verb when
accompanied by a verb helper like am going.
What types of verbals or phrases are in the
comic? for lunch of course are getting to
cost have done cost of the house
24
The Appositive
  • An appositive is a noun or pronoun that renames
    another noun or pronoun.
  • The appositive usually comes after the word it
    renames but not always.
  • It should be set off in commas unless is is a one
    word appositive or an essential to the meaning of
    the sentence.

25
An appositive is a noun or pronoun -- often with
modifiers -- set beside another noun or pronoun
to explain or identify it. Here are some examples
of appositives.
26
An appositive phrase usually follows the word it
explains or identifies, but it may also precede
it.
27
Punctuation of appositives In some cases, the
noun being explained is too general without the
appositive the information is essential to the
meaning of the sentence. When this is the case,
do not place commas around the appositive just
leave it alone. If the sentence would be clear
and complete without the appositive, then commas
are necessary place one before and one after the
appositive (Purdue).
28
The Absolute Phrase
  • An absolute phrase begins with a noun phrase
    followed by a verbal or prepositional phrase. It
    contains no verb form that indicates tense
    (Raimes 328).
  • An absolute phrase modifies a whole sentence and
    is set off from the rest of the sentence by a
    comma (Raimes 328).

29
  • Their reputation as winners secured by victory,
    the New York Liberty charged into the semifinals.
  • The season nearly finished, Rebecca Lobo and
    Sophie Witherspoon emerged as true leaders.
  • The two superstars signed autographs into the
    night, their faces beaming happily.

30
Resources
  • Adams, Scott. Dilbert.com. 2004. 24 Jan. 2005.
    lthttp//www.dilbert.comgt.
  • Farside Comics. Angelfire. 24 Jan. 2005.
  • lthttp//www.angelfire.com/nd2/rickspage/farside.
  • htmlgt.
  • Jennings, Mark. Skylars Den. 15 Jul. 2004. 24
    Jan. 2005. lthttp//www2.symet.net/TeamSky/index.
  • htmgt.
  • Purdue University. Online Writing Lab.
  • 2004. 24 Jan.2005.lthttp//owl.english.purdue.edu
    /
  • lab/fairuse.htmlgt.
  • Raimes, Ann. Universal Keys for Writers.
    Boston Houghton Mifflin, 2004.
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