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Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

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Chapter 15 Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources


1
Chapter 15
  • Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

2
Pangaea 18 simulation
3
The Earths Major Tectonic Plates
Figure 15-4
4
Geologic Processes
  • Structure of the Earth

Age of the earth??
5

Spreading center
Ocean trench
Collision between two continents
Oceanic tectonic plate
Oceanic tectonic plate
Plate movement
Plate movement
Tectonic plate
Oceanic crust
Oceanic crust
Subduction zone
Continental crust
Continental crust
Material cools as it reaches the outer mantle
Cold dense material falls back through mantle
Hot material rising through the mantle
Mantle convection cell
Mantle
Two plates move towards each other. One is
subducted back into the mantle on a falling
convection current.
Hot outer core
Inner core
Fig. 15-3, p. 337
6
The Earths Major Tectonic Plates
  • The extremely slow movements of these plates
    cause them to grind into one another at
    convergent plate boundaries, move apart at
    divergent plate boundaries and slide past at
    LATERAL plate boundaries.

Figure 15-4
7
Lateral movement
8
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9
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10
Natural Hazards Earthquakes
  • Features
  • Magnitude



11
What is a mineral?
  • Elements come together to form minerals
  • General characteristics of minerals
  • 1.Natural ( not man made)
  • 2.Inorganic
  • 3.Crystalline
  • 4.Solid
  • 5.Constant chemical composition.

12
Minerals and Rocks
Rock Types
  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic

13
Rock Cycle
Figure 15-8
14
External Earth Processes
  • Erosion-worn away and deposited
  • Mechanical weathering
  • Frost and salt wedging
  • Chemical weathering

15
Soils Formation
  • Soil horizons
  • Soil profile
  • Humus

16
Open-pit Mining
  • Machines dig holes and remove ores, sand, gravel,
    and stone.
  • Toxic groundwater can accumulate at the bottom.

Figure 15-11
17
Contour Strip Mining
  • Used on hilly or mountainous terrain.
  • Unless the land is restored, a wall of dirt is
    left in front of a highly erodible bank called a
    highwall.

Figure 15-13
18
Mountaintop Removal
  • Machinery removes the tops of mountains to expose
    coal.
  • The resulting waste rock and dirt are dumped into
    the streams and valleys below.

Figure 15-14
19
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
  • Established 1977
  • Mine lands must be restored to pre-mining
    conditions
  • Taxes on mining companies to restore pre-1977
    sites
  • Limited success-Lobbying of officials have choked
    off funds for enforcement

20
Environmental Effects of Mining Mineral Resources
  • Disruption of land surface
  • Subsidence
  • Acid mine drainage
  • Air pollution
  • Storage and leakage of liquid mining waste-acids,
    cyanide, mercury

21

Sludge
Pharmaceutical plant
Local farmers
Sludge
Greenhouses
Waste heat
Waste heat
Waste heat
Fish farming
Waste heat
Surplus natural gas
Electric power plant
Fly ash
Oil refinery
Surplus sulfur
Waste calcium sulfate
Waste heat
Cement manufacturer
Surplus natural gas
Sulfuric acid producer
Wallboard factory
Area homes
Fig. 15-19, p. 352
22
Rock lab guidelines
  • Go by the numbers on the white pieces of paper in
    the tray. VERY IMPORTANT
  • Know the category-Igneous, metamorphic,
    sedimentary
  • Grades based on how many names correctly
    identified.
  • Each number unique name. No two the same.
  • No talking between groups.
  • One free check PER GROUP

23
Rock lab
  • Omit
  • Igneous gabbro, andesite
  • Metamorphic schist, quartizite
  • Sedimentary siltstone, shale,rocksalt,rock
    gypsum, tufa, organic limestone.

24
Will Durant
  • Civilization exists by geological consent,
    subject to change without notice.
  • End of chapter 15
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