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Acids

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Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Acid (anhydrides) Bases Base (anhydrides) Salts Acid / Base Chemistry Hydrogen ion concentration = [H+] Hydroxide ion ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Acids


1
Acids and Bases
2
Identifying Acids and Bases
contains H ions as the cation, with and other
element as the anion
  • Acids
  • Acid (anhydrides)
  • Bases
  • Base (anhydrides)
  • Salts

H2SO4 HI
Non-metal oxide
P2O5
Contains OH- as the anion Combined with a cation
Ca(OH)2
Al2O3
A metal with oxygen
Ionic compound Formed from a cation and an anion
Metal and non-metal
Mg F2 KCl LiBr
3
Acid / Base Chemistry
  • Hydrogen ion concentration H
  • Hydroxide ion concentration OH-
  • Pure H20 neutral substance
  • ph7 and HOH-
  • H2O will self-dissociate
  • H20 gt H OH-
  • Note the number of H2O molecules that will self
    dissociate is very small only 2 molecules per a
    billion, therefore H2O is unchanged.

4
Acid / Base Chemistry
  • Kw - is the ion product constant for water
  • Kw 1.0 x 10-14 M2
  • Kw H OH-
  • FOR H2OKw 1.0 x 10-7 M1.0 x 10-7M
  • - there is an indirect relationship between H
    and OH-

5
Acid / Base Chemistry
  • Calculate OH- if H is 1.0 x 10-2 M
  • Kw H OH-
  • OH- Kw 1.0 x 10-14M2
  • H 1.0 x 10-2M
  • OH- 1.0 X 10 12 M

6
Acid / Base Chemistry
  • Calculate H if OH- is 6.5 x 10-11 M
  • Kw H OH-
  • H Kw 1.0 x 10-14M2
  • OH- 6.5 x 10-11M
  • H
  • H will tell us if a soln is acidic or basic.

7
pH 1- 6 H 1.0 x 10 M 1.0 x 10 M H gt
OH-
Acidic solutions
-1
-6
pH 7 H OH- 1.0 x 10 M for both
Neutral solutions
-7
pH 8 -14 H 1.0 x 10 M 1.0 x 10 M H
lt OH-
Basic solutions
-8
-14
8
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9
Acid / Base Chemistry
  • If H 1.0 x 10-9M, will the solution be basic
    or acidic?
  • Basic
  • Why?
  • because the pH 9 and this solution contains less
    H than OH-

10
Acid / Base Chemistry
  • If OH- 2.63 x 10-4M, will the solution be
    basic or acidic or neutral?
  • Why?

11
Acid / Base Formulas
  • pH -log H
  • pOH -log OH-
  • pH pOH 14
  • H antilog (-pH)
  • OH- antilog (-pOH)
  • How to use the calculator!!
  • Calculate the pH of a solution with H 0.001
    M. Is this acidic, basic, or neutral?

12
Acid / Base Formulas
  • Calculate the pH of a solution with OH- 7.9 x
    10-3 M. Is this acidic, basic, or neutral?
  • Calculate the pH of a solution with H 4.2 x
    10-6 M. Acidic, basic, or neutral?
  • What is the OH-?

13
Acid / Base Formulas
  • A solution with a pH of 9.1 has what H?
  • 2nd log 9.1 ENTER
  • What is the OH-?
  • What is the pOH?

14
Scientists Who Define Acids / Bases
  • Arrhenius
  • Acids Any substance which releases H ion in
    water solution.
  • Bases Any substance which releases OH- ion in
    water solution.

15
Scientists Who Define Acids / Bases
  • Bronsted - Lowry
  • Acids Any substance which donates a proton.
  • Bases Any substance which accepts a proton.

16
Acids, Bases, and Their Conjugates
  • Water is amphoteric has basic acidic
    properties.
  • Conjugate Acid Substances formed in a reaction
    when a base gains a H
  • Conjugate Base Substances formed in a reaction
    when an acid donates H

17
Acids, Bases, and Their Conjugates
  • NH3 H2O --? NH4 OH-
  • HCl H2O ---gt

18
Acids, Bases, and Their Conjugates
  • CO3-2 H2O ---gt HCO3- OH-
  • Ca(OH)2 2HNO3 --gt Ca(NO3)2 2HOH

19
Identifying monoprotic, diprotic, and
triprotic monoprotic HCl H
Cl- diprotic H2SO4 H HSO4-1 HSO4-1
H SO4-2 triprotic H3PO4 H
H2PO4-1 H2PO4-1 H HPO4-2 HPO4-2
H PO4-3
20
Strengths of Acids and Bases
  • Strong acids and bases will completely dissociate
  • ex. HCl --gt H Cl-
  • The six strong acids - HCl, HBr,
  • HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4
  • All others are weak.
  • Strong Bases Groups I
  • and II with OH- except Be

21
Strengths of Acids and Bases
  • Weak acids and bases slightly dissociate
  • ex. HClO lt--gt ClO- H

22
Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes
  • Strong Electrolytes
  • - Compounds that conduct electricity in aqueous
    solution
  • - Substances that completely dissociate
  • - Strong acids and bases
  • - Soluble salts

23
Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes
  • Weak Electrolytes
  • - Slight electron conductivity
  • - Slight dissociation in aqueous
  • - Weak acids and bases
  • - Insoluble salts if in molten state

24
Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes
  • NonElectrolytes
  • - Dont conduct electricity
  • - No ions to carry current
  • - Organic, molecular

25
Examples of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
  • H2S03
  • weak acid/weak elect.
  • CsOH
  • strong base/strong elect.
  • HCl04
  • strong acid/strong elect.
  • C6H1206
  • nonelectrolyte- covalent, molecular, organic b/c
    carbon

26
Examples of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
  • Al(OH)3
  • weak base/weak electrolyte
  • HF
  • weak acid/weak electrolyte
  • CCl4
  • nonelectrolyte- molecular compound
  • NaN03
  • soluble salt/strong electrolyte
  • S03
  • acid anhydride/weak electrolyte

27
Neutralization Reactions
  • General Equation
  • Acid Base Salt Water
  • HCl NaOH NaCl HOH
  • Acid Base Salt Water

28
Neutralization Reactions
Titration Analytical method used to determine
the concentration of acids and bases in a
neutralization reaction.
29
  • Measured volume of an acid or base with unknown
    concentration. Put in Erlenmeyer.
  • Add a few drops of indicator to the Ernlenmeyer.
  • A measured volume of titrant is delivered into
    the flask through a buret (base or acid)
  • Concentration of the titrant is known Standard
    Solution.
  • Neutralization occurs when indicator is revealed
    ? End Point
  • Equivalence Point
  • MOL ACID MOL BASE

30
Titration Curve
31
Neutralization practice problems
  • What volume of calcium hydroxide in a 3.0 M
    solution is needed to neutralize 45.0 mL of 2.6 M
    perchloric acid?

32
Neutralization practice problems
  • 2. Determine the Ba(OH)2 solution if 300.0 mL
    was titrated to neutrality with 220.5 mL of 6.0 M
    solution of phosphoric acid?

33
  • Neutralization practice problems
  • What volume of calcium hydroxide in a 3.0 M
    solution is needed to neutralize 45.0 mL of 2.6 M
    perchloric acid?
  • G 45 mL
  • 2.6 M HCl04
  • 3.0 M Ca(OH)2
  • U ? vol Ca(OH)2

M CR M
vol mol mol vol
Ca(OH)2 HCl04 2 HOH Ca(Cl04)2 0.45 L HCl04 x
2.6 mol HCl04 x 1 mol Ca(OH)2 x 1 L Ca(OH)2
1 L Ca(OH)2 2 mol HCl04 3 mol
Ca(OH)2
2. Determine the Ba(OH)2 solution if 300.0 mL
was titrated to neutrality with
220.5 mL of 6.0 M solution of phosphoric
acid G 220.5 mL 6.0 M H3P04 300.0 mL
Ba(OH)2 U ? M Ba(OH)2
M CR
vol mol mol
3Ba(OH)2 2H3P04 Ba3(P04)2 6HOH 0.2205 L H3P04
x 6.0 mol H3P04 x 3 mol Ba(OH)2 1 L H3P04
2 mol H3P04 1.985 mol Ba(OH)2 1.985
mol Ba(OH)2 0.300L Ba(OH)2
6.62 M Ba(OH)2
34
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35
Dissociation examples
36
Acid/Base Chemistry
  • Hydrogen ion concentration H
  • Hydroxide ion concentration OH-
  • Pure HOH neutral substance.
  • Kw is constant for water. Kw 1E-14 M2

37
More Acid/Base Chemistry
  • Kw 1x10-7 M1x10-7 M (KwHOH-)
  • Most other substances are not neutral
  • Indirect relationships between H and OH-
  • H will tell us if solution is Acidic or basic.

38
Strengths of Acids and Bases
  • Strong Acids HCl, HI, HBr, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4
  • Strong Bases Groups I and II with OH- except Be

39
  • Identifying Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
  • Strong Electrolytes
  • compounds that conduct electricity in aqueous
    solutions
  • substance that completely dissociate
  • strong acids and bases
  • soluble salts
  • Weak Electrolytes
  • -slight electrical conduct
  • -slight dissociation in aqueous solution
  • -conducts in molten state
  • -weak acids and bases
  • -insoluble salts (if in molten state)
  • Nonelectrolytes
  • -dont conduct electricity
  • -no ions to carry current
  • -organic, molecular

40
Neutralization
  • Acid Base gt Salt H2O
  • Neutralization is found using titration
  • Titration Analytical method used to determine
    the concentration of acids, bases in a
    neutralization reaction.

41
Neutralization reactions
  • Products always end in a salt and water.
  • Acid Base Salt HOH
  • Titration- Analytical method used to determin the
    concentration of acids in a neutralization
    reaction.

42
Theory
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