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SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND THE ELDERLY

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Title: SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND THE ELDERLY Author: pat murphy Last modified by: yassin Created Date: 9/11/2008 11:43:12 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND THE ELDERLY


1
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
prevention
PATH 216 Mohamed M. B. Alnoor
2
Contents
  • Definitions
  • Symptoms and Signs of substance abuse
  • Initiation of substance use
  • Why do people use alcohol and
  • other drugs
  • Consequences of substance abuse
  • Risk factors Protective factors of
  • substance abuse
  • Prevention of substance abuse

3
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • Substance abuse is the behavior of excessive
    use of a substance


to modify or control mood or
state of mind in a manner that is illegal
or harmful to oneself or others.
4
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Potential consequences of abuse include
  • Accidents or injuries
  • Blackouts
  • Legal problems
  • Poor job performance
  • Family problems
  • Sexual behavior that increases the risk of
    HIV infection

5
Substance
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • The word substance in substance abuse, is any
    chemical agent (natural or artificial) that
    affects the mind and is abusively used .
  • Alcohol
  • Illegal street drugs
  • Addictive prescription and over the counter
    drugs.
  • Other mind altering substances , and
  • Tobacco.

6
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Symptoms and Signs
Abuse of alcohol and other drugs affects people
  • Emotionally
  • Behaviorally
  • Physically

7
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Symptoms and Signs
Emotional effects Aggression, burnout ,
anxiety, depression, paranoia and denial.
8
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Symptoms and Signs
Behavioral effects Slow reaction time ,
impaired coordination , slowed or slurred speech
, irritability , excessive talking , inability to
sit still , limited attention span and poor
motivation or lack of energy.
9
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Symptoms and Signs
Physical effects Weight loss, sweating ,
chills and smell of alcohol
10
tolerance
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • "Tolerance" describes changes in the way an
    addict reacts to a drug, where he needs more of
    the drug to get the same effect as before.

OR
  • When after repeated administration, increasingly
    larger doses of a drug must be administered to
    obtain the same effects with the original use.

11
Substance dependence
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
The physiological state of neuro-adaptation
produced by repeated administration of the drug,
necessitating continued administration to prevent
the appearance of the withdrawal syndrome
Alcoholism means alcohol dependence
12
Substance dependence
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
additional problems
  • Experiences withdrawal when not using.
  • Seems unable to stop.
  • Preoccupied by getting and using.
  • Tolerance(needs more to get the same effect).
  • Gives up important things in order to use.
  • Compulsions or cravings to keep using.
  • Rebound.

13
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
additional problems
  • withdrawal when not using.
    (The psychological and physiological reactions
    to abrupt cessation of a dependence-producing
    drug.)
  • Rebound.
  • The exaggerated expression of the original
    condition sometimes experienced by patients
    immediately after cessation of an effective
    treatment

14
Understanding Addiction
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
For 10 of people, abuse addiction.
Addiction to alcohol and other drugs is
  • Chronic
  • Progressive
  • Primary
  • Terminal/Permanent
  • Characterized by denial

15
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Basic components of disease model
Chronic Once you have developed an addiction
problem to deal with it, recovery requires life
long abstinence and active participation in
recovery groups.
16
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Progressive There are signs and symptoms of
ddiction, no known cure, affecting every area of
a the addict's life physical, mental, emotional,
and spiritual. Addiction gets worse over time -
can be gradual or rapid, depending on the drug.
Repeated use causes progressive damage.
17
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
. Primary It is the main problem that needs to
be treated, not secondary to something else.
. Terminal/Permanent once addicted to a drug,
always addicted and to all drugs, not just the
drug of choice. If not stopped, often leads to
disease and possibly death.
18
Definitions
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Denial The user often seems to be the last to
know that his life is out of control. There are
effective strategies employed by professionals
for helping to break through this denial, which
must be overcome before treatment can take place.
19
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Initiation of substance use Internationally
  • Smoking is the ENTERANCE
  • Risk to move on to marijuana is 65 times greater
    for persons who smoke or drink
  • Risk to move on to cocaine is 104 times greater
    for persons who used marijuana
  • The more risk factors someone has the greater
    likelihood to use substances.

20
use
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
people use alcohol and
other drugs
Ways that
  • Experimentation
  • Social/Recreational
  • As a stress reliever

21
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
people use alcohol and other drugs
Why do
  • Substance use as outlet for emotional
  • and physical stressors in life
  • Financial and work problems
  • Used to boost self image.
  • Used to fit in/be accepted
  • Insufficient knowledge about drugs and their
    effects

22
Consequences
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
In addition to effects on the body, other
consequences occur at
  • individual level
  • family level
  • community level.

23
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
At individual level Aggressiveness, injuring
himself or others, driving harming himself and
others, infections at injection sites or blood
borne (hepatitis B and C, and HIV), smoking
leading to lung cancer and life revolves around
substance use
24
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
. At family level Money on substance leads to
family conflicts, family conflict becomes
destructive emotionally and/or physically, money
on substance replace other family needs and
money on substance use treatment drains family
resources.
25
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
. At community level To get money, substance
abusers may steal, use violence or engage in
crime, drug syndicates may commit violent crimes
and/or recruit youth for illegal activities and
violence and illegal activity that may harm
individuals and/or create a climate of mistrust.
26
RISK FACTORS
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Who uses substance ?
FACTORS
PROTECTIVE FACTORS
27
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • Risk factors Factors associated with greater
    potential to use substances
  • Chaotic home environment.
  • Ineffective parenting.
  • Little mutual attachment and nurturing.
  • Parental/sibling substance abuse or mental
    illness.
  • 5. Academic failure

28
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
. 6. Inappropriate/shy classroom behavior. 7.
Poor social coping skills. 8. Perceived
external approval of drug use(peer,
family, community). 9. Affiliations with deviant
persons
29
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • Protective factorsFactors associated with
    reduced potential to use substances
  • Strong family bonds.
  • Parental engagement in child's life.
  • Clear parental expectations consequences.
  • Academic success.
  • Conventional norms about drugs and alcohol.
  • Strong bonds with pro-social institutions
    (School, Community, Mosque).

30
PREVENTION
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • Primary prevention
  • Secondary prevention
  • Tertiary prevention

31
PREVENTION
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Primary prevention
To prevent initiation of substance use or
delaying the age at which use begins.
TWO STRATEGIES
  • 1- to reduce supply
  • 2- to reduce demand

32
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Primary prevention
Actions aimed to reduce supply (based on the
principle that the decreased availability of
substances reduces the opportunities for abuse
and dependence).
Actions aimed to reduce demand (including
health promotion and disease prevention).
33
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
To reduce demand
RISK FACTORS
PROTECTIVE FACTORS
34
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Secondary prevention
To target individuals in the early stages of
psychoactive substance use, in order to prevent
substance use becoming a problem and thereby
limit the degree of damage to the individual.
35
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Tertiary prevention
To end dependence and minimize problems resulting
from use/abuse. This is to enable the individual
to achieve and maintain an improved level of
functioning and health.
This is also called rehabilitation and
relapse prevention.  
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