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The War of Spanish Succession 1701-1713

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England gained the trading rights to Africa and now controlled slave trade from Spain. Absolutism in England (1603-1688) James I (Stuart) (1603-1625) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The War of Spanish Succession 1701-1713


1
The War of Spanish Succession 1701-1713
  • Causes
  • Charles II of Spain (Hapsburg) was mentally
    defective and sexually impotent.
  • He died and left Louis XIV grandson the king of
    Spain.

2
The Grand Alliance
  • England, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians formed
    an alliance to put Louis in check.
  • They did this maintain a Balance of Power
    within Europe.

3
Peace of Utrecht
  • European Effects
  • Louis Grandson remained on throne in Spain.
  • Spain was completely defeated now.
  • Ended French expansionalism in North America
  • England reaped the glory!
  • International Effects
  • France surrendered Nova Scotia, New Foundland,
    Hudson Bay.
  • England gained the trading rights to Africa and
    now controlled slave trade from Spain.

4
Absolutism in England (1603-1688)
5
James I (Stuart) (1603-1625)
  • Complete believer in the divine right monarchy
  • No use for Parliament and has absolute power
  • Millenary Petition - petition given to James as
    soon as he reached the capital signed by 1,000
    churchmen.
  • No popery and no bishops
  • Gunpowder Plot - plot by Catholics to assassinate
    king and Parliament whose discovery raised a lot
    of anti-Catholic sentiment in England.

6
  • Foreign Policy under James I
  • Stayed out of Thirty Years War Protestants were
    unhappy..
  • Tried to make peace with Spain offered his son,
    Charles I, to marry a Spanish princess.

7
Charles I (1625-1649)
8
Problems with Parliament
  • Charles appeared to be sympathetic to
    Catholicism married Henrietta-Marie of France..
  • The Right to Petition (1628)
  • Due Process of Law
  • No taxation w/o Parliaments consent
  • Charles imposed the ship tax (all trade goods
    that were on British ships) everyone was taxed.
  • Tried to impose the Anglican Prayer Book on
    Scotland.
  • Charles needed money to put down a Scottish
    rebellion called Parliament for money (1640)

9
Road to Civil War
  • Charles I summoned Parliament to raise taxes..
    (on a couple of conditions)
  • Executing the Kings ministers Laud and
    Strafford.
  • Abolishing the Courts of High Commission and Star
    Chamber.
  • Taxes cant be levied without Parliament.
  • Parliament cant be dissolved.
  • Parliament has to be called every 3 years
    (Triennial Act)

10
The English Civil War
  • Roundheads
  • Mostly Middle-class
  • From towns
  • From Southeastern England
  • Many were Puritans
  • Cavaliers
  • Anglicans and Catholics
  • Rural squires Land owners
  • Nobility
  • The North and Midlands

Watch Cromwell
11
The New Model Army
  • Issues of the Civil War
  • Absolutism vs. Constitutionalism
  • Rule of Law vs. Rule of Man
  • Oliver Cromwell and Sir Thomas Fairfax were in
    charge of the New Model Army.

12
England under a dictatorship
  • Charles was put on trial for murder and treason
    and beheaded on Jan. 30, 1649.
  • The army ruled Parliament Rump Parliament
  • England became a Common Wealth (monarchy
    abolished)
  • Parliament becomes corrupt internally..

13
Rule under Cromwell
  • Ruled as Lord Protector (Religious Dictator) of
    The Common Wealth
  • Religious toleration for all (except Catholics)
  • Closed theaters, pubs, banned cards, forbid music
    and dance.
  • Issued the Navigation Act (all British goods must
    be on British ships)

14
The Restoration (monarchy restored)
  • 1660 Charles II returns to England (1660-1685)
  • Brings fashion, and French culture back from
    France
  • Parliament reaffirms Petition of Right
  • Adds Test Act (1673) No Catholics shall hold
    office in Parliament
  • Charles agrees to re-Catholicize England in
    secret with Louis XIV

15
James II (1685-1688)
  • Openly admitted that his first task was to
    convert England back to Catholicism (moron)
  • Conversion methods
  • Appointed many Catholic leaders to high army
    positions, judgeships, and local govt.
    (violation of Test Act)
  • James issued a declaration of indulgence granting
    religious freedom to all.

16
Signals of another Civil War
  • Two events
  • James imprisoned bishops because they would not
    read the declaration.
  • James 2nd wife gave birth to a son fear of
    Catholic dynasty.

17
The Glorious Revolution (1688)
  • James daughter, Mary, (protestant) was asked to
    take the throne of England
  • Her husband, William of Orange, accepted and
    marched an army into London with open arms(some
    son-in-law!)
  • James and his family fled to France w/o anyone
    getting hurt! (Very Glorious!!)

18
Terms and Conditions
  • Act of Toleration Granted religious freedom
    (except Catholics, Jews, and Unitarians.
  • Sign the Bill of Rights
  • Triennial Act reinforced
  • No standing army in peacetime (learned lesson
    from Cromwell)
  • Laws made by Parliament and could not be rejected
    by monarchy
  • Established Parliament as supreme power
    Constitutional Monarchy!

19
The Stuart Family Tree
20
The Dutch Republic
  • 7 provinces won their independence from Spain in
    the Treaty of Westphalia (Republic of United
    Provinces of the Netherlands)
  • 17th century was Golden Age of the Netherlands
  • Science, art, and literature flourished.
  • Practiced religious toleration as long they did
    it in private.
  • Persecuted Jews, Catholics, and Protestants
    sought refuge and economic prosperity followed.
  • Fishing Industry and Trade were the center of the
    economy (herring) in Amsterdam

21
(No Transcript)
22
The Dutch Prosper
  • The Dutch East India Company (1602) joint-stock
    company allowed investors to pool their money and
    gain returns on trade.
  • Trade and commerce allowed the Dutch to have the
    highest standard of living in Europe by
  • Building granaries (store food in case of bad
    season)
  • High salaries for workers (even women)
  • Very few riots (peaceful times internally)
  • Plenty of work

23
The Decline of the Dutch
  • War with England and France in the 1670s hurt
    economy
  • The War of Spanish Succession (Grand Alliance)
  • William III of England (a.k.a. William of Orange)
    wages war on Louis XIV.
  • Drains Dutch labor, and financial resources
    start of economic decline
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