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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution

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Title: The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution


1
The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution
2
AMERICAN GROWTH AND PROGRESS
  • Population growth
  • 1800 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861
  • 13 states to 33 states by 1861
  • Expansion of cities
  • Flow of Immigration 1830s to 1860s
  • Why? Potato famine and European problem
  • Irish
  • German 48ers
  • Hated by Nativists
  • 3. Transformation of American Industry
  • Industrial Revolution why?
  • American System
  • Sectionalism
  • Industrial pioneers

3
Westward Movement
  • Americans marched quickly toward west
  • very hard w/ disease loneliness
  • Frontier people were individualistic,
    superstitious ill-informed
  • Westward movement molded environment
  • tobacco exhausted land
  • Kentucky blue grass thrived

4
Population Growth from 1620 to 1860
5.3 million
5
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9
City growth
Westward expansion Growth of cities and states
by 1850
10
The March of the Millions
  • High birthrate accounted for population growth
  • Population doubling every 25 years
  • Near 1850s, millions of Irish, German came
  • Beginning in 1830, immigration in the US soared

11
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12
IMMIGRATION
13
Irish Immigration
  • Irish Potato Famine 1845-1849
  • Main ports of entry New York, Philadelphia,
    Baltimore, and Boston
  • Irish were too poor to move inland and farm so
    they stayed in the cities
  • Boston did not particularly like the Irish
    catholic, illiterate, poor
  • No Irish need apply!
  • Ancient Order of Hibernians
  • Benevolent society to help Irish
  • Spawned Molly Maguires (miners union)
  • Gradually improved and became active politically
  • NYs Tammany Hall, Irish political machine

14
German Immigration
  • Most Germans came due to crop failures
  • Germans better off than Irish, came west, many to
    Wisconsin
  • A few were political refugees from collapse of
    democratic revolutions in 1848
  • German contributions include Kentucky rifle,
    Christmas tree, kindergarten, and abolitionists
  • Some Americans were suspicious because they tried
    to preserve language, culture and lived in
    separate communities, and drank beer

15
Sources of Immigration, 1820-40
16
Sources of Immigration, 1840-60
17
IMMIGRATION
  • Settlements of Immigrants
  • Irish in Northeastern cities New York and
    Boston
  • Germans would settle in Midwest

18
Early Nativism
  • American nativists feared 1840s 1850s
    invasion of immigrants
  • Took jobs, grew Roman Catholicism
  • Catholics built their own schools, were 1
    denomination by 1850
  • 1849 Nativists form Order of the Star-Spangled
    Banner, developed into Know-Nothing party
  • Wanted immigration restrictions
  • Nativists occasionally violent, burned Boston
    convent (1834)
  • Philadelphia Irish fought back, 13 killed in
    several days of fighting (1844)

19
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • A shift from goods made by hand to factory and
    mass production
  • Technological innovations brought production from
    farmhouse to factories
  • Invented in Britain in 1750 smuggled to U.S.
  • Beginning of US Factory System
  • US slow to embrace factory system
  • Scarce labor
  • Little capital
  • Superiority of British factories

20
AMERICAN SYSTEM
american system
  • Promote nationalism was internal improvements to
    unite the US.
  • Transportation system of roads, canals,
    steamships and rivers.
  • 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms
    of transportation
  • 1860, the railroad is added

Henry Clay, Congressmen from Kentucky
John C. Calhoun, US Senator from South Carolina
  • Provide economic growth
  • Americans buying American goods
  • American self-sufficiency.
  • Protective tariff (allows US factories to grow)
  • 2nd Bank of the United States
  • 3 Sections working together to build the country

21
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • NORTHEAST
  • Business and Manufacturing
  • Daniel Webster ____________
  • Wanted Tariffs
  • Backed internal improvements
  • Wanted end to cheap public land
  • Increasingly nationalistic
  • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must
    abolish it.

Economy Leader __________ Role of Government
22
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • SOUTH
  • Cotton growing
  • John C. Calhoun
  • _____________
  • Opposed tariffs and government spending on
    American System
  • Increasingly supportive of states rights
  • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S.
    Govt. to try and abolish it.

Economy Leader __________ Role of Government
23
SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • WEST
  • Frontier agriculture
  • Henry Clay
  • _____________
  • Supported internal improvements
  • Wanted cheap land
  • Loyal to the U.S. Govt.
  • Against slavery but some supported letting the
    people decide the slavery issue

Economy Leader __________ Role of Government
24
AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Population shift because of westward expansion
  • the West demanded transportation.
  • The Land Act of 1820, gave the West its wish by
    authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land
    at a minimum of 1.25 an acre in cash
  • Erie Canal started in 1817 and completed in 1825
  • NY Governor DeWitt Clinton built the Erie Canal
  • Connected New York City from Hudson River with
    the Great Lakes and the West
  • Clintons Big Ditch--------Other canals follow
  • Navigable rivers and the steamboat
  • the first steamboat on western waters was in
    1811.

25
Erie Canal System
26
Principal Canals in 1840
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29
Highways
AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Bad roads made transportation highly unreliable
  • The National Road begun in 1811 and completed by
    1832
  • Connected Maryland to Illinois.
  • Built by US government

30
Cumberland (National Road), 1811
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Conestoga Covered Wagons
Conestoga Trail, 1820s
33
  • Help unite the country as well as improve the
    economy and the infant industry.
  • Because of the British blockade during the War of
    1812, it was essential for internal
    transportation improvements.

34
The Railroad Revolution,1850s
  • 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant
    development toward national economy
  • Americans demanded transcontinental railroad to
    California.
  • Completed by 1869.

35
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36
Pioneer Railroad Promoters
  • 1800 to 1850 Roads, canals, navigable rivers
    with steamboats were the main modes of
    transportation.
  • 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant
    development toward national economy
  • Competition between Railroads and Canals
  • Obstacles
  • opposition from canal backers
  • danger of fire
  • poor brakes
  • difference in track gauge meant changing trains

37
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38
Map rr
39
Effects of the Transportation Revolution
  • 1860-61, Pony Express connected East-West
  • Telegraph instantly sent messages across US
  • Attraction of many large capital investments and
    encouraged risk taking in the US economy
  • People moved faster and country expanded
  • Unifying spirit among fellow country men
  • A need for a transcontinental railroad that
    connected east to west

40
  • Telegraph revolutionized communication
  • Would replace the Pony Express by 1861

41
Trails
TRAILS WESTWARD
42
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket,
    Rhode Island.
  • Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in
    British factories.
  • Slater came to US to make his fortune in the
    textile industry.
  • Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern
    industrial cotton mill of its day

Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American
Factory System."
43
Early Textile Loom
44
The Lowell Mills
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • Americans beat the British at their own game,
    made better factories
  • Francis C Lowell (a British traitor) came over
    here to build British factories met up with
    Boston mechanic, Paul Moody
  • Together they improved the mill and invented a
    power loom that revolutionized textile
    manufacturing

45
The Lowell System Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832
  • Young New England farm girls
  • Supervised on and off the job
  • Worked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day
  • Escorted to church on Sunday

46
Women the Economy
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • 1850 10 of white women working for pay outside
    home
  • Vast majority of working women were single
  • Left paying jobs upon marriage
  • Cult of domesticity
  • Cultural idea that glorifies homemaker
  • Empowers married women
  • Increased power independence of women in home
    led to decline in family size

47
Workers Wage Slaves
  • With industrial revolution, large impersonal
    factories surrounded by slums full of wage
    slaves developed
  • Long hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions,
    lack of heat, etc.
  • Labor unions illegal
  • 1820 1/2 of industrial workers were children
    under 10

48
Workers Wage Slaves
  • 1820s 1830s right to vote for laborers
  • Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved
    conditions
  • Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better
    conditions
  • 1830s 1840s Dozens of strikes for higher wages
    or 10-hour day
  • 1837 depression hurt union membership
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt
  • Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal
    conspiracies as long as they were peaceful

49
US FACTORY SYSTEM
  • 1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the
    North
  • Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills
    was a good working relationship.

50
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51
New Inventions "Yankee Ingenuity"
52
Resourcefulness Experimentation
  • Americans were willing to try anything.
  • They were first copiers, then innovators.

1800 ? 41 patents were approved. 1860 ? 4,357

53
ELI WHITNEY
The invention which changed the South, cotton and
slavery.
  • Eli Whitneys cotton gin revolutionized the
    cotton industry.
  • He is also noted for the concept of mass
    production and interchangeable parts by creating
    dyes for pistols and rifles.
  • Very important early pioneer in Americas
    industrial revolution.

Cotton Production
54
Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine
  • Cotton gin invented in 1793
  • 50 times more effective than hand picking
  • Raising cotton more profitable
  • South needs slavery more than ever for King
    Cotton
  • New England factories flourish with Southern
    cotton

55
ROBERT FULTON
  • 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first
    commercially successful and reliable
    steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water
    travel.
  • The steamboat was often the only mechanical means
    of river travel and freight transportation from
    1808 through 1930.

56
John Deere the Steel Plow
57
Cyrus McCormick the Mechanical Reaper
58
Samuel F. B. Morse
1840 Telegraph
WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT
59
Cyrus Field the Transatlantic Cable, 1858
60
Elias Howe Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine
Perfected by Singer Gave boost to northern
industry Became foundation for ready-made
clothing industry Led many women into factories
61
From left to right Eli Whitney (cotton gin,
interchangeable parts), Robert Fulton (steam
boat), Thomas Edison (light bulb), Cyrus
McCormick (reaper), Richard Hoe (automatic
printing press)
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