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Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

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Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders * * Figure 12.4: The Biopsychosocial Model of Schizophrenia - According to the biopsychosocial model of schizophrenia, people with ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders


1
Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders
2
Learning Outcomes
  • Define psychological disorders and describe their
    prevalence.
  • Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
    anxiety disorders.

3
Learning Outcomes
  • Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
    dissociative disorders.
  • Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
    somatoform disorders.

4
Learning Outcomes
  • Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
    mood disorders.
  • Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
    schizophrenia.
  • Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
    personality disorders.

5
What are Psychological Disorders?
6
Truth or Fiction?
  • A man shot the President of the United States in
    front of millions of television witnesses and was
    found not guilty by a court of law.

7
Truth or Fiction?
  • A man shot the President of the United States in
    front of millions of television witnesses and was
    found not guilty by a court of law.
  • TRUE!

8
Psychological Disorders
  • Characterized by
  • Rare or unusual behavior
  • Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality
  • Severe personal distress
  • Self-defeating behaviors
  • Dangerous behaviors
  • Socially unacceptable behaviors

9
Truth or Fiction?
  • Anxiety is abnormal.

10
Truth or Fiction?
  • Anxiety is abnormal.
  • FICTION!

11
Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
  • Demonological Model
  • Medical Model
  • Contemporary Psychological Models
  • Diathesis stress model
  • Biopsychosocial model

12
Classifying Psychological Disorders
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)
  • Includes information on medical conditions,
    psychosocial problems and global assessment of
    functioning
  • Concerns about reliability and validity of the
    standards
  • Predictive validity

13
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
  • About 50 of us will experience a psychological
    disorder at some time
  • Most often starts in childhood or adolescence
  • Slightly more than 25 will experience a
    psychological disorder in any given year

14
Insanity Plea
  • MNaghten rule
  • Defendant did not understand what he was doing at
    the time or did not realize it was wrong
  • Raised in about 1 of cases

15
Anxiety Disorders
16
Anxiety Disorders
  • Psychological features of anxiety
  • Worrying, fear of worst happening, fear of losing
    control, nervousness, inability to relax
  • Physical features of anxiety
  • Arousal of sympathetic branch of autonomic
    nervous system

17
Phobic Disorders
  • Specific phobias
  • Irrational fears of specific objects or
    situations
  • Social phobias
  • Persistent fears of scrutiny by others
  • Agoraphobia
  • Fear of being in places from which it would be
    difficult to escape or receive help

18
Panic Disorder
  • Abrupt attack of acute anxiety not triggered by a
    specific object or situation
  • Physical symptoms
  • Shortness of breath, heavy sweating, tremors,
    pounding of the heart
  • Other symptoms that may feel like a heart attack

19
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Persistent anxiety
  • Cannot be attributed to object, situation, or
    activity
  • Symptoms include
  • Motor tension
  • Autonomic overarousal
  • Excessive vigilance

20
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessions
  • Recurrent, anxiety-provoking thoughts or images
    that seem irrational and beyond control
  • Compulsions
  • Thoughts or behaviors that tend to reduce the
    anxiety connected with obsessions
  • Irresistible urges to engage in specific acts,
    often repeatedly

21
Stress Disorders
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Caused by a traumatic event
  • May occur months or years after event
  • Acute stress disorder
  • Unlike PTSD, occurs within a month of event and
    lasts 2 days to 4 weeks

22
Sleep Problems Among Americans Before and After
September 11, 2001
23
Origins of Anxiety Disorders
  • Psychological
  • Phobias as conditioned fears
  • Cognitive bias toward focusing on threats
  • Biological
  • Genetic factors
  • Natural selection
  • Biopsychosocial

24
Dissociative Disorders
25
Dissociative Disorders
  • A splitting of mental processes such as thoughts,
    emotions, identity, memory, or consciousness

26
Types of Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • Suddenly unable to recall important personal
    information not due to biological problems
  • Dissociative Fugue
  • Abruptly leaves home or work and travels to
    another place, no memory of previous life

27
Types of Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Two or more identities, each with distinct
    traits, occupy the same person
  • Formerly known as multiple personality disorder

28
Origins of Dissociative Disorders
  • Learning/cognitive may have learned to not
    think about or keep disturbing ideas out of
    ones mind
  • Culture-bound to U.S. and Canada

29
Somatoform Disorders
30
Somatoform Disorders
  • Physical problems (such as paralysis, pain, or
    persistent belief of serious disease) with no
    evidence of a physical abnormality

31
Conversion Disorder
  • Major change in, or loss of, physical
    functioning, although there are no medical
    findings to explain the loss of functioning.
  • Not intentionally produced
  • la belle indifference

32
Hypochondriasis
  • Insistence of serious physical illness, even
    though no medical evidence of illness can be
    found
  • May seek opinion of one doctor after another

33
Origins of Somatoform Disorders
  • Biopsychosocial perspective
  • Psychologically, the disorder has to do with what
    one focuses on to the exclusion of conflicting
    information
  • Susceptible to being hypnotized
  • Tendencies toward perfectionism and rumination
    (heritable)

34
Mood Disorders
35
Mood Disorders
  • Characterized by disturbance in expressed emotions

36
Types of Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest,
    feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and inability
    to concentrate
  • About 50 of those with MDD experience severe
    symptoms
  • Poor appetite, weight loss, agitation,
    psychomotor retardation

37
Truth or Fiction?
  • Feeling elated is not always a good thing.

38
Truth or Fiction?
  • Feeling elated is not always a good thing.
  • TRUE!

39
Types of Mood Disorders
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Mood swings from ecstatic elation to deep
    depression
  • Manic behaviors
  • Argumentative, rapid flight of ideas,
  • Depressive behaviors
  • Lethargy, insomnia

40
Origins of Mood Disorders
  • Psychological
  • Learning theorists
  • Lack reinforcement and have an external locus of
    control
  • Learned helplessness
  • Cognitive
  • Perfectionism and unrealistic expectations
  • Attributional styles

41
Origins of Mood Disorders
  • Biological
  • Genetics neuroticism
  • Neurotransmitter - serotonin
  • Biopsychosocial
  • Biologically predisposed
  • Self-efficacy expectations
  • Attitudes

42
Women and Depression
  • Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with
    depression
  • Begins to emerge in adolescence
  • During childbearing years more likely to
    develop depression
  • Origins
  • Role of estrogen
  • Rumination
  • Demands placed on women

43
Suicide
  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death among
    15- to 24-year-olds

44
Risk Factors in Suicide
  • Feelings of depression, hopelessness
  • Adolescent psychological problems
  • Stressful life events exit events
  • Familial experience with psychological disorders
    and/or suicide

45
Sociocultural Factors in Suicide
  • More common among college students than people of
    the same age who do not attend college
  • Older people are more likely to commit suicide
    than teenagers
  • Suicide rate among older unmarried or divorced
    people is double that of older married people

46
Sociocultural Factors in Suicide
  • One in six Native Americans has attempted suicide
  • African Americans are least likely to attempt
    suicide
  • Three times as many females attempt suicide
  • Five times as many males succeed in suicide

47
Myths about Suicide
  • Individuals who fail at suicide are only seeking
    attention
  • Discussion of suicide prompts suicide attempts
  • People who would take their own lives are insane

48
Schizophrenia
49
Schizophrenia
  • Severe psychological disorder characterized by
    disturbances in
  • thought and language,
  • perception and attention,
  • motor activity,
  • mood,
  • withdrawal and absorption in fantasy

50
Positive Versus Negative Symptoms
  • Positive symptoms
  • Presence of inappropriate behaviors
  • Agitated behavior, hallucinations, delusions,
    disorganized thinking, nonsensical speech
  • Negative symptoms
  • Absence of appropriate behaviors
  • Flat, emotionless voices, blank faces, rigid,
    motionless bodies, mutism

51
Problems in Thinking and Language
  • Thought disorder
  • Thinking and communication become unraveled
  • Delusions
  • of grandeur
  • of persecution
  • of reference

52
Problems in Perception
  • Hallucinations
  • May be visual or auditory
  • Motor activity may become wild or slowed
  • Stupor

53
Truth or Fiction?
  • People with schizophrenia may see and hear things
    that are not really there.

54
Truth or Fiction?
  • People with schizophrenia may see and hear things
    that are not really there.
  • TRUE!

55
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Systematized delusions
  • Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • Incoherence extreme social impairment
  • Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • Motor impairment waxy flexibility

56
Explaining Schizophrenia
  • Psychological
  • Behaviorists conditioning and observational
    learning
  • Sociocultural
  • Socioeconomic class

57
Explaining Schizophrenia
  • Biological
  • Brain differences
  • Heredity
  • Complications during pregnancy and birth
  • Birth during winter
  • Dopamine theory of schizophrenia

58
Average Rates of Loss of Gray Matter Among Normal
Adolescents and Adolescents Diagnosed with
Schizophrenia
59
Relationship to a Person Diagnosed with
Schizophrenia and Likelihood of Being Diagnosed
with Schizophrenia Oneself
60
Explaining Schizophrenia
  • Biopsychosocial perspective
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Genetic vulnerability interacts with other factors

61
The Biopsychosocial Model of Schizophrenia
62
Personality Disorders
63
Personality Disorders
  • Characterized by enduring patterns of behavior
    that are maladaptive and inflexible
  • Impair personal or social functioning
  • Source of distress

64
Types of Personality Disorders
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Interpret others behavior as threatening or
    demeaning
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  • Peculiarities of thought, perception, or behavior
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Indifference to relationships and flat emotional
    response

65
Truth or Fiction?
  • Some people can kill or maim others without any
    feelings of guilt.

66
Truth or Fiction?
  • Some people can kill or maim others without any
    feelings of guilt.
  • TRUE!

67
Types of Personality Disorders
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Instability in relationships, self-image, and
    mood
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Persistently violate the law
  • Show no guilt or remorse and are largely
    undeterred by punishment
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Avoid relationships for fear of rejection

68
Origins of Personality Disorders
  • Biological
  • Genetic factors
  • Personality traits that may be inherited
  • Antisocial personality less gray matter in
    prefrontal cortex

69
Explaining Personality Disorders
  • Psychological
  • Learning theory
  • Childhood experiences
  • Cognitive
  • Misinterpretation of other peoples behaviors
  • Sociocultural
  • Borderline personality may reflect the
    fragmented society in which one lives
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