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History of Psychology

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History of Psychology Chapter 13 Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings I. The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of Psychology A. 1895 1. formal beginning of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Psychology


1
History of Psychology
  • Chapter 13
  • Psychoanalysis The Beginnings

2
I. The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of
Psychology
  • A. 1895
  • 1. formal beginning of psychoanalysis
  • 2. Wundt age 63
  • 3. Titchener age 28
  • 4. functionalism just beginning to flourish
  • 5. Watson age 17
  • 6. Wertheimer age 15

3
The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of
Psychology
  • B. 1939
  • 1. Freuds death
  • 2. Wundtian psychology, structuralism, and
    functionalism were history
  • 3. Gestalt psychology in the process of
    transplantation
  • 4. behaviorism was dominant

4
The Place of Psychoanalysis in the History of
Psychology
  • C. Psychoanalysis
  • 1. not a school of thought directly comparable to
    the others
  • 2. subject matter is abnormal behavior
  • 3. primary method is clinical observation
  • 4. deals with the unconscious

5
II. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The Development
of Psychoanalysis
  • A. Background
  • 1. born in Freiberg, Moravia (Pribor, Czech
    Republic), and then moved to Vienna.
  • 2. Father strict and authoritarian
  • Mother protective and loving
  • 3. Personality self-confidence, ambition, desire
    for achievement

6
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 4. Darwins theory awakened his interest in the
    scientific approach
  • 5. 1873 began study of medicine at U. of Vienna
  • a. 8 years to get his degree
  • b. initially concentrated on biology
  • c. moved to physiology the spinal cord of the
    fish

7
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 6. cocaine
  • a. used cocaine until at least his middle age
  • b. 1884 paper on cocaines beneficial uses
    published
  • 7. 1881 MD degree, began practice as a clinical
    neurologist

8
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • B. The case of Anna O.
  • 1. Josef Breuer (1842-1935)
  • Helped Freud. Breuer was a father-figure to
    Freud.
  • Worked together
  • 2. Anna O.
  • a. 21 years old
  • b. wide range of hysterical symptoms
  • c. symptoms first manifested while nursing her
    dying father

9
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • d. Breuer began with hypnosis
  • 1) Anna referred to their conversation as
    "chimney sweeping" and "the talking cure
  • 2) recalled disturbing experiences under hypnosis
  • 3) reliving the experiences under hypnosis
    reduced the symptoms
  • e. positive transference
  • f. Anna O. not cured by Breuer
  • g. case introduced Freud to the method of
    catharsis

10
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • C. Sex and free association
  • 1. 1885 Freud received a grant to study with
    Charcot
  • a. trained in hypnosis to treat hysteria
  • b. Charcot alerted Freud to the role of sex in
    hysteria
  • 2. Freud became dissatisfied with hypnosis
  • a. a long-term cure not effected
  • b. patients vary in ability to be hypnotized

11
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • c. retained catharsis as a treatment method
  • d. developed the method of free association
  • 3. Freuds system
  • a. goal bring repressed memories into conscious
    awareness
  • b. repressed memories the source of abnormal
    behavior

12
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 4. free association material
  • a. the experiences recalled are predetermined
  • b. the nature of the conflict forces the material
    out
  • c. its roots were in early childhood
  • d. much of it concerned sexual matters

13
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • D. The break with Breuer
  • 1. 1895 Studies on Hysteria (Breuer and Freud)
  • a. the formal beginning of psychoanalysis
  • b. the book was praised throughout Europe
  • 2. the conflicts
  • a. Freuds contention that sex sole cause of
    neurosis
  • b. Breuer felt Freud had insufficient evidence
  • 3. Breuer concerned with Freuds dogmatic
    attitudes

14
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • E. The childhood seduction controversy
  • 1. Freud believed a normal sex life precludes
    neuroses
  • 2. 1896 posited that childhood seduction traumas
    caused adult neurotic behavior
  • 3. the paper was received with skepticism

15
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 4. 1897 Freud reversed his position
  • a. the seduction scenes were fantasies
  • b. patients believed they were real experiences
  • c. sex remained the root of the problem
  • 5. 1984 Massons book

16
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 6. contemporary data on the incidence and
    prevalence of child sexual abuse
  • 7. whether Freud deliberately suppressed the
    truth is undetermined
  • 8. 1930s Ferenczi determined there were real
    acts of sexual abuse
  • 9. Freud led the opposition to Ferenczi

17
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • F. Self-analysis and the interpretation of dreams
  • 1. Freud
  • a. held a negative attitude toward sex
  • b. experienced sexual difficulties
  • 2. 1897
  • a. Freud gave up sex
  • b. he began his 2-year self-analysis of his own
    neurotic symptoms

18
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 5. He used method of dream analysis
  • a. He believed that everything has a cause
  • b. He conducted a personal dream analysis. He
    wrote down the dream stories and then free
    associated to the material

19
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 6. 1900 The Interpretation of Dreams
  • a. analyzing his own neurotic episodes and
    childhood experiences
  • b. outlined the Oedipus complex
  • 7. adopted dream analysis as standard technique

20
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • G. Recognition--
  • 1. 1901 The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
  • a. Freudian slips An act of forgetting or a
    lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives
    or anxieties
  • 2. 1902 began weekly discussion group with
    students
  • a. included Jung and Adler
  • b. Freud tolerated no disagreement about the role
    of sexuality

21
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • 3. 1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
  • 4. 1909 Clark U. lectures honorary doctorate in
    psychology
  • a. 1909/1910 publication of the Clark lectures
    in the American Journal of Psychology
  • b. Americana accept idea of unconscious mind

22
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • H. Freuds final years
  • 1. 1923 diagnosis of cancer, followed by 33
    surgeries in 16 years
  • 2. 1933 public burning of Freuds books by the
    Nazis
  • 3. 1934 Nazi destroyed psychoanalysis in Germany
  • 4. 1938
  • a. Anna Freud arrested and detained by the Nazis
  • b. move to Paris, then London
  • 5. 1939 his doctor administered an overdose of
    morphine over 1 24-hour period

23
III. Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • A. Resistances
  • A blockage to disclose painful memories during a
    free-association session
  • B. Repression
  • The process of baring unacceptable ideas.
    Memories, or desires from conscious awareness,
    leaving them to operate in the unconscious mind

24
IV. Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • C. Transference
  • The process by which a patient responds to the
    therapist as if the therapists were a significant
    person (such as a parent) in the patients life
  • D. Dream analysis
  • 1. A psychotherapeutic technique involving
    interpreting dreams to uncover unconscious
    conflicts
  • 2. dreams represent disguised satisfaction of
    repressed desires

25
Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • 3. The essence of a dream is the fulfillment of
    ones wishes
  • 4. Patients describe dream, they express their
    forbidden desires (latent dream content) in
    symbolic form.
  • 5. not all dreams are caused by emotional
    conflicts

26
Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
  • E. No passion for helping
  • 1. little personal interest in his system's
    potential therapeutic value
  • 2. goal the explanation of the dynamics of human
    behavior
  • 3. viewed the techniques of association and dream
    analysis as research tools for data collection
  • 4. his passion was the research

27
V. Freuds Method of Research
  • A. Freuds position
  • 1. little faith in the experimental approach
  • 2. believed his work was scientific
  • 3. believed his cases and self-analysis provided
    ample support

28
Freuds Method of Research
  • B. The evidence
  • 1. formulated, revised, and extended
  • 2. with Freud as the sole interpreter
  • 3. guided by his own critical abilities
  • 4. insisted only psychoanalysts could judge his
    works scientific worth
  • 5. rarely responded to his critics

29
VI. Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • A. Instincts
  • 1. Mental representations of internal stimuli
    (such as hunger) that motivate personality and
    behavior

30
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 2. the life instincts
  • a. self-preservation and survival of the species
  • b. manifested in libido
  • Libido the psychic energy that drives a person
    toward pleasurable thoughts and behaviors
  • 3. the death instinct
  • a. a destructive force
  • b. can be directed inward (suicide) or outward
    (aggressive)
  • c. only when a death became a personal concern

31
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • B. Conscious and unconscious aspects of
    personality
  • 1. conscious
  • a. small and insignificant
  • b. a superficial aspects of the total personality
  • 2. Unconscious
  • a. vast and powerful
  • b. contains the instincts

32
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 3. Later, Freud replaced the conscious/unconscious
    distinction with the concept of id, ego, and
    superego.
  • id (Es)
  • a. corresponds to earlier unconscious
  • b. the most primitive and least accessible part
    of personality
  • c. includes sexual and aggressive instincts
  • d. followed pleasure principle
  • 1) reduces tension
  • 2) methods seeks pleasure and avoids pain

33
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 4. ego (Ich)
  • a. The rational aspect of personality
    responsibility for controlling the instinct
  • b. is aware of reality and regulates id
  • c. followed the reality principle
  • Holding off the ids pleasure-seeking demands
    until a appropriate object can be found to
    satisfy the need and reduce the tension

34
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 5. superego (Uber-Ich)
  • a. the moral aspect of personality derived from
    internalizing parental and societal values and
    standards.
  • b. represent morality
  • c. behavior is determined by self-control,
    postpone id satisfaction to more appropriate
    times and spaces or inhibit id completely

35
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • C. Anxiety
  • 1. indicates ego is stressed or threatened
  • 2. three types
  • a. objective fear of actual dangers
  • b. neurotic fear of punishment
  • c. moral fear of ones conscience

36
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • D. Psychosexual stages of personality development
  • 1. one of the first to emphasize the importance
    of child development
  • 2. personality pattern almost complete by age 5

37
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
  • 3. psychosexual stages marked by autoeroticism
  • a. oral sensual satisfaction, oral personality
  • b. anal toilet training dirty/neat, clean
  • c. phallic attitudes toward the opposite sex
    develop
  • d. latency

38
VII. Relations Between Psychoanalysis and
Psychology
  • A. Psychoanalysis outside the mainstream
  • 1. 1924 Journal of Abnormal Psychology
  • a. complaints about the number of papers on the
    unconscious
  • b. at least 20 years few articles on
    psychoanalysis accepted for publication

39
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • B. Criticisms by academic psychologists
  • Psychoanalysis was a product of the undeveloped
    German mind
  • C. Psychology textbooks
  • 1. early 1920s books included some of Freuds
    ideas
  • 2. as a whole, psychoanalysis was ignored

40
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • D. 1930s and 1940s psychoanalysis
  • 1. popular with the general public
  • 2. a serious competitor of experimental
    psychology

41
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • E. The academics response
  • 1. experimental tests of concepts of
    psychoanalysis
  • a. psychoanalysis was inferior to a psychology
    based on experimentation
  • b. academic psychology could be relevant to the
    public interest because it was studying the same
    things as the psychoanalysts

42
Relations Between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
  • 2. 1950s and 1960s
  • a. translation of psychoanalytic concepts into
    behavioristic terms
  • E.g., emotions? habits neurotic behavior? the
    result of faulty conditioning.
  • b. psychology incorporated many of Freuds
    concepts
  • e.g., unconsciousness, childhood experiences,
    defense mechanism

43
IX. Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • A. In general
  • 1. Freuds methods of data collection
  • a. unsystematic and uncontrolled
  • b. data consisted of what Freud recollected
  • c. Freud may have reinterpreted patients words

44
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • d. Freud may have recalled and recorded primarily
    the material consistent with his theses
  • e. there exist discrepancies between Freuds
    notes and the published case histories
  • f. Freud destroyed most of his data (patient
    files)

45
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • g. just 6 case histories were published and none
    provides compelling support
  • h. undisclosed method for deriving inferences and
    generalizations
  • i. data not amenable to quantification or
    statistical analysis

46
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 2. Freud often contradicted himself
  • 3. Freuds definitions of key concepts unclear
  • 4. Freuds views on women
  • Women have poorly developed superego and
    inferiority feelings about their body

47
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 5. the emphasis on biological forces, especially
    sex, as the determinant of personality
  • a. the denial of free will
  • b. the focus on past behavior and exclusion of
    ones hopes and goals
  • 6. the theory is based on neurotics, not on
    normals

48
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • B. The scientific validation of psychoanalytic
    concepts
  • 1. an analysis of about 2000 studies from several
    disciplines support
  • a. some characteristics of oral and anal
    personality types
  • b. the notion that dreams reflect emotional
    concerns
  • c. certain aspects of the Oedipus complex in boys

49
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 2. the analysis did not support
  • a. that dreams satisfy symbolically repressed
    desires and wishes
  • b. that fear is the motive for boys resolution
    of the Oedipus complexes
  • c. several ideas about women (women have an
    inferior conception of their bodies, less severe
    superego standards than men

50
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
  • 3. later research
  • a. supports notion that unconscious processes
    influence thoughts and behavior
  • b. does not support that personality is set by
    age 5.
  • Now?personality continues to develop over time
    and can change dramatically after childhood.
  • c. indicates Freuds ideas about instincts are
    not a useful model of human motivation

51
X. Contributions of Psychoanalysis
  • 1. The experimental method is not the sole method
    for discovery
  • 2. A strong impact on American academic
    psychology and popular culture
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