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Calorie and protein needs

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Title: Protein Author: D Last modified by: Diana Wright Created Date: 10/23/2005 8:28:58 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Calorie and protein needs


1
Calorie and protein needs
  • I need ______g of protein/day.
  • List 3 factors that you think influence protein
    needs.
  • I need _____calories/day
  • List 3 factors that you think influence calorie
    needs.
  • What are your primary sources of protein?

2
Calorie and protein needs
  • I need ______calories/day.
  • List 3 factors that you think influence calorie
    needs.
  • Age, health, activity, genetics, BMR, gender
  • I need _____grams of protein/day
  • List 3 factors that you think influence protein
    needs.
  • Age, health, activity, protein quality, overall
    dietary intake, genetics???
  • What are your primary sources of protein?

3
The grams of protein needed by most is half our
weight in pounds. We get this from plant or
animal sources.
8 g/Cup soy milk
7-8 g in an egg
7-8 g per ½ C beans
7-8 g/oz meat or cheese
4
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5
  • Question of the Day
  • You have met your daily calorie and glucose
    needs. Plus, you have exceeded your protein need
    by 20 gms. What will your body do with the extra
    protein?
  • Convert it into glycogen
  • Convert it into storage protein
  • Make it into fat
  • Excrete it in the urine
  • Store it as ATP

6
Protein Just One of the Essential Nutrients
Illustration 15.1, p. 15-2
7
Take it off its pedestal! Balance it with other
nutrients
Illustration 15.1, p. 15-2
8
Take it off its pedestal! Balance it with other
nutrients
Illustration 15.1, p. 15-2
9
Take it off its pedestal! Balance it with other
nutrients
Illustration 15.1, p. 15-2
10
Protein is
  • non-preferred glucose and nrg
  • source
  • In most foods except fats/oils
  • and fruit. Typical US diet is hi pro
  • made of _____ ____ (AA)
  • Twenty common AA
  • Nine essential (EAA)
  • Rest non-essential (NEAA)
  • All AAs contain nitrogen (an amino NH2 group)

11
Amino Acid (AA) Structure
  • Amino Group
    Acid Group
  • (NH2)
  • R group
  • Unique to each AA
  • If we cant make the R group,
  • then AA is essential

N is from the air we breathe
12
Amino Acids ? Protein
  • Chains of AAs make up proteins
  • AA type/order determine protein function
  • DNA
  • holds blueprint for type/order of AAs
  • is located in _____ of cell
  • codes for ALL body proteins
  • Part of DNA turned on, depends on cells job
  • Gene DNA segment that codes for specific protein
    (i.e. Insulin, thyroxine, enzymes, etc.)

13
Protein on the Job
  • Enzymes
  • Some Hormones

Insulin
14
Protein on the Job
  • Enzymes
  • Some Hormones
  • Transporters (Hgb)
  • Antibodies
  • Blood clotting proteins
  • Water balance

Insulin
15
Protein on the Job
  • Enzymes
  • Some Hormones
  • Transporters (Hgb)
  • Antibodies
  • Blood clotting proteins
  • Water balance
  • Part of muscles, organs, connective tissue
  • Non-preferred job of protein? energy
  • ? glucose

16
  • Top priorities of body
  • 1. Energy
  • 2. Glucose
  • When needed, protein is used for nrg or glucose,
    before used to make body proteins.

17
Points to ponder about protein
  • A chicken thigh is mostly ____ by weight.
  • Protein is absorbed into the blood as______.
  • A protein supplement is needed to build muscle.
  • Low protein intake is common in the US?
  • Where does the nitrogen in protein come from?
  • How does restricting carbs impact protein need?
  • Why is protein a NON-preferred fuel?
  • What are some consequences of a high protein
    diet?

18
Excess diet protein-consequences
  • Amino group must be excreted in urine
  • Increase need for water
  • Extra kidney work
  • Saturated fat?
  • Remainder of AA is converted to
  • Glucose if needed
  • Body fat if extra calories

19
How much protein do we store?
  • Body nrg stores of 70 kg/154 lb male
  • Fuel Type Fat calories stored
  • 10 body fat 20 body fat
  • Fat 63,000 126,000
  • Glycogen
  • liver 300-400 300-400
  • muscle 1200-1600 1200-160
  • Glucose 100 100

20
Protein is NOT stored!!!
  • Body nrg stores of 70 kg/154 lb male
  • Fuel Type Fat calories stored
  • 10 body fat 20 body fat
  • Fat 63,000 126,000
  • Glycogen
  • liver 300-400 300-400
  • muscle 1200-1600 1200-160
  • Glucose 100 100

21
  • Question of the Day
  • You have met your daily calorie and glucose
    needs. Plus, you have exceeded your protein need
    by 20 gms. What will your body do with the extra
    protein?
  • Convert it into glycogen
  • Convert it into storage protein
  • Make it into fat
  • Excrete it in the urine
  • Store it as ATP

22
  • What might be some problems due to inadequate
  • protein intake?
  • Hint Review the jobs of protein in the body

23
Review Jobs of protein
  • Enzymes
  • Some Hormones
  • Transporters (Hgb)
  • Antibodies
  • Blood clotting proteins
  • Water balance
  • Part of muscles, organs, connective tissue
  • Non-preferred use of protein? glucose
  • ? energy

Insulin
24
Protein Deficiency Diseases
  • Kwashiorkor
  • Marasmus

25
Kwashiorkor
  • Inefficient use of protein and fat
  • Bloated belly
  • Edema - abnormal storage of water in body

26
Marasmus
  • Primary form of malnutrition globally
  • Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM)
  • Less developed countriesstarvation
  • Developed countries..anorexic, cancer patients,
    end stage AIDS
  • Emaciated appearance

27
Do you need to change your answer?
  • Assume
  • You have met your daily calorie needs.
  • You have exceeded your protein need by 20 gms.
  • What will your body do with the extra protein.
  • Convert it into glycogen
  • Convert into a storage protein
  • Make it into fat and energy
  • Make it into carbohydrate
  • Store it as ATP

28
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29
Protein is used to make.
  • ATP .if needed
  • glucose..if needed
  • Excessstored as fat!

Sorry, extra protein calories ARE NOT stored as
protein!
30
Carbs spare protein!
  • Sources of glucose
  • Body Source
  • Blood glucose
  • Liver and muscle glycogen
  • Runner up.working body proteins
  • Food Sources
  • Preferred sourcecarbohydrates
  • Runner Up.protein
  • Lipid/Alcohol ??gt glucose

31
NH2 How do we get this?
  • Air contains N, but not in the form we need to
    make protein
  • Plants (with bacterial help) fix N
  • from the air into NH2 to make AAs
  • We eat plants (and/or animals
  • that ate the plant) to get NH2

32
How much protein do you need?

33
Protein RDA
  • The RDA for healthy adults
  • .4 g. prot./lb Ideal Body Weight (IBW)
  • .5-.75 recreational exercise
  • .6-.9 competitive exercise
  • VERY rarely gt 1.0 g. prot./lb IBW

Ideal weight x g. prot/pound protein need This
is the calculation you did using the Protein
Calorie Estimate hand-out.
34
Do you see a protein store listed?
Protein is not a stored form of energy
35
High protein diet risks/benefits?
  • Risks
  • Typically lower in fiber
  • If animal based protein, then high saturated fat
    and an expensive diet.
  • Requires higher water intake. Why?
  • Benefit
  • You wont be protein deficient!

36
Pair and Share
  • 1. What are body/food sources of glucose?
  • 2. What is thermogenesis?
  • 3. Is protein stored in the body?
  • 4. What might be the consequences of eating a
    high protein diet?
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