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Chapter 3 Ancient India and China

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Chapter 3 Ancient India and China 2600 B.C.- 550 A.D. Section 1- Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan Geography Subcontinent- a large landmass that juts out from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Ancient India and China


1
Chapter 3Ancient India and China
  • 2600 B.C.- 550 A.D.

2
Section 1- Early Civilizations of India and
Pakistan
  • Geography
  • Subcontinent- a large landmass that juts out from
    a continent
  • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal
    Bhutan
  • Mountains- Hindu Kush and Himalayas
  • Three zones- Gangetic Plain, Deccan plateau and
    the coastal plains
  • Monsoons- seasonal winds
  • October- blow from northeast
  • June- blow from southwest

3
Indus Civilization
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
  • Well planned cities
  • 3 miles in circumference
  • Well planned plumbing systems
  • Farmers and traders
  • Contact with Sumer
  • Writing is not related to Cuneiform
  • Polytheistic
  • Veneration for buffalo and bull
  • Sacred Cow

4
Decline 1900 B.C.
  • Cities abandoned
  • No more writing
  • Crude pottery
  • Flood?
  • Earthquake?
  • Attack?

5
Aryan Civilization
  • 2000 B.C.-1500 B.C. the Aryans migrated into
    India from southern Russia
  • Most of what we know about them comes from the
    Vedas
  • The Vedas are a collection of hymns, chants,
    ritual instructions, and other religious
    teachings
  • 1500-500 B.C. called the Vedic Age

6
From Nomads to Farming
  • The Aryans mixed with the people they conquered
  • Learned how to farm from them
  • Developed iron axes and weapons
  • Rulers called Rajahs
  • Depended on a council of elders
  • Fought with other rajahs

7
Societal Structure
  • People divided into groups depending on their
    occupation
  • 1. Brahmins- priests
  • 2. Kshatriyas- warriors
  • 3. Vaisyas- herders, farmers, artisans and
    merchants
  • 4. Sudras- people with little or no Aryan blood.
    Included farmers, servants and laborers. Lowest
    place in society.

8
Religious Beliefs
  • Polytheistic
  • Gods and goddesses embodied natural forces
  • Chief god was Indra, god of war
  • Brahmins offered sacrifices or food and drink to
    the gods for their good favor
  • Brahman- a single spiritual power that exists in
    everything
  • Mystics- people who seek direct communion with
    divine forces

9
Epic Literature
  • Written in Sanskrit
  • Mahabharata and the Ramayana
  • Inside the Mahabharata is the Bhagavad-Gita
  • Dharma- devotion to ones duty

10
Hinduism(quiz material starts here)
11
Characteristics of Hinduism
  • Very complex
  • Countless gods and goddesses
  • God is one, but wise people know it by many
    names.
  • All god and goddesses are a part of the brahman
    and make it more tangible
  • Brahma- creator
  • Vishnu- preserver
  • Shiva- destroyer

12
Sacred Texts
  • Vedas
  • Upanishads- one section of the Vedas that deals
    with mystical questions
  • Who is the Knower?What makes my mind think?Does
    life have a purpose, or is it governed by
    chance?What is the cause of the Cosmos?
  • Upanishads

13
Bhagavad-Gita
  • song of the divine one
  • Told by Krishna- and avatar of Vishnu
  • Concise guide to Hindu philosophy and a guide to
    life

14
Achieving Moksha
  • Atman- essential self
  • Moksha- uniting with brahman
  • Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul into another
    bodily form
  • Karma- actions in this life that affect your fate
    in the next life
  • All existence is ranked, humans are closest to
    brahman
  • Live a good life, create good karma, reborn into
    a higher existence
  • Live a bad life, create bad karma, suffer at a
    lower level of existence

15
Achieving Moksha continued
  • Dharma- religious and moral duty of an individual
  • Ahimsa- non-violence

16
Jainism
  • Mahavira develops Jainism around 500 B.C.
  • Rejected the authority of Brahmin priests
  • Emphasized meditation, self-denial, and extreme
    forms of ahimsa

17
Buddhism
18
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19
Buddhism Spreads Beyond India
  • Buddhist monasteries become centers of learning
  • Spreads to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia,
    Vietnam, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Korea, Japan

20
Dalai Lama
  • Tibetan Buddhism
  • Called Gelug Buddhism

21
Tripitaka
  • Three Baskets of Wisdom
  • Basket of Discipline- rules for monastic life
  • Basket of Discourse- contains sermons and
    discussion of ethics and doctrine attributed to
    the Buddha or his disciples
  • Basket of Special Doctrine- additional doctrine
  • All contain legends and other narratives as well
  • Total canon of Theravada Buddhism
  • Preliminary body of teachings for Mahayana
    Buddhism

22
Mahayana Buddhism
  • Easier for ordinary people to follow
  • Picture the Buddha and other holy beings as
    compassionate gods
  • Afterlife filled with many heavens and hells
  • Spread to China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan

23
Theravada Buddhism
  • Follows Buddhas original teachings
  • Life devoted to hard spiritual work
  • Only monks and nuns could hope to achieve nirvana
  • Spread to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia
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