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Aztec, Inka, Maya

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... Assessments Format Chronological link region and time follow specific culture development Regional examine regional ... old world (Diamond) The geography is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aztec, Inka, Maya


1
Aztec, Inka, Maya
  • ANTH162

2
Agenda
  • About the course
  • this week chp 1,2
  • The syllabus
  • assigned readings
  • policies
  • The web page
  • Expectations
  • Assessments

3
www.sjsu.edu/people/marco.meniketti/courses/Aztec
Restored Mayan murals at Bonampak
4
Format
  • Chronological
  • link region and time
  • follow specific culture development
  • Regional
  • examine regional variation
  • Thematic
  • key on particular topics with each culture
  • art, architecture, religion, lifeways, etc.

5
To be successful
  • Keep up with readings
  • organize your notes according to region and
    culture
  • use different techniques to learn (memorize)
    chronology
  • Think in broad thematic terms
  • Learn your geography
  • Take notes from text on what was not discussed in
    class
  • Readings and lecture overlap

6
Geography of MesoAmerica
  • Essential environmental factors influencing
    development of social groups
  • Highly variable terrain
  • mountains, plains, tropical, dessert, lack of
    major river systems
  • Unlike areas where civilizations arose in the
    Old World

7
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9
A few words about Old World
  • Euro-centric terminology
  • Shapes and informs our thinking about New World
    culture in subtle, racist ways
  • New World did not conform with biblical knowledge
  • influenced interaction between cultures
  • conceived of in biblical terms
  • How to be explained?

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12
Definitions
  • Many concepts and terms should be understood
    before we encounter them.
  • 1. Complex societies
  • 2.Civilization
  • 3. State level organization
  • 4. Pre-industrial society

13
Modes of Integration (see pages 24-25 Evans)
  • Egalitarian, Ranked, Stratified
  • Areas of integration
  • subsistence, economy, territory, settlement,
    community, society, politics, ideology
  • Environmental interaction
  • system feedback

14
A few terms
  • ideology
  • cosmology
  • subsistence
  • culture area
  • cultural ecology
  • shaman
  • preceramic

15
  • Elite
  • luxury good, preciocities, elite craft
  • practical rationality

16
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17
Formative period
  • Normal formative 2000 BC-AD 300 also
    (pre-classic)
  • Classic AD 250-900
  • Post-classic AD 900-1521
  • Colonial period

18
Earliest settlement
  • Foraging phase since at least 10,000 BC
  • First migration of humans to North and South
    America begins near end of last glacial period.
    Certainly 15,000 years ago, but possibly earlier.
  • By 8000 BC the paleo-Indian groups are thriving.
  • The route was Beringia and likely also coastal.

19
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21
Foraging leading to sedentism
  • Foraging groups small in size--dependent on
    carrying capacity of environment.
  • Semi-sedentary wherever beans, squash, corn were
    naturally abundant.
  • Although fertile lowlands, much of highland
    regions were agriculturally challenged.

22
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24
Environmental conditions
  • North America, MesoAmerica and South America
    lacked the wide variety of potential
    domesticatable plants and animals found in the
    old world (Diamond)
  • The geography is extremely variable in a
    north/south axis.

25
Geophysical features
  • Dry deserts, high mountains, humid lowlands
  • Tierra caliente, Tierra templada, Tierra fria
  • Tectonically active with earthquakes and volcanoes

26
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27
Benefits / Problems
  • Stable food source allows sedentary life.
  • Food surpluses are possible
  • food surplus allows increased population
  • Large population provide more labor
  • Sedentary life limits resources base
  • Reliance on limited resources bring environmental
    dependence
  • Increased population increases need for resources

28
Discoveries in ceonotes
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