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Context-aware Adaptive Routing for Delay Tolerant Networking

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Context-aware Adaptive Routing for Delay Tolerant Networking Mirco Musolesi Joint work with Cecilia Mascolo Department of Computer Science University College London – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Context-aware Adaptive Routing for Delay Tolerant Networking


1
Context-aware Adaptive Routing for Delay Tolerant
Networking
  • Mirco Musolesi
  • Joint work with Cecilia Mascolo
  • Department of Computer Science
  • University College London
  • Delay Tolerant Networks Research Group Meeting
  • 65th IETF Meeting - Dallas, 23 March 2006

2
Outline of this Talk
  • Overview of the Context-aware Adaptive Routing
    (CAR) protocol
  • Extension to hybrid networks
  • Integration with the DTN reference implementation
  • Current research directions

3
Context-aware Adaptive Routing (CAR)
  • Routing protocol for delay tolerant networks
    initially designed for delay tolerant mobile ad
    hoc networks
  • Extension to hybrid networks, where some nodes
    are fixed or act as gateways for interconnecting
    different regions
  • Context-aware routing designed for scenarios
    where
  • Deterministic routing information is not
    available
  • No geographical information (like GPS
    coordinates) are available

Adaptive Routing for Intermittently Connected
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Mirco Musolesi, Stephen
Hailes and Cecilia Mascolo In Proceedings of 6th
IEEE International Symposium on a World of
Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks
(WoWMoM'05). Taormina, Italy. June 2005.
4
Overview of the Protocol
  • Based on host(s) acting as carrier(s) for
    asynchronous delivery of messages to hosts that
    can be
  • Final recipient of the message/bundle
  • Gateways between regions (fixed or mobile, such
    as mobile sinks)
  • Choice of the best carrier(s) based on the
    evaluation of the context information
  • Host colocation
  • Host mobility
  • Battery level

5
The Novelty of Our Approach
  • Novelty of our approach store-and-forward
    decisions based on the prediction of the
    evolution of the DTN scenario
  • In particular, we use Time Series Analysis based
    on State Space Models (Kalman Filter) to keep
    history into account and to predict the evolution
    of DTN scenarios

6
Asynchronous Delivery An Example
B
P
A
M
R
D
E
N
F
L
I
Q
H
O
7
Calculation of the Host Utility
  • Host utility calculated using multi-criteria
    decision theory
  • A utility is associated to each context attribute
    (i.e., a utility associated to host colocation
  • Utilities are then composed using a weighted
    functions

8
Calculation of the Host Utility
  • We tested the algorithm considering two
    attributes
  • Colocation with a certain host (that may be the
    final recipient of the message or a gateway)
  • Change degree of connectivity

9
Kalman Filter Prediction
  • Very lightweight
  • Only information about the current state must be
    maintained
  • Suitable for resource-constrained devices
  • No learning phase is necessary
  • Fast convergence of the filter
  • Different prediction models (considering trends
    and seasonal/periodic behavior)

10
Context-aware Adaptive Routing Protocol
  • Host utilities are calculated by each host and
    are sent to the others together with the routing
    tables (in our implementation DSDV)
  • Based on local calculations
  • Adaptive refresh interval based on the context
    variability
  • If the carrier of the message gets in reach with
    a host that can guarantee a better delivery
    probability, the message is transferred to that
    host

11
Predictability of Context Information
  • Key issue for CAR predictability of context
    information
  • Forecasting model cannot provide accurate
    predictions due to the inherent characteristics
    of the time series (for example randomness)
  • Design of an autonomic component that is able at
    runtime to analyze the predictability of the time
    series of the context information
  • If context information is not predictable,
    alternative routing strategies can be adopted
  • Intelligent epidemic routing

Evaluating Context Information Predictability for
Autonomic Communication Mirco Musolesi and
Cecilia Mascolo In Proceedings of 2nd IEEE
Workshop on Autonomic Communications and
Computing (ACC'06). Niagara Falls, NY. June 2006.
To appear.
12
Integration of CAR in the DTN Reference
Implementation
  • Implementation in the DTN2 reference
    implementation in process (testing phase)
  • Porting to resource-constrained devices
  • Integration of DTN reference implementation in a
    hybrid environment
  • DTN reference implementation for gateways?
  • Integration with other DTN systems for
    constrained devices (Bluetooth equipped mobile
    phones, sensor networks).

13
CAR Implementation in DTN2
14
CAR for Multi-Regions DTNs
  • Based on deterministic and probabilistic
    mechanisms
  • For example a server connected to the Internet
    has delivery probability equal to 1 for the smtp
    domain.
  • Message ferries will have a delivery probability
    equal to 1 to hosts that are on their pre-defined
    paths
  • Host utilities used to measure
  • The probability of delivering message to the
    recipients of the message for intra-region
    communication
  • the probability of delivering messages to
    gateways (or sinks in sensor networks) for
    inter-regions communication
  • Deployed on heterogeneous devices mobile phones
    and WiFi APs (in progress), sensor networks
    (planned)

15
Our Current Research Directions
  • Implementation of a system based on CAR for
    inter-regions communications
  • CAR for sensor networks with mobile sinks
  • Porting of DTN for Contiki (SICS, Sweden)
  • Content based routing based on CAR
  • Design of realistic mobility models
  • based on social networks theory
  • validated using real traces

SCAR Context-aware Adaptive Routing in Delay
Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks Cecilia Mascolo
and Mirco Musolesi CS-UCL Research Note. January
2006.Submitted for Publication.
16
Questions?
  • Adaptive Routing for Intermittently Connected
    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
  • Mirco Musolesi, Stephen Hailes and Cecilia
    Mascolo
  • In Proceedings of 6th IEEE International
    Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and
    Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM'05). Taormina, Italy.
    June 2005
  • Evaluating Context Information Predictability for
    Autonomic Communication
  • Mirco Musolesi and Cecilia Mascolo
  • In Proceedings of 2nd IEEE Workshop on Autonomic
    Communications and Computing (ACC'06). Niagara
    Falls, NY. June 2006. To appear.
  • SCAR Context-aware Adaptive Routing in Delay
    Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks
  • Cecilia Mascolo and Mirco Musolesi
  • CS-UCL Research Note. January 2006.Submitted for
    Publication.
  • Mirco Musolesi
  • Department of Computer Science University College
    London
  • m.musolesi_at_cs.ucl.ac.uk http//www.cs.ucl.ac.u
    k/staff/m.musolesi
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