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Inner

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Inner & East Asia: Sui, Tang, Song 600-1200 CE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 8 August 2019
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Title: Inner


1
Inner East Asia Sui, Tang, Song 600-1200 CE
2
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3
Sui Dynasty Reunification Military Expansion
  • Government based on Confucianism-heavily
    influenced by Buddhism
  • Resources spent on infrastructure, military
  • Capital at Changan
  • Grand canal-military, communication trade
  • Irrigation systems
  • Improved Great Wall
  • Militarily ambitious

4
Tang Empire, 618 -755
  • Territorial expansion
  • Avoided over-centralization
  • Combined Turkic influence w/ Chinese Confucian
    traditions
  • Influx of cosmopolitan culture,

5
Tang Military
6
Buddhism Tang Empire
  • Emperors used Buddhism to legitimized power
  • kings promoted themselves as spiritual
    agents-provided access to Buddhist realm
  • Monasteries allied w/ Emperors
  • Received tax exemptions, land gifts

7
Mahayana Buddhism
  • Followed trade routes to Changan
  • Cosmopolitan city
  • Flexible
  • adaptable
  • Buddhist texts translated into local languages

8
Changan
  • Ambassadors-tributary system
  • Over a million residents
  • Foreigners lived in special compounds
  • walled gated quarters
  • Roads/canals (Grand Canal)
  • Islamic Jewish merchants
  • Large commercial ships
  • Bubonic plague arrived
  • Combined Central Asian influences (Turkic)
    Chinese culture
  • Roads, rivers, canals facilitated trade
  • Exports exceeded imports

Foreign trade caravan 
9
Power Rivals Uighur Tibetan Empires
10
Power Rivals Uighur
  • Mid-eighth century Turkic group
  • Empire in Central Asia
  • Merchants scribes
  • Strong ties to Islam China
  • Own script
  • Lasted 50 years

11
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12
Power Rivals Tibet
  • Large empire with access to SE Asia, China,
    South Central Asia
  • Open to Indian, Chinese, Islamic, even (via
    Iran) Greek culture
  • In early Tang, relations were friendly
  • Tibetan king received a Chinese princess
  • Mahayana Buddhism brought to Tibet-combined w
    local religion
  • By late 600s military rivalry began
  • Tibet allied w/ Tang rival
  • 9th century, Tibetan king failed to eliminate
    Buddhism
  • Tibet entered long period of monastic rule
    isolation

13
Tang Upheavals Repression, 750879
  • Conflict w/ Tibetans Turkic Uighurs-backlash
    against foreigners
  • Confucian ideology reasserted
  • Buddhism undermined family values- many became
    monks nuns-deprived families of marriage
    alliances descendants
  • Buddhism eroded tax base legitimized womens
    participation in politics
  • Wu Zhao-seized control w/Buddhist support
  • Claimed to be bodhisattva
  • Favored Buddhists Daoists
  • Confucian elites characterized unorthodox rulers
    powerful women as evil
  • Buddhism associated w/ barbarians social ills

14
End of Tang 879-907
  • Territory expanded-many internal rebellions
  • 907- Tang state collapsed
  • Regional military governors established own
    kingdoms
  • None able to integrate territory on same scale
  • East Asia cut off from communication w/ Islamic
    world Europe

15
New States Emerge in East Asia, to 1200
  • Liao, Jin, Chinese Song
  • Song cut off from Central Asia so it turned to
    sea
  • strengthened contacts with Korea, Japan and SE
    Asia

16
Southern Song 1127-1279
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18
Song Innovation
  • Technological innovations based on info brought
    from West Asia during Tang era
  • Mathematics
  • Astronomy
  • calendar making
  • Mechanical clock
  • Improved compass
  • Sternpost rudder, watertight bulkheads

19
Song Industries
  • Standing army
  • professionally trained
  • regularly paid
  • Iron and coal
  • highgrade iron and steel
  • weapons, armor, defensive works
  • Gunpowder weapons

20
Song Economy Society
  • Confucian-elite officials dominated
  • Neo-Confucian philosophy developed
  • Chan (Zen) Buddhism became popular
  • Civil Service Exam matured
  • Hereditary system broke down
  • Meritocracy improved government efficiency
    reliability

21
Song Economy Society
  • Moveable type mass-produced government
    authorized exam prep materials
  • New agricultural technology increased
    agricultural productivity increased population
    in South China

22
Song Economy and Society
  • Chinas population grew to 100 million
  • Large crowed, well-managed cities like Hangzhou
  • Flying money-interregional credit system
  • Government issued paper money
  • Caused inflation and later withdrawn
  • Difficulty controlling market economy
  • Tax collection was privatized
  • Burgeoning new merchant elite

23
Song Economy Society
  • Womens status declined
  • Totally subordinated to men
  • Lost rights to own and manage property
  • Remarriage forbidden
  • Bound feet became mandatory status symbol for
    elite women
  • Working-class women, and non-Han more independent

24
New Kingdoms in South Asia
  • Korea, Japan, Vietnam all rice economies
  • labor needs fit well w/ Confucian concepts of
    hierarchy, obedience, discipline
  • all adopted aspects of Chinese culture but
    political ideologies remained different

25
New Kingdoms in South Asia Korea
  • Cultural bridge
  • Hereditary elite absorbed Confucianism Buddhism
    from China-passed to Japan
  • Kingdoms first united by Silla in 668 then Koryo
    early 900s
  • Used woodblock printing as early as 700s
  • later invented moveable type- passed on to Song

26
New Kingdoms in South Asia Japan
  • Mountainous terrain created hundreds of small
    states - unified in about 4th-5th century
  • Government established at Yamato on Honshu Island
  • Mid-7th century political reforms established
    centralized government legal code, national
    histories, architecture, city planning based on
    Tang cities
  • Modeled on China but adapted to their own needs
  • Maintained emperorship
  • Shinto survived alongside Buddhism

27
New Kingdoms in South Asia Japan
  • Women enjoyed a relatively strong position
  • Aristocratic women became royal consorts-linked
    court w/ own kinsmen
  • Siuko, became empress when her husband died in
    592
  • Prince Shotuku, her nephew regent, developed
    Constitution based on Confucian Buddhist
    approaches to statecraft

28
New Kingdoms in South Asia Japan
  • Heian Period 794-1185
  • Fujiwara dominated Japanese government
  • Aesthetic refinement of aristocracy
  • Elevated civil officials above warriors
  • By late 1000s, some warrior clans became wealthy
    powerful
  • Kamakura Shoganate took control
  • Established capital at Kamakura in eastern Honshu

29
New Kingdoms in South Asia Vietnam
  • Geographical proximity similar wet-rice
    agriculture made it suitable for integration w/
    south China
  • Economic cultural assimilation took place
    during Tang Song periods
  • Northern Vietnam elite (Annam) modeled their
    culture on Chinese
  • When Tang fell, Annam established itself as an
    independent state under the name Dai Viet

30
New Kingdoms in South Asia Vietnam
  • Southern Vietnam, kingdom of Champa influenced by
    Malay and Indian as well as by China
  • During Song, Champa cultivated and exported
    fast-maturing Champa rice to China
  • Strong common Confucian interest in hierarchy
  • Status of women varied
  • Foot-binding not common outside China
  • Before Confucianism, women had higher status in
    Annam than Chinese women
  • Education of women was not valued or desirable
    anywhere
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