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If there is time OR when we get to Cell Unit

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Title: If there is time OR when we get to Cell Unit Author: supervisor Last modified by: Kevin Created Date: 9/7/2012 10:48:50 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: If there is time OR when we get to Cell Unit


1
Today in Biology
  • Pick up
  • Protein Synthesis notepage
  • DNA Coloring Transcription Translation
  • Protein Synthesis wkst

Week 9 (12/9-12/13) Warm Up Mon, 12/9 -
Review of DNA Base pairing (1, 7, 11 21)
Biology Fun Fact There are thousands of
different
proteins within each organism, but
they are built from only 22
amino acids.
Amino acids are called
building blocks of life are constructed
in the protein-building factory of the cell - the
ribosome.
  • Homework
  • DNA Extraction Lab Applications Write-up Thurs,
    12/12
  • DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Test Fri,
    12/13
  • Agenda
  • Protein Synthesis notes Transcription
  • Coloring Protein Synthesis wkst

Unit Learning Goal I will understand the
workings of DNA RNA Replication Protein
Synthesis.
2
DNA Extraction applications write-up
L? DNA Extraction Applications Write-up
  • Applications
  • - What are the applications or uses of DNA
    Extraction? Identify explain at least 2 uses
    for this lab.
  • - Research a case (study or scenario) in which
    DNA was used.
  • - MUST include a Works Cited page (last page
    of report) to cite your source!!!
  • -IF NO WORKS CITED, IT IS PLAGAIRISM 0!!!
  • This APPLICATIONS WRITE-UP is DUE Tues, 12/12
    falls into the Assignment Category of LABS/LAB
    REPORTS which is worth 30 of your overall
    grade!!!

DUE Thurs, 12/12
3
Review of DNA Base pairing
Pg. 65 DNA Coloring Transcription
Translation
  • On the Protein Synthesis wkst, read direction 1.
  • Complete questions 1, 7, 11 21.

4
Pg. 46 How DNA Determines Everything! Concept
Map
How DNA determines everything in our body?
Replication
DNA
Transcription
?
RNA
Translation
?
Protein
5
How DNA decides our traits
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • A gene, is a section of the DNA strand that gives
    the code for one protein.
  • The protein coded for in each gene determines how
    a characteristic of an organism will develop
  • Regulating cell processes,
  • Constructing muscle
    bone,
  • Fighting diseases
  • lots more!!!

6
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
So, how does DNAs
message travel out of the
nucleus into the
cytoplasm of
the cell, where
the message gets expressed
as a protein? This
process is
known as
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
7
First, we need
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • RNA!!!
  • Ribose Nucleic Acid
  • Similar to DNA but
  • Smaller single-stranded
  • Sugar ribose (not deoxyribose)
  • Contains all the same bases except Thymine
  • Replaced with Uracil
  • RNA has G, C, A, U

8
3 kinds of rna
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Used in Protein Synthesis
  • mRNA (messenger RNA)
  • rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
  • tRNA (transfer RNA)

9
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
Now that we know about DNA RNA,
we can learn Protein Synthesis!!!
  • Protein Synthesis is the process of making a
    protein from DNA.
  • It has 2 parts Transcription Translation

10
Transcription
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Transcription video (530)
  • Analogy
  • Imagine that you have a large, old
    valuable cookbook
    that's been in the
    family for generations.
  • Obviously, you don't want to get it soiled
    with tomato
    sauce olive oil, so when you want to make use
    of a recipe you might copy a page by hand onto a
    piece of paper to use at stove-side.
  • The process of transcription is like
    making a
    handwritten copy of a page
    from the
    original text for actual use.

11
Transcription
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Analogy
  • In this analogy, the cookbook is the DNA.
  • It carries many recipes (for DNA, the recipes
    contain information on how to construct proteins
    the recipes are the genes).
  • The handwritten copy is a transcription of the
    text (a copy in the same language but in a
    different form) that is being used for a specific
    recipe (a certain protein).
  • It is possible to make many copies of a single

    recipe (it is possible to transcribe many copies

    of the gene).
  • It is possible to copy more than one recipe --
    for example, for a vegetable side dish dessert,
    as well as the main dish -- in preparing a meal.

12
Transcription
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • What does it mean to transcribe something?
  • The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA blueprint.
  • This occurs in the nucleus, then the mRNA travels
    out of the nucleus.

13
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Visualizing Transcription!

14
Pg. 65 DNA Coloring Transcription
Translation
10 mins!
Let's make RNA!
  • Get in to your lab groups use colored pencils
    of the following colors
  • Orange, dark green, purple, yellow, brown, dark
    blue, light blue gray
  • Read through the information about
    Transcription follow the directions to
    color-code the picture on back properly!!!

15
Today in Biology
  • Have out
  • Protein Synthesis notepage
  • DNA Coloring T T wkst
  • Protein Synthesis wkst

Week 9 (12/9-12/13) Warm Up Tues, 12/10 -
Review of Transcription (T T wkst)
Biology Fun Fact Of the 22 amino acids, 8 are

called essential amino acids.
These
cannot be synthesized
by the human body we get

them from the food we eat. This is why a balanced
diet is SO important!
  • Homework
  • DNA Extraction Lab Applications Write-up Thurs,
    12/12
  • DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Test Fri,
    12/13
  • Agenda
  • Protein Synthesis notes Translation
  • Coloring activity PS wkst

Unit Learning Goal I will understand the
workings of DNA RNA Replication Protein
Synthesis.
16
DNA Extraction applications write-up
L? DNA Extraction Applications Write-up
  • Applications
  • - What are the applications or uses of DNA
    Extraction? Identify explain at least 2 uses
    for this lab.
  • - Research a case (study or scenario) in which
    DNA was used.
  • - MUST include a Works Cited page (last page
    of report) to cite your source!!!
  • -IF NO WORKS CITED, IT IS PLAGAIRISM 0!!!
  • This APPLICATIONS WRITE-UP is DUE Tues, 12/12
    falls into the Assignment Category of LABS/LAB
    REPORTS which is worth 30 of your overall
    grade!!!

DUE Thurs, 12/12
17
Review of mRNA (Transcription)
Pg. 65 DNA Coloring Transcription
Translation
  • Using your notes on
    Transcription of mRNA

    your color-coded wkst,


    answer questions 1, 2

    6 at the bottom of the
    DNA
    Coloring
    Transcription

    Translation wkst.
  • On the Protein
    Synthesis
    wkst, read
    direction 2.
  • Complete questions 2, 5, 8, 12 22.

Now lets discuss!
18
Translation
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Translation video (after 530)
  • In translation, the information contained the
    sequence of
    nucleotides is transformed into a
    sequence of amino acids (building
    blocks of
    proteins).
  • When you are just beginning to learn a foreign
    language you need to translate a word or phrase
    from English, you need a dictionary.
  • Organisms carry around a
    dictionary that they use
    when
    translating RNA sequences into

    protein sequences.
  • This dictionary exists in the

    form of a series of molecules called tRNA's.

19
Translation
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • The information in the mRNA is translated by a
    ribosome (made of rRNA), who reads it.
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) enters the ribosome to drop
    off (transfer) an amino acid (building blocks
    of proteins).
  • A chain of amino acids (polypeptide) then exits
    the ribosome folds into a protein.

20
How does the tRNA match up to the mRNA?
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • CODON 3 consecutive nucleotides in mRNA.
  • Each codon codes for a single amino acid
  • ANTICODON 3
    consecutive nucleotides in tRNA that pair to a
    codon.

21
Codon table
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • How do you use (read) the Codon Table?
  • Example tRNA anticodon UCA
  • What is the 1st base?
  • 2nd base?
  • 3rd base?
  • What amino acid did UCA anticodon code for?

Amino Acids
22
Translation
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
Per. 6 start, Fri
  • How does tRNA know
    when to begin end

    translating amino
    acids?
  • Start Codon
  • Tells the tRNA to start translating the mRNA
  • AUG (mRNA) methionine (Met) or start codon
  • Stop Codon
  • Tells the tRNA to stop translating the mRNA
  • UAA, UAG or AGA (tRNA) stop codons

23
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
Protein Synthesis
24
Pg. 65 DNA Coloring Transcription
Translation
10 mins!
Now lets make tRNA!
Does your picture look like this???
  • Get in to your lab groups use colored pencils
    of the following colors
  • Orange, dark green, purple, yellow, brown, light
    green red
  • Read through the information about Translation
    follow the directions to color-code the picture
    on back properly!!!

25
Today in Biology
Week 9 (12/9-12/13) Warm Up Thurs, 12/12 -
Review of Translation (3, 4, 5, 7 8)
  • Turn in
  • DNA Extraction Lab Applications Write-up
  • Have out
  • DNA Coloring T T wkst
  • Protein Synthesis wkst
  • Pick up
  • Codon Table

Biology Fun Fact Proteins are one of the
important constituents of
the red blood cells,
hemoglobin (which comes from
heme meaning iron
globin meaning
proteins). About 97 of the dry
content of RBCs is made of proteins.
  • Homework
  • AIMS Review (Pg. 5 Protein Synthesis) Fri,
    12/13
  • DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Test Fri,
    12/13
  • Agenda
  • Protein Synthesis notes Making Proteins
  • What happens when T T goes wrong
  • Practice Test Protein Synthesis Quiz

Unit Learning Goal I will understand the
workings of DNA RNA Replication Protein
Synthesis.
26
Codon table
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Glue your Codon Table in to Pg. 66.
  • DNA Coloring T T
  • Now answer questions 3, 4, 5, 7 8 at the
    bottom.

Amino Acids
27
Review of trna (translation)
Pg. 66 Protein Synthesis wkst Codon Table
  • On the Protein Synthesis
    wkst,
    read direction 3.
  • Complete questions 3, 9, 13

    23.
  • Lets discuss correct answers!
  • Now, read direction 4.
  • Complete questions 4, 10, 14

    24.
  • Lets discuss correct answers!
  • Finally, read direction 5.
  • Complete questions 6 15-20.
  • Lets discuss correct answers!

28
SUMMARY OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Easy as 1,2,3,4 5!
  • A section of DNA opens
  • Free-floating nucleotides connect up to 1 side of
    the DNA making mRNA. (Transcription)
  • The mRNA travels out of the nucleus into the
    cytoplasm.
  • A ribosome reads the mRNA pairs the base
    pairs of mRNA with the base pairs of tRNA, which
    drop off amino acids to make a chain.
    (Translation)
  • The chain of amino acids exits the ribosome
    folds up PROTEIN!

29
Proteins
Pg. 49 Protein Synthesis notes
  • Proteins are made of 20
    different amino acids.
  • The sequence of amino acids varies between each
    protein tells it how to fold, giving the
    protein its shape.

30
Pg. 46 How DNA Determines Everything! Concept
Map
How DNA determines everything in our body?
Replication
DNA
Transcription
RNA
Translation
Protein
31
Pg. 66 Protein Synthesis wkst Codon Table
Let's Practice making Proteins!
32
Pg. 66 Protein Synthesis wkst Codon Table
DNA
TACGCTTTACAGATT
Make a protein
33
Pg. 66 Protein Synthesis wkst Codon Table
From the DNA, determine your mRNA recipe. From
the mRNA, determine your tRNA recipe.
Finally, from the tRNA, use your Codon Table to
determine the order of your polypeptide chain of
amino acids (folded up protein)! When
finished, raise your hand for a SOC!
DNA
TACGCTTTACAGATT
AUGCGAAAUGUCUAA
mRNA
CAG
GCU
AUU
UAC
UUA
Val
Arg
STOP
Met
Asn
FOLD
tRNA
PROTEIN!
34
What if something goes wrong in coding?
Pg. 50 Protein Synthesis notes
  • MUTATION (an error in DNA) can occur with just a
    single base pair change.
  • Base Substitution when a
    base pair
    is substituted/
    replaced by a base pair in

    error.
  • If it occurs in a specific

    location, for instance, in the

    CFTR gene, it will cause

    cystic fibrosis.
  • Base Deletions
    Insertions when
    base pairs are deleted/removed or inserted/added
    from the gene

35
What if something goes wrong in coding?
Pg. 50 Protein Synthesis notes
  • MUTATIONS OCCUR DURING DNA REPLICATION.
  • USUALLY THE ERROR IS EDITED OUT BY THE DNA
    POLYMERASE (proof-reader or spell check)
    FIXED BY THE REPAIR ENZYMES.
  • MUTAGENS -
    An
    environmental factor
    that damages DNA
  • Are most likely to blame
    for
    mutations (cancers)
  • EX ultraviolet (UV) rays
    chemicals in cigarette

    smoke

36
PEOPLE WITH DEFECTIVE DNA REPAIR ENZYMES
37
IN CLOSING
  • DNA contains the instructions for making an
    organism, including YOU!!!!
  • Your DNA determines how you look, what blood type
    you have, even your
    tendency to get some
    diseases.
  • Each chromosome contains
    a strand of DNA
  • Almost every cell in your
    body contains the same
    DNA
    same genes.

38
DNA Replication Pre-Test ( Study Guide)
S8 DNA Replication Pre-Test
The End
  • Each pair needs to pick up a red, blue, yellow
    green colored pencil.
  • Re-read through each Unit Objective
  • If you are SUPER DUPER CONFIDENT CAN APPLY/
    EXPLAIN AN EXAMPLE for that
    objective, put a blue
    SMILEY FACE in that square.
  • If you are CONFIDENT that you know/can do that
    objective, put a green CHECK MARK in that
    square.
  • GO! cause you KNOW!
  • If you HAVE HEARD OF/KIND OF KNOW that
    objective, put a yellow STAR in that square.
  • HAULT or WAITnot sure!
  • If you HAVE NEVER HEARD OF/DO NOT KNOW that
    objective, put a red QUESTION MARK in that
    square.
  • STOP! I have no idea!

39
Today in Biology
  • Have out
  • AIMS Packet (Pg. 5 for a SOC)

Week 9 (12/9-12/13) Warm Up Fri, 12/13 -
Bigfoot DNA News
Biology Fun Fact When the body is deprived of
glucose, it starts using the stored fats
proteins as energy source. Excess catabolism of
proteins is harmful as it can weaken the immune
system break down tissues, such as muscle.
  • Homework
  • Study for Final Exam Tues, 12/17 (Per. 1, 3, 5)
    Wed, 12/18 (Per. 2, 4, 6)
  • Agenda
  • DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Test
  • Grade/Attendance Report to determine whether you
    have to take FE or not

Unit Learning Goal I will understand the
workings of DNA RNA Replication Protein
Synthesis.
40
DNA Replication protein synthesis Test
T? DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Test
  • You may use your AIMS Review packet as a resource
    while you test!
  • NO TALKING!
  • Read questions CAREFULLY!
  • When finished, turn your test in to the Hmwk Bin
    pick up your Final Exam GRADE ATTENDANCE
    REPORT.

41
(No Transcript)
42
Now its your turn to make proteins!
  • Protein Synthesis Activity

43
HOW IS THE STUDY OF DNA BEING USED TODAY?
  • PHARMACUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • -Uses bacteria to produce medicines
    enzymes for food production.
  • -Chymosin (used to make cheese)
  • -Insulin
  • -Vaccines
  • -Identifies new potential medicines

44
  • AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • -Introduces new traits into plants to
    bring about a specific benefit.
  • -growing plants with more nutrients
  • -plants being more resistant to pests
  • -grow more food on less land
  • -grow more nutritious food

45
  • TO HELP THE ENVIRNONMENT
  • -fewer chemical applications
  • -reduced killing of beneficial insects
  • -less need to add fertilizers
  • -reduced chemical runoff in lakes
    streams.
  • -decreased soil erosion

46
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • -Oil eating bacteria
  • -Biodegradable plastic
  • -Silk
  • -Vitamins

47
  • DNA FINGERPRINTING
  • -No, not like an actual finger print.
  • -It identifies you better than a fingerprint

48
QUESTION 3
  • WHAT CELLS IN YOUR BODY DO NOT CONTAIN ALL OF
    YOUR DNA.

49
AND THE ANSWER IS
  • YOUR GAMETES (only have half) AND MATURE RED
    BLOOD CELLS (dont have any).
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