Biology EOC Review Pack - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Biology EOC Review Pack PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c9d74-YTZkO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Biology EOC Review Pack

Description:

Biology EOC Review Pack The answers 1) List the characteristics of life Energy Homeostasis Organization Reproduction Adaptation & Evolution Growth & Development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:42
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 117
Provided by: td5
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Biology EOC Review Pack


1
Biology EOC Review Pack
  • The answers

2
1) List the characteristics of life
  • Energy
  • Homeostasis
  • Organization
  • Reproduction
  • Adaptation Evolution
  • Growth Development
  • Adjust to a stimulus

3
2) Explain the difference between independent
dependent variables
  • Dependent depends on Independent
  • Independent - what is tested/changed
  • Dependent - effect what youre measuring
  • Ex. In Redis experiment, what is the independent
    variable?
  • Covering the jar
  • Dependent variable?
  • Presence of maggots

4
3) Explain the purpose of a control group
  • For comparison
  • To compare with experimental group data
  • Receives no treatment
  • Redis control group
  • Uncovered jars

5
4) What is the difference between quantitative
and qualitative data?
  • Quantitative quantity numbers
  • data presented in graphs
  • Qualitative words, descriptions

6
5) Summarize the steps in the scientific method.
  • 1. Problem
  • 2. Background (research other experiments)
  • 3. Hypothesis
  • 4. Experiment
  • 5. Observation (data)
  • 6. Conclusion (analyze data)

7
6) Fill in the chart Carbohydrates
Elements present Building blocks (monomers) (subunits) Function Examples
C H O 1 2 1 monosaccharides Quick energy short term energy storage Starches, cellulose (plant cell walls), glycogen (liver), glucose, sucrose
8
6) Fill in the chart Lipids
Elements present Building blocks (monomers) (subunits) Function Examples
C H O Very little oxygen Fatty acids Long term energy storage, insulation, plasma membrane Fats, oils, waxes, steroids, cholesterol
9
6) Fill in the chart Proteins
Elements present Building blocks (monomers) (subunits) Function Examples
C H N O P (S) Amino acids Joined by Peptide bonds Catalyze chemical reactions, transport O2 in blood, tissue structure Enzymes, hemoglobin, insulin
10
6) Fill in the chart Nucleic Acids
Elements present Building blocks (monomers) (subunits) Function Ex.
C H O (simple sugar) N (bases) P (backbone) Nucleotides (Show me your nucleotide) Store genetic info in a code DNA RNA
11
7) Draw a line from the organic molecule to the
test and fill in the test results.
Biomolecule Test Test Results
Lipids Iodine (Lugols solution) Turns dark purple/black
Carbohydrates- starches Brown paper bag Bag becomes see-through
Proteins Benedicts Solution turns from blue to orange (coppery)
Carbohydrates simple sugars Biurets Solution turns from light blue to violet
12
8) Draw, Label, Color an Animal Cell
Plasma membrane/ cell membrane
13
8) Draw, Label, Color Plant Cell
Cell wall (cellulose)
nucleus
vacuole
Plasma/cell membrane
ribosomes
chloroplast
mitochondria
14
8) Organelle function analogy chart
Organelle Function Analogy
Nucleus Contain DNA, control cell processes Control center king brain
Plasma Membrane Select what enters leaves cell Club bouncer airport security
Cell Wall Gives plant, bacterial, fungi cells structure Walls of a house
15
Organelle Function Analogy
Mitochondria Perform aerobic respiration break down glucose to produce ATP Red Bull Powerhouse Duke Power
Vacuoles Store nutrients, waste, water Brown paper bag U Store It
Chloroplast Capture light energy, convert it to chemical energy (glucose) Solar panel
Ribosome Assemble (synthesize) proteins Factory (blue collar workers)

16
9) Which cells would have more mitochondria
fat cells or muscle cells? Why?
  • Muscle cells they are more active need more
    ATP perform more active transport (needs ATP)

Highly-folded membrane increased surface area
17
10) Which cells would have more chloroplasts
stem, leaf, or root cells? Why?
  • Leaf cells they are the main photosynthetic
    organs designed positioned to collect maximum
    sunlight (to make glucose)

18
11) Fill in the Venn diagram comparing
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells in terms of
size, chromosome structure, organelles, and types
of organisms.
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Much larger Many chromosomes Nucleus Membrane-
bound organelles (mitochondria, vacuoles,
chloroplast) Plants, animals, protists, fungi
Very small One chromosome Plasmid No
nucleus No membrane-bound organelles, Bacteria
Ribosomes Cytoplasm Cell membrane Flagella Cell
wall?
19
  • 12) From smallest to largest, fill in levels of
    cellular hierarchy Cells ? Tissues ? Organs ?
    Organ Systems ? Organism

20
13) How do cells communicate?
  • 4 Ways
  • 1) Direct contact
  • protein receptors
  • 2) Short-range
  • signals proteins
  • 3) Long-range
  • signals hormones
  • 4) Complex chemical
  • electrical signals

21
14) Why do cells need to maintain homeostasis?
  • Cells need a stable environment to support enzyme
    activity
  • 15) How do cells maintain homeostasis in
  • pH buffers decrease impact of change
  • temperature bodies shiver, pant, sweat
  • blood glucose levels insulin increases
    absorption of glucose after meals
  • water balance water follows concentration
    gradient seeks equilibrium, moves by osmosis
    from high to low concentration

22
16) Why is water important to cells?
  • It gains loses heat very slowly
  • Dissolves transports nutrients
  • Helps body eliminate wastes from cells
  • Lubricates joints acts as shock absorber

23
17) Define Active Transport, Passive
Transport, Diffusion, Osmosis, Semi-permeable
membrane
  • Active transport Requires energy transport
    protein. Moves materials against concentration
    gradient (low?high)
  • Passive transport No energy moves materials
    with concentration gradient (high?low)
  • Diffusion Random particle movement passive
  • Osmosis Water movement passive
  • Semi-permeable membrane allows some materials to
    pass

24
18) Draw Describe a situation in which water
would move into a cell by osmosis.
Water moving in
Red blood cell in distilled water
Water moves in ? Cell swells
25
19) Draw Describe a situation in which water
would move out of a cell by osmosis.
Water moving out
80 water
90 water
Red blood cell in strong sugar/salt water
Salt/sugar Sucks! the H2O out cell shrinks
26
20) How is ATP made and used in the cell?
  • Cellular respiration produces ATP by breaking
    down glucose to release energy
  • Happens in the mitochondria
  • Used in
  • Active transport, mitosis, meiosis

27
21) Draw Label the cycle from ATP to ADP.
ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate
Releasing energy
Storing energy
ADP - Adenosine Diphosphate
28
22) What are enzymes?
  • Proteins that control the rate of chemical
    reactions in cells end in ase (ex. Lactase,
    sucrase, amylase)
  • They are Catalysts reusable
  • 23) What is their importance in biological
    processes?
  • They start speed up chemical reactions that
    otherwise would take too long interrupt
    homeostasis
  • 24) Explain what is meant by they are re-usable
    and specific.
  • They are not used up in reactions, so they can be
    used again again
  • They are substrate-specific (each enzymes active
    site has a specific shape that only fits a
    certain substratesubstance the enzyme breaks
    down or assembles

29
25) What affects enzyme activity?
  • pH enzymes in stomach work best in acidic
    (1.5-2) pH
  • Temperature enzymes in humans work best around
    98.6 degrees F
  • In some chemosynthetic bacteria, around 700
    degrees Celsius
  • Explain the term denature.
  • Enzymes active site becomes deformed so that it
    can no longer bind to its substrate

30
27) Label the diagram
Substrate broken Into products
Substrate
Active site
Enzyme binding with substrate
Enzyme ready To be used again
Enzyme B, C, D
31
28) What are the main differences between
aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
  • A) Aerobic uses oxygen (O2)
  • much more effective at making ATP
  • Happens in the mitochondria
  • B) Anaerobic NO O2!!
  • Very ineffective
  • What is alcoholic fermentation? What are the
    products? What types of cells do this?
  • Anaerobic process, happens when plant or fungal
    cells have no O2
  • produces CO2, alcohol, a little ATP

32
30) What type of fermentation might be used in
your own muscle cells when they do not get enough
oxygen? What might this cause?
  • Lactic acid fermentation (anaerobic)
  • Causes muscle cramps
  • 31) What type of fermentation does
  • yeast use? What might it produce?
  • Alcoholic fermentation (anaerobic)
  • Produces alcohol, CO2, and a little ATP

33
  • 32) Equation for Cellular Respiration
  • O2 C6H12O6 ? CO2 H2O
  • Reactants Products
  • oxygen carbon dioxide
  • glucose water
  • ATP
  • 33) What is chemosynthesis? Where might it be
    used?
  • converting chemical energy into glucose places
    with no sunlight
  • 34) Equation for Photosynthesis
  • CO2 H2O ? O2 C6H12O6
  • Reactants Sunlight Products
  • carbon dioxide oxygen
  • water glucose

34
35) Describe the role of photosynthesis and
cellular respiration in the carbon cycle.
  • Photosynthesis
  • Pulls CO2 out of atmosphere
  • uses it as a reactant
  • Decreases global warming
  • Who does it?
  • Plants, plant-like protists, algae
  • Where chloroplast
  • Cellular respiration
  • Releases CO2 into atmosphere
  • CO2 is a product
  • Who does it?
  • ALL living things
  • Plants, plant-like protists, fungi, animals,
    bacteria
  • Where mitochondria

35
  • Describe the structure of DNA. Who discovered
    this structure?
  • Double helix, Double stranded
  • Watson Crick
  • 37) Draw label a DNA strand 2 nucleotides long.

H
H
36
  • 38) Name the nitrogenous bases in DNA and what
    each pairs with.
  • Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T)
  • Cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G)
  • China Grove
  • is where its
  • AT
  • 39) What type of bond is formed between the bases
    in DNA? Why is it important?
  • Weak Hydrogen bonds
  • Unzip easily for DNA replication transcription

37
  • 40) a. Describe the structure of RNA.
  • Single stranded simple sugar ribose has U
    (Uracil) instead of T
  • b. What is the role of mRNA?
  • Take message from DNA in nucleus to ribosome it
    is single-stranded so it can leave through
    nuclear pore
  • c. What is the role of tRNA?
  • Like a Truck bringing supplies (amino acids) to
    the factory (ribosome) so proteins can be
    assembled
  • What base is found in RNA that is not found in
    DNA? What does it correspond to?
  • Uracil corresponds to Adenine
  • Uracil replaces Thymine

38
  • 42) Why is DNA Replication considered
    semi-conservative?
  • Makes 2 new strands (half new half original)
  • 43) What are 3 main differences between DNA and
    RNA
  • A. DNA double-stranded RNAsingle-stranded
  • B. DNA sugar deoxyribose RNA sugar ribose
  • C. DNA has T RNA has U
  • 44) When in the cell cycle does DNA replication
    occur? Where in the cell does it happen?
  • During Interphase (before mitosis or meiosis)
  • Happens in the nucleus

39
  • 45) What is Transcription and where does it
    happen?
  • Double-stranded DNA -gt single-stranded mRNA
  • Happens in the nucleus
  • 46) What is Translation and where does it happen?
  • mRNA goes to ribosome tRNA brings amino acids to
    ribosome proteins are synthesized
    (made/assembled)
  • 47) What is a codon?
  • 3 nitrogen bases 1 amino acid

40
48) Draw an animal cell and show the processes
starting with DNA and finishing with protein
synthesis.
amino acid
tRNA bringing amino acid to ribosome
Translation
protein
ribosome
Product
ala
val
tyr
peptide bonds
mRNA
Transcription
DNA
nucleus
41
  • 49) Use this original DNA strand to make a
    complementary DNA strand.
  • Original TAC CGA CCT GGG TAT ATG ACT
  • Complementary ATG GCT GGA CCC ATA TAC TGA
  • 50) Use the original DNA above to make an mRNA
    strand
  • Original TAC CGA CCT GGG TAT ATG ACT
  • mRNA AUG GCU GGA CCC AUA UAC UGA

42
51) Use the mRNA strand to make a polypeptide
chain. p.292
mRNA AUG GCU GGA CCC AUA UAC UGA
Polypeptide Chain
Met Ala Gly Pro Ile Tyr Stop
43
  • 52) Define cancer. Uncontrolled cell division
    caused by gene mutation
  • What causes it? Over- or underproduction, or
    production of proteins at the wrong times
  • Give examples of 3 types of cancer explain
    their known causes.
  • Skin cancer UV rays from sun (hole in ozone
    layer)
  • Mouth/throat cancer chewing/dipping/smoking
    tobacco
  • Breast cancer genetic predisposition (altered
    BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes)

44
53) Compare contrast mitosis meiosis using a
Venn diagram.
Mitosis
Meiosis
reduction division
sexual
asexual
Provides genetic variation from
-crossing over -independent
assortment
Produces identical daughter cells
cell division
somatic (body) cells
Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
1 division
gametes (sex cells) Malessperm Femalesovules
Diploid2n
Necessary to complete cycle of life
cloning
regeneration
2 divisions
haploidn
copy
budding
so a species can survive in changing environment
so organism can grow
45
54) Put the stages of mitosis in order. Label
what is happening in each stage.
3rd chromosomes separate at centromeres, begin
to move to poles
2nd chromosomes line up at equator
4th chromosomes move toward poles cell begins
to pinch apart
1st nuclear envelope dissolves centrioles
appear chromatin coils up chromosomes
Remember puppy PMAT!
46
  • 55) Define
  • a. Diploid 2n has 2 sets of chromosomes
  • b. Haploid n has 1 set of chromosomes
  • 56)a. What is crossing over? Exchange of genetic
    material in meiosis
  • b. When does crossing over occur? During
    Prophase I of meiosis
  • c. Whats the benefit of crossing over?
    Genetic variationsurvival of the species

47
  • 57) Define Independent Assortment. Alleles for
    different traits are inherited separately not
    linked together
  • How does it increase variation? New genetic
    combinations

This diagram shows a diploid cell with two pairs
of homologous chromosomes. Due to independent
assortment, what is the possible genetic makeup
of gametes produced?
ST, St, sT, st (find all possible combinations of
letters)
A B
a b
48
  • 58) What is a gene mutation? Any change in DNA
  • Define and give an example of each (with before
    and after mutation). Before
    After
  • Point mutation substituting one N base for
    another
  • GGA TCG GGG TCG
  • Frameshift mutation inserting or deleting one N
    base changes entire strand from that point
  • GGA TCG GGA TAC G
  • How do mutations increase variation? Allows for
    genetic diversityraw material for natural
    selection

49
  • 59) What is segregation of alleles? Alleles
    separate during gamete formation randomly unite
    during fertilization
  • How does it increase variation? Get more
    different combinations of alleles
  • 60) How can reproductive variations benefit a
    species?
  • More variations More chances species will
    survive during in a changing env.

50
  • 61) Define nondisjunction. Failure of chromosomes
    to separate during meiosis
  • What does it cause? Trisomy 21 3 chromosomes at
    pair 21 (down syndrome)
  • 62) Define fertilization. Sperm egg fuse
    together.

51
  • 63) Define
  • Dominant masks recessive trait
  • Recessive is masked by dominant trait only
    expressed if genotype is homozygous recessive
    (two little letters)
  • Homozygous two of the same alleles
  • 2 dominant alleles TT 2 recessive
    alleles tt
  • Heterozygous 2 different alleles
  • 1 dom. 1 rec. Tt
  • Genotype organisms genes Tt or TT or tt
  • Phenotype physical expression of genes tall or
    short

52
63 cont.
  • Test Cross cross unknown genotype w/ known
    genotype (homozygous recessive)
  • Co-dominance both alleles are dominant use two
    different letters BBlack feathers WWhite
    feathers checkered chicken
  • Incomplete dominance neither allele is
    dominant heterozygous is mixture, intermediate
    of both traits use same letters, one with prime
    ()
  • LLlong LLshort, LLmedium
  • Sex-linked gene carried on X chromosome
  • Autosomal gene is found on chromosome pairs
    1-22 (anything but sex chromosomes)

53
  • 64) Using the diagram, what is the
  • a. Phenotype of the F1 generation? inflated
  • b. Genotypic ratio of the F2 generation?

Key IInflated iconstricted
I i
25 II, 50 Ii, 25 ii
54
Tt
  • 65) Two heterozygous tall pea plants are crossed.
    If tall is dominant to short, what are the
    expected phenotypic results?

(appearance)
Key T Tall t short
3 tall 1 short
55
  • 66) Blood Type question (Multiple Alleles) Mr.
    Jones has blood type A and Mrs. Jones has blood
    type AB. What is the chance that they will have
    a child with blood type A if both of Mr. Joness
    parents were AB?

50 chance
Key Mr. Jones A (IAIA or IAi) Mrs. Jones AB
(IAIB)
IA IB
Mr. Jones parents
56
  • 67) Is it possible to have a child with type O
    blood if one parent is type A and the other is
    type B? Use a punnett square to prove your
    answer.

Yes it is
57
68) Color blindness is a sex-linked recessive
trait. A mother with normal color vision and a
colorblind father have a colorblind daughter.
What does this conclude about the mother?
Key N Normal vision n colorblind
Colorblind daughter
The mother has to be a carrier (heterozygous for
colorblindness)
58
69) Two healthy parents have a child with cystic
fibrosis. Use a punnett square to explain how
this happened. What are the chances they will
have another child with cystic fibrosis?
Key N Normal n cystic fibrosis
Child with cystic fibrosis
25 chance of having another child with cystic
fibrosis
59
70) A woman is diagnosed to be heterozygous for
Huntingtons. Her husband is healthy. What are
the chances their children have the disorder?
hh
Hh
Hh or HH
Key H Huntingtons h normal
50 chance
60
Nn
nn
  • 71) A man is resistant to malaria. His wife has
    sickle cell anemia. What are the chances their
    children could be resistant to malaria?

Nn
Key N Normal n sickle cell anemia
50 chance
61
72) In chickens, feather color is co-dominant.
One allele codes for black and another allele
codes for white. The heterozygous bird is
checkered. Cross two checkered birds. What is
the phenotypic ratio that results?
Key BB Black feathers WW White feathers BW
checkered chicken
25 Black 50 checkered 25 white
62
73) In snapdragons, flower color is inherited by
incomplete dominance. There is a red allele, a
white allele, and the heterozygous is pink. What
is the phenotypic ratio if you cross a white
flower with a red flower?
Key RR red RR white RR pink
100 pink
63
  • 74) Use the pedigree showing inheritance of
    hemophilia to answer the following questions
  • Remember you may have to complete a Punnett
    square to answer the question correctly.
  • a. What is the genotype of individual I-1?
  • b. What is the genotype of individual I-2?
  • c. What is the phenotype of individual III-1?
    What is their genotype?

XNY
XNXn
Has hemophilia
XnY
64
75) Black is dominant in rabbit fur color.
Suggest a test cross to determine a black
rabbits genotype if mated with a white rabbit,
it has 14 offspring 7 black 7 white.
Key BBlack fur bwhite fur
Test Cross cross a known (homozygous recessive
white fur) with the unknown look at offspring
All black offspring
½ of offspring are black ½ are white Genotype of
unknown black must be Bb
65
  • 76) What is a polygenic trait? Determined by more
    than one gene creates a bell curve
  • Give three examples. Height, skin color, eye
    color
  • 77) Describe Gregor Mendels pea plant
    experiments. Tall pea short pea all tall
    (principle of dominance)
  • 78) Why are males more likely to express a
    sex-linked disorder? Have only 1 X chromosome if
    male gets 1 allele for disorder has no way to
    mask it

66
  • 81) What are the uses of DNA fingerprinting?
    Forensics solve crimes, convict criminals,
    overturn wrongful convictions wildlife
    conservation catch poachers I.D. parents

67
  • 82) What is a karyotype and what is it used for?
    picture of chromosomes
  • Can see gender chromosomal disorders (down
    syndrome)

68
  • 83) What is gene therapy? Absent or faulty gene
    replaced by normal, working gene
  • 84) How can genetic engineering allow us to
    produce human insulin using bacteria? Isolate
    insulin gene insert into bacteria bacteria
    clone gene

69
  • 85) What is a transgenic organism? Give an
    example. organism containing genes from other
    species Insert recombinant DNA into host genome
  • (red cat has
  • genes from
  • bioluminescent
  • jellyfish,
  • Aequoria victoria)

70
  • 86) What is cloning? making a genetically
    identical copy

71
87) What is gel electrophoresis? Briefly explain
the steps involved. A way to sort DNA fragments
by size
1.Cut DNA w/ restriction-enzyme. Put fragments
into gel.
3. Result DNA fingerprint
2. Add electricity. Shorter fragments move farther
p. 346
http//www.bio.miami.edu/cmallery/150/gene/c7.20.
8.electrophoresis.jpg
72
  • 88) a. What is this image? A DNA fingerprint
  • b. How was it prepared? gel electrophoresis
  • c. Based on the evidence (Evs), who is guilty
    suspect 1 or 2? Suspect 2

73
  • 89) What problems could be associated with
    genetically modified organisms? unintended gene
    transfer to native species unknown effects on
    human health economic issues (poor farmers cant
    afford GM seed)
  • 90) What is the Human Genome Project? Complete
    mapping of all genes in human genome
  • Why is it useful? To ID people with genetic
    disorders early (prevention/treatment) find
    cures for disorders

74
  • 91) Contrast abiogenesis (spontaneous generation)
    and biogenesis. Abiogenesislife appears from
    non-living things Biogenesis life comes from
    life
  • 92) What did Louis Pasteur contribute to our
    understanding of the origins of life? Disproved
    spontaneous generation of microorganisms (broth
    experiments)

75
  • 93) Explain Miller and Ureys hypothesis
    created building blocks for life in lab (amino
    acids)
  • 94) How did early Earths conditions contribute
    to the development of life? No free O2 first
    organisms anaerobic simple (prokaryotic)
  • 95) Explain the evolution of eukaryotic cells and
    aerobic organisms. (Endosymbiont Theory)
    evolution of prokaryotic cells to eukaryotic
    cells
  • (aerobic bacteria?mitochondria
    cyanobacteria?chloroplast)

76
  • 96) What can you infer from a fossil record?
    Evolutionary relationship
  • Where do you find the oldest/youngest fossils?
    Oldest in bottom layer youngest on top
  • 97) Which is more accurate relative dating or
    radiometric dating? Explain each concept
    briefly. Relative dating uses rock layers
    Radiometric uses radioactive isotopes
  • Which is referred to as absolute dating?
    Radiometric dating

77
  • 98) Explain what scientists could conclude from
    this diagram.

They all evolved from a common ancestor because
of similar arrangement of bones.
78
  • 99) Define Natural Selection organisms best
    suited for their environment survive, reproduce,
    pass on favorable genes
  • 100) How are variation and natural selection
    related? Variations are raw material for natural
    selection to happen
  • 101) What is the role of geographic isolation in
    speciation? Physical barrier separating
    individuals of a population they no longer
    interbreed produce two species
  • 102) How does the environment select adaptations?
    Individuals with adaptations best suited to
    environment survive, reproduce, pass on genes
  • 103) Define the following and explain how they
    are related to natural selection
  • Pesticide Resistance organisms with resistant
    genes survive, reproduce, pass on genes
  • Antibiotic Resistance bacteria with resistant
    genes survive, multiply, pass on genes (MRSA, TB)

79
  • 104) How does our modern classification system
    show the evolutionary relationship among
    organisms? Phylogenetic systematics aim to group
    species in larger categories that reflect
    evolutionary relationships (based on DNA
    analysis)
  • 105) Based on the cladogram, which are more
    closely related bacteria and marsupials or
    birds and marsupials?

80
  • 106) Originally there were only two kingdoms
    (plants and animals), now there are 6 kingdoms.

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic? Unicellular or Multicellular? Method of obtaining nutrients Special characteristics
Eubacteria P (no nucleus) U autotrophic, heterotrophic, or chemosynthetic Antibiotics treat them many are decomposers
Archaebacteria P U Many are chemosynthetic Extreme habitats
Protista E (has nucleus) Both Both (auto or hetero) Amoeba, paramecium, euglena
Fungi E both (yeast is unicellular) Heterotrophic Decomposition, nutrient recycling
Plantae E M Autotrophic Has chloroplasts photosynthesis
Animalia E M Heterotrophic complex behaviors
81
  • 107) Who came up with the two word naming system?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  • What is this naming system called?
  • Binomial nomenclature
  • 2-name name- system
  • 108) Name the 8 levels of our current
    classification system starting from largest (most
    similarities) to smallest (most specific).

Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Species
More specific
Desperate King Phillip Came Over For Good
Spaghetti
82
  • 109) How has our knowledge of evolutionary
    relationships been affected by our understanding
    of
  • DNA analysis- the more similar DNA sequences of 2
    species, the more recently they shared common
    ancestor much more reliable than physical
    similarities (African vultures/American
    vultures/Stork)
  • Amino Acid Analysis- Compare similarities in
    protein sequences (cytochrome ccell
    respiration Hox genesembryo)

83
  • 112) Animal-like (unicellular) Protists
    Protozoans depend on diffusion osmosis to
    maintain homeostasis most reproduce asexually
    (mitosis) under stress some do conjugation
  • Amoeba-pseudopod aids movement, food capture
  • Paramecium cilia move it, usher food into
    mouth
  • Euglena moves with flagellum has red eye spot
    chloroplasts, moves toward light
  • 113) Animals multicellular, eukaryotic,
    heterotrophic
  • a. Chordata
  • i. Mammals have hair, mammary glands, internal
    fertilization, are endothermic
  • ii. Amphibians double life spend part of
    their life in water and part on land
    ectothermic external fertilization go through
    metamorphosis

84
  • 113)
  • b) Arthropoda- jointed appendages
  • Insects 3 body segments 6 legs
    exoskeleton made of chitin mostly internal
    fertilization open circulation system
  • c) Annelida- Segmented worms breathe excrete
    wastes through skin bilateral symmetry also use
    nephridia to excrete waste

85
  • 114) Plants multicellular autotrophic
    eukaryotic
  • a) Nonvascular plants Mosses- do not contain
    vascular tissue (xylem phloem) must grow near
    water reproduce with spores
  • b) Gymnosperms (conifers) naked seed seeds
    are enclosed in cones have needles instead of
    leaves have vascular tissues (xylem phloem)
  • c) Angiosperms- flowering plants produce seeds
    enclosed in fruits vascular tissue

Xy goes high Phlo goes low
86
  • 115) Why are the highly folded structures of
    mitochondria, intestines, and mammal brains
    significant?
  • Increased surface areaincreased activity (helps
    maintain homeostasis)
  • 116) What adaptations are necessary for plant
    life on land?
  • Vascular tissue, pollination must occur
    seeds/spores dispersed by abiotic/biotic factors
    (wind/water/animals)

87
  • 117) List the main functions of these plant parts
    and name adaptations for survival
  • Roots anchor plant prevent soil erosion
  • i. How do mycorrhizae aid in root function?
    Mutualistic relationships w/ fungus give roots
    increased surface area to help absorb more
    nutrients water
  • Stems structure, support
  • Leaves Photosynthesis!! Increased surface area
    for light absorption make glucose for plant
  • 118) What are xylem and phloem? Vascular tissue
  • What do they do? Xylem moves water up from roots
    to leaves Phloem moves sugar from leaves to roots

Xy goes high Phlo goes low
88
  • 119) Discuss the relationship between angiosperms
    and their pollinators. Co-evolution pollinators
    nectar-gathering structures match flowers to
    ensure pollination success
  • 120) What adaptations do plants have to ensure
    reproductive success? pollen/attractive flower
    colors, fragrance, fruit, open time, nectar
    amount

89
  • 121) Explain the result of mutations in viruses
    and other microorganisms, how does this benefit
    these disease-causing organisms? Mutations are
    driving force of evolution organisms can evolve
    resistance
  • 122) Describe the following disease causing
    pathogens. Are they a virus or bacteria? Which
    should be treated with antibiotics?
  • a. HIV virus causes AIDS
  • b. Influenza virus causes flu
  • c. Small Pox virus
  • d. Streptococcus (strep throat) bacteria treat
    w/ antibiotics (the only living pathogen on this
    slide)

90
  • 123) Describe how genetics and the environment
    affect
  • a. Sickle cell anemia and malaria carriers
    resistant to malaria
  • b. Lung/mouth cancer tobacco use tobacco
    causes mutations? cancer
  • Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid, and sun
    exposure overexposure to UV causes mutations
    folic acid helps repair skin damagemoderate sun
    exposure aids in vit. D absorption

91
  • d. Diabetes (diet/exercise and genes)
  • Type I is genetic
  • Type II can be genetically predisposed, BUT
    proper diet/exercise can help treat
  • e. PKU and diet genetic disorder diagnosed at
    birth proper diet prevents mental retardation

92
  • 124) Explain the role of T-cells and B-cells T
    cells attack kill B cells make antibodies
    both make memory cells to recognize pathogens
  • 125) Passive vs. Active Immunity passive-get
    from mother at birth temporary active-encounter
    antigens, antibodies are formed in response
  • 126) What are vaccines and how do they work?
    Weakened form of pathogen causes antibody
    memory cell production to fight off future
    invasions

93
  • 127) Explain malarias vector, symptoms,
    treatments, and causal organism.
  • Vector mosquito
  • Symptoms chills, fever, aches, fatigue
  • Treatments used to be Chloroquine, but parasite
    evolved resistance
  • Causal organism protist Plasmodium

94
  • 128) Explain the effects of the following toxins
    in the environment
  • a. Lead causes learning disabilities (ADD)
    birth defects
  • b. Mercury biomagnification birth defects from
    infected fish

95
  • 131) Define the following innate behaviors and
    taxes
  • a. Phototaxis (positive/negative) positive
    Euglenas move toward light negative squinting
    in bright light rolly pollies run away when turn
    over log
  • b. Suckling innate behavior to find
    nourishment immediately following birth
  • c. Migration seasonal movement for
    breeding/feeding grounds
  • d. Estivation decreased metabolic activity
    thru drought
  • e. Hibernation decreased metabolic activity
    thru winter

96
  • 132) Define the Types of Learned Behavior
  • a. Habituation- get used to repetitive behavior
    b/c no negative consequence
  • b. Imprinting forms a permanent attachment to
    mother upon hatching helps recognize appropriate
    mate
  • c. Classical Conditioning- Pavlovs dogs
    learning by association
  • d. Trial and Error- random proper response is
    rewarded

97
  • 133)Define the following social behaviors
  • Communication with pheromones- chemical signals
    send messages about mating/finding food
  • Courtship Dances and behaviors- ensures male with
    best genes mates elaborate displays, esp. in
    birds
  • c. Territorial Defense- males fight males of
    same species strongest, best adapted male gets
    to mate

98
  • 134) Define
  • a) Phototropism leaves/stems bend toward light
    (positive response)
  • b) Thigmotropism response to touch causes
    vining
  • c) geotropism/gravitropism leaves/stems respond
    negatively to gravity pull roots respond
    positively

99
  • 135) List the levels of ecological organization
    from smallest to largest

Single of a species Group of organisms, same
species All living things in an area Biotic
abiotic factors in an area Regions of similar
habitat Portion of earth where all life is
100
  • 136) What is a symbiotic relationship? Permanent
    relationship between organisms
  • Define and give an example of the following
    symbiotic relationships.
  • Mutualism - both benefit
  • ex clownfish/anemone
  • Commensalism- one benefits, one neither hurt nor
    helped
  • ex barnacles on a whale
  • Parasitism- host is hurt parasite benefits
  • ex fleas on a dog
  • d. What type of symbiosis could Nitrogen
    fixation represent? Explain. Mutualism
    nitrogen-fixing bacteria on plant roots get
    glucose, plant gets N in a form it can absorb

101
  • 137) What is a limiting factor? What are some
    examples? keeps population near carrying capacity
  • examples food, disease, predators, space

102
  • 138) Carrying capacity max of organisms
    environment can support

Carrying capacity
of organisms
Exponential growth
Time
103
  • 139) What are abiotic and biotic factors?
  • abiotic nonliving factors
  • ex air currents, temperature, light,
    soil, moisture pH
  • biotic factors living factors
  • How are they related?
  • interdependent in ecosystems
  • Why are they important in ecosystems?
  • abiotic factors shelter, resources needed
    for survival
  • biotic factors all organisms depend on
    others for food, shelter, reproduction and/or
    protection

104
  • 140) What is a food chain?
  • linear diagram showing feeding relationship
  • Draw a food chain including the following
    organisms heron, minnow, plankton Plankton
    ? minnow ? heron
  • 141) How much energy is passed from one trophic
    level to the next? 10
  • What happens to the rest?
  • lost as heat
  • Draw label a
  • trophic pyramid.

105
2C, 3C, Carn.
2C, 3C, Carn.
3C, Carn.
1C, Herb.
1C, Herb.
2C, Carn.
1C, Herb.
1C, Herb.
Producer
Producer
106
  • 142 cont.) What would happen if grasshoppers were
    removed from the food web by insecticides?
    Producers increase Frog population will decrease
  • Where would you find bacteria in the food web
    what is its primary role? At all levels
    decomposer
  • Where would you find fungi in the food web what
    is its primary role? At all levels decomposer
  • 143) What are some factors that influence birth
    and death rates in the human population?
    Disease, sanitation, availability of resources,
    education of women

107
  • What does this graph depict about historical
    population growth?
  • Pre-Industrial revolution slow growth
  • Post-Industrial revolution exponential
    growth
  • What does it indicate about possible future
    growth? Continue to grow exponentially

108
  • 144) What effects do the following have on the
    environment?
  • Human population size?
  • reduce availability of resources
  • Human Population density
  • resources are quickly used polluted disease
    spreads quickly
  • Resource use?
  • Future generations will have fewer
  • resources available to them

109
  • 145) How have humans impacted the ecosystems
    through
  • Acid rain Caused by emissions (from automobile
    exhaust coal-burning factories). Can damage
    trees and alter water ecosystems.
  • Habitat destruction populations forced to move
    or die due to humans destroying or degrading
    habitats
  • Introduced non-native species competition for
    food and other resources rapid growth b/c no
    natural predators

110
  • 146) Climate change factors
  • Define greenhouse effect CO2 traps heat in
    atmosphere, global temp increase
  • How does the carbon cycle impact the greenhouse
    effect? Photosynthesis removes CO2 from atm.
  • Plants Animals release CO2 as a waste
    product of respiration
  • ii. How have humans impacted the carbon cycle?
    Increased carbon emissions.
  • Deforestation less carbon removed thru
    photosynthesis

111
  • 146)
  • How do natural environmental processes impact the
    greenhouse effect? Water vapor is greenhouse gas
    with most volume
  • What is global warming and what causes it?
    Overall increase in the average global
    temperature caused by too many greenhouse gases
    (CO2)

112
  • 147) How does human resource use cause
    deforestation? Cut down trees for building
    materials, clear land for development
  • What impact does deforestation have?
  • Habitat loss Biodiversity loss
  • Discuss habitat fragmentation.
  • Separation of wilderness areas from other
    wilderness
  • Can cause edge effects extinction difficult for
    animals to find food/mates overall species
    diversity declines

113
  • 148) Pesticides
  • a. What are some biological alternatives to
    chemical pesticides? Biological controls natural
    predators (ladybugs, praying mantis, spiders) eat
    pests
  • What are the pros and cons?
  • Pro reduction of harmful chemicals in our
    food/environment beneficial organisms are not
    affected
  • Cons food is more expensive

114
  • 148) cont.
  • What is DDT and what is its effect on the
    environment? Pesticide now banned in the US.
    Harmful to many species bioaccumulates. Has
    caused decline of bird populations.
  • c. Explain bioaccumulation and biomagnification.
  • Bioaccumulation harmful chemicals build up in
    fat tissues
  • Biomagnification organisms at the top of the
    food chain/web have more of the harmful chemical
    in their bodies

115
  • 149) Explain ozone depletion.
  • Ozone molecules are broken apart allows
    greater of harmful UV rays to penetrate our
    environment
  • What causes it and why is it a problem?
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  • Increased UV causes skin mutations

116
  • 150) Give examples of sustainable practices and
    stewardship.
  • Habitat preservation (Yellowstone), recycling,
    reintroduction programs, ecotourism, laws to
    protect endangered species
About PowerShow.com