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Chapter 26: Cold War Conflicts (Section 1)

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Mr. Colburn 11th Grade United States History Since 1877 In the aftermath of World War II, the US and the Soviet Union (USSR) possessed very different visions for the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 26: Cold War Conflicts (Section 1)


1
Chapter 26 Cold War Conflicts (Section 1)
  • Mr. Colburn
  • 11th Grade United States History Since 1877

2
Section 1 Origins of the Cold War
  • In the aftermath of World War II, the US and the
    Soviet Union (USSR) possessed very different
    visions for the future.
  • Germany is finished. The real problem is
    Russia. I cant get the Americans to see it.
    Winston Churchill

3
I. Former Allies Clash
  • Communism vs. Democratic Capitalism.
  • World War II rivalry still existed.
  • USs delayed entry into the war.
  • Disagreed on war strategy.
  • The USSR had a past history of supporting Hitler.

4
A. The Yalta Conference (1945)
  • American, British, and Russian allies met at
    Yalta to discuss peace terms with Germany.
  • FDR tried to get Russia to declare war on Japan.
  • The US and USSR disagreed over Polands future.
  • Debate over what government Poland should become
    (Democratic or Communist)

5
A. The United Nations
  • The United Nations was created in San Francisco
    in April of 1945.
  • Major goals
  • Countries agreed to settle differences peacefully
  • Promote justice and cooperation
  • Take collective measures to prevent future wars.

6
A. The United Nations
  • The US, China, USSR, France, and Great Britain
    all hold permanent seats on the UN security
    council and possess the power to veto proposed
    policies.
  • The UN supported anti-Communist measures
    throughout the Cold War.

7
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8
B. Truman Becomes President/Potsdam
  • President Roosevelt passed away on April 12,
    1945.
  • Succeeded by Harry Truman
  • People were worried about Truman.
  • Trumans first test was at Potsdam in July 1945.
  • Final wartime conference
  • Stalin prevented Poland from obtaining free
    elections.
  • Truman received word that the atomic bomb was
    ready for use.

9
II. Tensions Mount
  • Trumans goals were undermined by Stalin.
  • Stalin wanted specific war reparations from
    Germany.
  • The US wanted to allow former Nazi nations to
    establish governments based on self-determination.
  • The US also wanted access to Eastern European
    markets.

10
A. Soviets in Eastern Europe
  • The USSR was devastated by World War II.
  • 17-20 million Soviet deaths
  • They felt entitled to countries in Eastern
    Europe.
  • The USSR set up a buffer zone of Communist
    satellite nations in Eastern Europe.
  • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovokia, Hungary,
    Romania, East Germany, Finland, and Yugoslavia

11
B. Containment
  • George F. Kenan proposed that the United States
    adopt a foreign policy of containment.
  • At this point, Europe was divided into two main
    political regions.
  • The mostly communist East
  • The mostly democratic West
  • Winston Churchill described the situation in
    Europe as an iron curtain.

12
II. Cold War in Europe
  • The conflicting US and Soviet aims in Eastern
    Europe led to the Cold War.
  • The competition that developed between the United
    States and the Soviet Union for power and
    influence in the world.
  • The Cold War was characterized by political and
    economic conflict and military tensions.

13
A. The Truman Doctrine
  • Soviets threatened the Communist takeover of
    Greece and Turkey.
  • Truman outlined the Truman Doctrine in his
    request to aid Greece and Turkey.
  • The United States put containment to work by
    donating 400 million to Greece and Turkey.
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • it must be the policy of the United States to
    support free peoples who are resisting attempted
    subjugation conquest by armed minorities or by
    outside pressures.

14
B. The Marshall Plan
  • Western Europe was in shambles after World War
    II.
  • Sec. of State George Marshall proposed that the
    US provide aid to all European nations that
    needed it.
  • This relief proposal became known as the Marshall
    Plan.
  • 16 countries
  • 13 billion in aid.
  • Hindered Communist appeal to voters

15
III. The Struggle for Germany
  • Germany was divided into four occupation zones.
  • US, France, GB, USSR
  • US, France, GB unified their zones into one.
  • Berlin was divided in into East and West Berlin.
  • East Berlin USSR (Comm.)
  • West Berlin US, GB, France (Democratic)

16
A. The Berlin Airlift
  • Stalin blocked roads into West Berlin in an
    attempt to starve the city into Communism.
  • US British officials started the Berlin airlift
    to fly foods and supplies into West Berlin.
  • Stalin lifted the blockade
  • US reputation around the world increased.

17
B. The NATO Alliance
  • Stalins actions including the Berlin blockade
    caused Western nations to fear Soviet aggression.
  • 10 Western European nations, along with the US
    Canada formed a defensive military alliance
    called the North Atlantic Treat Organization on
    April 4, 1949.
  • Member nations pledged to support one another if
    attacked.
  • 500,000 troops
  • Numerous amount of equipment
  • The Cold War ended US isolationism.
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