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Unit Topics: Independence Movements; regional social, economic, and political developments since 1945

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World History Unit 6 Unit Topics: Independence Movements; regional social, economic, and political developments since 1945 , Wars and Advancing Technology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit Topics: Independence Movements; regional social, economic, and political developments since 1945


1
World History Unit 6
Unit Topics Independence Movements regional
social, economic, and political developments
since 1945, Wars and Advancing Technology SOLs
WHII 1a,b,c,d,e 13 b,c 15 a,b,c and embedded
SOL REVIEW!!!!
2
  • WH II 14REVIEW INDIA!!! The student will
    demonstrate knowledge of political, economic,
    social, and cultural aspects of independence
    movements and development efforts by
  • describing the struggles for self-rule, including
    Gandhis leadership in India and the development
    of Indias democracy
  • describing Africas achievement of independence,
    including Jomo Kenyattas leadership of Kenya and
    Nelson Mandelas
  • describing the end of the mandate system and the
    creation of states in the Middle East, including
    the roles of Golda Meir and Gamal Abdul Nasser.

3
India Independence
  • What do you know about each of the following
  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Gandhi
  • Nehru
  • Jinnah
  • Indira Gandhi

4
Independence for India
  • British policies and the demand for self rule led
    to the rise of Indian Independence movements,
    which resulted in the creation of new states in
    the Indian sub continent.
  • What were the British policies?
  • Who made demands for independence?
  • What methods did they use?

5
GEOGRAPHY of India on a map
  • Find on the Indian sub-continent
  • Area called British India
  • The Republic of India, a democratic nation that
    developed after independence
  • Pakistan (formerly WEST Pakistan)
  • Bangladesh (formerly EAST Pakistan)
  • Sri Lanka (formerly CEYLON)

6
Independence in Africa
  • describe Africas achievement of independence,
    including Jomo Kenyattas leadership of Kenya and
    Nelson Mandelas
  • Jomo Kenyatta
  • Nelson Mandela
  • Other independence leaders (see chart)

7
African Independence
  • POST WWII Independence due to
  • Right to self-determination is part of the UN
    Charter
  • Increasing pride in African cultures and heritage
  • Resentment toward imperial rule and economic
    exploitation
  • Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France,
    Belgium and Portugal
  • Influence of the post-WWII superpower rivalry
    during the COLD WAR

8
Independence in Africa West vs. East
  • WEST Africa PEACFUL
  • EAST Africa VIOLENT

9
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10
African Independence
  • Revolutions were both peaceful AND violent
  • WEST Africa mostly peaceful (Ghana)
  • Algeria War for Independence from France
    (VIOLENT)
  • EAST Africa many VIOLENT revolutions
  • Kenya VIOLENT (Jomo Kenyatta, Mau-Mau, etc.)
  • South Africa VIOLENT also
  • APARTHEID (racial segregation was a big problem
    and led to international outcry to end it)
  • Nelson Mandelas leadership was crucial

11
African Independence Kwame Nkrumah
  • Ghana (Gold Coast) British colony

12
African Independence JOMO KENYATTA
  • Kenya (British colony)

13
African Independence Mau-Mau
  • Kenya (British colony)
  • VIOLENT

14
African Independence Idi Amin
  • UgandaBritish colony
  • VIOLENT!

15
African Independence Nelson Mandela
  • South Africa (Dutch, then British colony)
  • VIOLENT
  • British fought Dutch farmers known as BOERS
  • British fought ZULU tribe, led by Shaka ZULU

16
African Independence F.W.de Klerk
17
Archbishop Desmond Tutu
  • Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, this
    Anglican Archbishop supported economic sanctions
    against his own country and other nonviolent
    means to challenge the system of racial
    segregation in South Africa. (APARTHEID)

18
African Independence Mobutu Sese Seko
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known
    as ZAIREand formerly known as the Belgian
    Congo!)
  • Renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo after
    Sese Seko was overthrown

19
African Independence Robert Mugabe
  • Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia)
  • Named after Cecil Rhodes (a British imperialist)

20
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21
Robert Mugabe
  • This Rhodesian nationalist leader fought against
    white minority rule and helped bring about
    independence in 1980. The country was renamed
    Zimbabwe after an ancient African kingdom and
    this man was elected president. He insisted on
    one party rule and tolerated little opposition.

22
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23
African Independence Ian Smith
  • Rhodesia (before it became Zimbabwe) --British
    colony

24
African Independence Julius Nyerere
  • TanzaniaBritish colony

25
See page 704 in the book!
26
Review history of Monotheism Judaism Christianity
Islam
27
Middle East describe the end of the mandate
system and the creation of states in the Middle
East, including the roles of Golda Meir and Gamal
Abdel Nasser.
  • Review Colonialism, Berlin Conference, religion,
    WW I and WWII, Holocaust, establishment of
    Israel, and related events

28
Middle East Peace and Conflict
  • Nationalism and the mandate system after WWI
    (REVIEW!)
  • UN decision to END the mandate system after WWII
  • Religious conflicts cause TENSION and violence
  • Economic development and the tension between
    modernization and westernization
  • Arab-Israeli Dispute (ongoing)
  • Egypt and the Suez Canal (Suez Crisis)

29
Middle East Peace and Conflict
  • Mandates (after WWI) to know and find on a map
  • FRENCH Syria and Lebanon
  • BRITISH Jordan (called Transjordan) and
    Palestine (part became independent as the State
    of Israel in 1948)
  • Can you discuss part of the HISTORY and culture
    of the mandates before, during and after the
    mandate era?

30
Middle East Golda Meir
  • Prime minister of Israel
  • led Israel (after initial setbacks) to victory
    in the Yom Kippur War
  • Strong support of the United States

31
Israels position is vulnerable in the Middle East
32
Middle East Gamal Abdel NASSER
  • President of Egypt
  • Nationalized the Suez Canal (took it from British
    control)
  • Established a relationship with the Soviet Union
    during the Cold War
  • Built the Aswan High Dam

33
Gamal Abdel NASSER
  • founder of the so-called Non-Aligned Movement (
    India and Yugoslavia)
  • developed close relations with the Soviet Union.
  • USSR its satellites became chief source of
    military equipment and financial aid, beginning
    with a massive arms deal with Czechoslovakia in
    1955.
  • May of 1967, Nasser expelled UN peacekeepers from
    the Sinai peninsula and announced a blockade of
    the Straits of Tiran to Israel-bound shipping.
    (Openly declares he wants to destroy Israel)

34
Key wars to remember about Israel and its
neighbors
  • 1948 State of Israel is created
  • Immediately invaded by Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon,
    and Syria
  • Suez Crisis (Nasser in Egypt) and later the Six
    Day War 1967
  • 1973 Yom Kippur War (vs. Egypt and Syria)

35
Six Day War
  • the third major Arab-Israeli conflict  was in a
    sense a continuation of the first two wars.
    Broadly speaking, the causes of the fighting in
    1967 overlapped with the causes of fighting in
    1948 (Arab rejection of Israel) and 1956
    (continued rejectionism and an Egyptian blockade
    of shipping to Israel).
  • Israel, Egypt, Syria and Jordan were the key
    players

36
Middle East Conflict as part of the COLD WAR
  • Geopolitical aspects of Six Day War 1967
  • As American relations with Egypt soured, the
    Soviet Union stepped up its influence in the Arab
    world, working to build (pro-Soviet) Arab unity
    by focusing Arab attention on their common enemy,
    Israel
  • USA tries to get Israel to hold off and never
    strike first. USA provides intelligence to assist
    Israel make every strike count when they have to

37
Middle East Yasir Arafat
  • Committed soldier against state of Israel
  • Head of the PLO (independent nationalist
    organization)
  • By 1988, he renounces violence and by 1993
    signs Oslo Peace Accords with Rabin.
  • BUT, a new intifada begins 2000.
  • Arafat dies in 2004

38
Oslo Peace Accords,1993
  • TERMS for Palestinians were to include
  • Self rule in West Bank Gaza Strip (find those
    on the map)
  • renunciation of terrorism (STOP being
    terrorists!)
  • Recognize Israels right to exist

39
Middle East Yitzak Rabin
  • Gets a Nobel Peace Prize with Arafat
  • Assassinated by a Jewish student

40
Middle East Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Installed after 1979 Islamic Revolution that
    overthrew Pahlavi Dynasty in Iran
  • US embassy was raided and US hostages held until
    1980

41
SEE PAGE 713 in the book!
42
  • Review the following world leaders who made major
    contributions to events in the second half of the
    twentieth century
  • Country?
  • Religion?
  • Notable cultural features?
  • Relationship with USA USSR during Cold War Era?
  • Current Events?

43
Indira Gandhi
  • From India
  • Closer relationship between India and the Soviet
    Union during the Cold War
  • Developed nuclear program

44
Margaret Thatcher
  • British prime minister
  • Free trade and less government regulation of
    business
  • Close relationship with United States and U.S.
    foreign policy
  • Assertion of United Kingdoms military power
  •  

45
Mikhail Gorbachev Ronald Reagan
  • Glasnost (openness free speech, press) and
    perestroika (restructuring of the Soviet
    economy market, free enterprise with some
    private business)
  • Last president of Soviet Union

46
Deng Xiaoping
  • Reformed Communist Chinas economy to a market
    economy leading to rapid economic growth
  • Continued communist control of government

47
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48
Asia in Transition China after WW II
  • Division of China into two nations at the end of
    WWII (Taiwan and Peoples Republic of China)
  • Communist China participated in Korean Conflict
    on North Koreas side
  • Modern leadership of DENG XIAOPENG/REFORMS ECONOMY

49
China after Mao DENG XIAOPING
  • Reformed communist economy to market economy
    leading to RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH
  • Continued Communist control of the government
  • Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989
  • Died 1997

50
Asia in Transition Southeast Asia and the
struggle to establish democratic govt
  • Colonial heritage
  • Ethnic and religious conflict

51
Asia in Transition Japan and the ASIAN TIGERS
  • These areas have created successful industrial
    economies and are the new powerhouses of the
    global economy
  • Japan
  • South Korea
  • Singapore
  • Hong Kong

52
Can you identify the nations of Asia and
Southeast Asia and discuss the religion and
histories of those nations?
53
IMPORTANT End of the Semester Items to wrap it
all up
  • Terrorism Global Security concerns
  • Global economy
  • Technology and Communications Revolution
  • Energy and Green Info
  • The FUTURE

54
Analyze the increasing impact of TERRORISM
  • What is terrorism?
  • What causes terrorism?
  • What are some EXAMPLES of terrorist activities?
  • How has terrorism affected both developed and
    developing nations?

55
Terrorism
  • the use of violence and threats to intimidate
    and coerce for political reasons
  • RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM is a major cause
  • Another cause is the inability to deal with
    inequities in social, cultural or economic
    systems in a terrorists homeland

56
Terrorism EXAMPLES
  • Munich Olympics in 1972 (PLO murdered Israeli
    athletes in the Olympic Village dorms)
  • USA on Sept. 11, 2001 (9-11) (Muslim extremists
    encouraged by Osama Bin Laden attacked Twin
    Towers in NTC and the Pentagon in Washington, DC)
  • Car bombings
  • Suicide Bombers
  • Airline Hijackers

57
Munich, Germany Sept. 5, 1972
  • Early group of the Palestinian Liberation
    Organization (PLO) calling themselves Black
    September attacked Israeli athletes in Olympic
  • Hostages all killed at airport

58
Osama Bin Laden his religious extremists on
Sept. 11th, 2001
59
Government Responses to Terrorism
  • SURVEILLANCE of suspects
  • Restriction of some privacy rights
  • More security at airports and water-ports
  • Increased use of IDENTIFICATION BADGES and PHOTO
    IDS

60
  • WW II 16 The student will demonstrate knowledge
    of cultural, economic, and social conditions in
    developed and developing nations of the
    contemporary world
  •  

Q What can you tell me about the HISTORIES of
the places in RED? Religions? Colonial ism?
Independence Struggles? Terrorist Activities?
61
A. identifying contemporary political issues,
with emphasis on migrations of refugees and
others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the
impact of technology, including chemical and
biological technologies
Q What are some of the Key Challenges faced by
the contemporary world? Q What new technologies
have created both OPPORTUNITIES and challenges?
62
Challenge MIGRATIONS
  • REFUGEES
  • GUEST WORKERS
  • Numbers of guest workers flood European cities
  • International conflicts produce waves of refugees
    fleeing political, ethnic, religious or economic
    troubles in
  • Middle East
  • Northern Ireland
  • Balkans
  • Horn of Africa
  • South Asia

63
New TechnologiesGood and/or Bad
  • IMPACT of New Technology?
  • Widespread BUT UNEQUAL access to computers
  • Instantaneous communication via internet,
    cell-phone, IM, social media etc.
  • BIOETHICS of genetic engineering and cloning

64
b) assessing the impact of economic development
and global population growth on the environment
and society, including an understanding of the
links between economic and political freedom.
  • Q How does the developing world compare with the
    developed world in terms of economic, social and
    population characteristics?

65
Characteristics
  • DEVELOPED
  • DEVELOPIN G
  • Location on map?
  • Economics weak or in transition
  • Social conditions literacy rates tend to be LOW
    here, little access to health care or
    technologies
  • Population SIZE and growth rates high
  • Location on Map?
  • Strong economics with more knowledge workers in
    service industries
  • Social conditions HIGH literacy rates, access to
    health care and technologies
  • Populations are manageable growth is lower

66
Q What effect or IMPACTS are economic
development and rapid population growth having on
the ENVIRONMENT?
67
Negative Effects in developing countries
  • POLLUTION
  • Habitats lost from destruction of environment
  • Global climate change (used to be called ozone
    depletion)
  • Poverty
  • Poor health
  • Illiteracy (people cant read or write)
  • Famine (people starve)
  • Migrations.as refugees or guest workers

68
Q What are the links between economic
development and political freedom?
  • FREE market economies (except in China) produce
    good things for the people
  • Rising standard of living (life is better in
    general)
  • Expanding and prosperous MIDDLE CLASS
  • Middle Class then DEMANDS more POLITICAL FREEDOMS
    and INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS (except in China)
  • Look at TAIWAN (Jiang Jieshi) and SOUTH KOREA
    (NOT communist)

69
  • C. describing economic interdependence including
    the rise of
  • multinational corporations
  • international organizations
  • trade agreements
  •  

Q How is economic interdependence changing the
world?
70
How is economic interdependence changing the
world?
  • Rapid transportation , communication and computer
    network
  • Rise and influence of MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS
  • Changing role of international boundaries
  • Regional integration like European Union
  • Trade Agreements between nations NAFTA, WTO
    (World Trade Organization)
  • International Organizations UN IMF
    (International Monetary Fund)

71
  • WH II 15 REVIEW!!The student will demonstrate
    knowledge of Judaism, Christianity, Islam,
    Buddhism, and Hinduism in the contemporary world
    by
  • describing their beliefs, sacred writings,
    traditions and customs
  • Locating the geographic distribution of religions
    in the contemporary world
  • Unofficial c is associating the role of
    religion in modern political conflicts

72
Current Status of the World
  • Be able to identify each country (ANY country) on
    the world map
  • Be able to generalize an intelligent statement
    about that country regarding
  • A. Status at 1500
  • B. Status at 1800
  • C. Status at 1945
  • D. Status at 2014 with a current event!
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