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World War Two/Cold War


The End of World War Two The Beginning of the Cold War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War Two/Cold War

World War Two/Cold War
  • The End of World War Two
  • The Beginning of the Cold War

Yalta Conference
  • February 1945.
  • Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
  • Meet at Yalta in the Soviet Union.
  • Purpose
  • Decide the fate of Europe.
  • How to divide Germany.
  • East and West
  • Who would control Germany.
  • France/Britain/U.S. West Germany
  • Soviet Union East Germany
  • Who would control Berlin.
  • Who would rebuild Europe.
  • Stalin agreed to oversee the creation of new
    governments in Eastern Europe.

The Atomic Bomb
  • The Atomic Bomb
  • The first atomic bomb is exploded in New Mexico
    on July 16, 1945.
  • Aug. 6, 1945 the first bomb is dropped on
    Hiroshima 73,000 die.
  • Aug 9, 1945 the second bomb is dropped on
    Nagasaki 37,500 die.
  • The way war is fought is drastically changed

The Cost of War
  • 60 million people left dead.
  • 22 million Russians
  • 6 million Jews
  • 50 million are driven from their homes.
  • Damages run into the billions.

Tragedy of War
  • 6 million innocent Jews, 5 million Gypsies,
    Slavs, handicapped, and others.
  • In Nanjing in 1937 the Japanese murdered 250,000

Nuremberg War Trials
  • 22 Nazi leaders are tried for crimes against
  • The world realizes that what occurred during the
    Holocaust can never happen again.
  • 12 were sentenced to death.

Creation of the United Nations
  • An international organization to protect the
    world against aggression.
  • An international organization to protect the
    people of the world.

United Nations
  • The two main bodies of the United Nations are
  • The General Assembly
  • Consist of representatives of all member
  • All representatives have one vote.
  • The Security Council
  • 15 member nations
  • 5 are permanent nations (U.S., Russia, France,
    Great Britain, China)

  • Germany
  • In order to prevent Germany from starting another
    war, British, American, French and Russian troops
    were to occupy Germany.
  • Germany would be split into East and West.
  • Japan
  • Japan was forced demilitarize or disband their
  • Tojo was sentenced to death.
  • The U.S. created a democratic government for
  • The U.S. gave billions of dollars to re-build

Divided Europe
  • Two major powers emerged from WWII
  • The democratic and capitalistic - U.S.
  • The Communist - Soviet Union.
  • The political and economic differences of both
    countries would lead to the Cold War.
  • This conflict between democracy and communism
    would spread around the globe resulting in
  • An arms race
  • Race to explore space
  • Military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Africa, and
    the Middle East.

The Beginning
  • The Atomic Bomb
  • In 1945 the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on
  • The atomic bomb ushered in the nuclear age.
  • Once the U.S. obtained the atomic bomb the
    Soviets also began to start building the bomb.

The End of World War Two
  • The war ends
  • At the end of the war Germany is divided to stop
    them from starting future wars.
  • The Soviets control eastern Germany
  • The U.S. and their allies control western Germany
  • There is tension on both sides.

  • Germany
  • In order to prevent Germany from starting another
    war, British, American, French and Russian troops
    were to occupy Germany.
  • Germany would be split into East and West.
  • Japan
  • Japan was forced demilitarize or disband their
  • Tojo was sentenced to death.
  • The U.S. created a democratic government for
  • The U.S. gave billions of dollars to re-build

Divided Europe
  • Two major powers emerged from WWII
  • The democratic and capitalistic - U.S.
  • The Communist - Soviet Union.
  • The political and economic differences of both
    countries would lead to the Cold War.
  • This conflict between democracy and communism
    would spread around the globe resulting in
  • An arms race
  • Race to explore space
  • Military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Africa, and
    the Middle East.

The Growth of Superpowers
  • After World War Two the U.S. and the Soviet Union
    emerge as the two superpowers.
  • Superpower is used to describe the rivalry
    between both countries to dominate world
  • Both countries had a mutual distrust of the other.

U.S. v Soviets
  • The U.S. wanted to
  • Promote worldwide democracy.
  • Stop the rise of communism.
  • Open free trade markets to obtain natural
  • Re-build Europe to open trade markets.
  • Create a stable Europe and unite Germany to stop
    the spread of communism.
  • The Soviets wanted to
  • Promote worldwide communism.
  • Control eastern Europe as buffer zone to protect
    the Soviet Union.
  • Control eastern Europe as a way of countering
    U.S. influence in Europe.
  • Keep Germany divided.

The U.S. and the Soviets
  • Both countries had a mutual distrust of each
  • The tension between both countries came from
    different political and economic thought
  • U.S.-Democracy and Capitalism
  • Soviets-Communism and Command economy
  • Called a cold war because an armed conflict
    between either superpower never occurred.

The U.S. View
  • The United States developed a program called
  • This policy was first outlined under the Truman
  • It implied that the U.S. would use military
    alliances-NATO, economic aid-The Marshall Plan,
    and military involvement-Korean War/Vietnam War
    to stop the spread of Communism in the world

The Soviet View
  • The Soviets feared that the western nations would
    try to destroy the Soviets and Communism.
  • Stalin distrusted everyone.
  • Stalin forced pro-governments on the countries
    surrounding Russia like Poland, Czechoslovakia,
    Hungary, Romania and East Germany.

  • In the 1930s Germany, Italy and Japan attempt to
    build world empires.
  • During World War Two new weapons of mass
    destruction cause massive loss of life to both
    soldiers and civilian populations.
  • The brutality of war, killing innocent civilians
    which had never been seen in history.
  • The world was now divided between democracy
    (U.S.) and communism (Soviets)

Early Cold War Tensions
The Iron Curtain
  • After the war the Soviets were responsible for
    re-building Eastern Europe.
  • Stalin wanted a buffer zone in Europe.
  • Soon Stalin supported pro-communist governments
    in eastern Europe.
  • Europe became divided eastcommunist
  • This became known as the Iron Curtain.

The Iron Curtain
Some of the eastern block Iron Curtain countries.
Soviet Satellites
  • These pro-communist countries loyal to the Soviet
    Union became known as satellites.

  • Containment is a policy of blocking the spread of
    Soviet influence and communism in the world
  • This is done by giving economic and military aid
    and making alliances to help countries resist the
  • Containment first comes into play in Greece and
    Turkey in 1947.

The Truman Doctrine
  • The U.S. pledges to resist Soviet expansion.
  • Communist were moving into Greece and Turkey.
  • Truman asks Congress for both military and
    economic aid to be sent to these countries resist
  • This was a part of the containment policy.

The Marshall Plan
  • In 1947 massive economic aid to help rebuild
    democratic countries in Europe.
  • Billions of were spent to help western European
    nations recover from WWII.
  • Aid was also offered to countries like Poland
    which were under Soviet control-Stalin forbid
    these countries from accepting the aid.
  • The Marshall Plan was also a policy of

The Berlin Airlift
  • 1st Cold War crisis.
  • 1948
  • Stalin wanted to force the allies out of Berlin.
  • Soviets closed all land routes into Berlins
    ( No food)
  • The U.S. and allies showed its support for the
    Germany and democracy by flying in supplies to
    West Berlin for 11 months.
  • Finally the Soviets were forced to end the

The Berlin Wall
  • The Berlin Airlift lead to a divided Germany.
  • Western Germany was supported by the U.S. and in
    1949 became the Federal Republic of Germany.
  • In 1961 the East German government built the
    Berlin Wall to further divide Germany.
  • The wall will become the symbol of the Cold War.
  • East German military will shoot anyone trying to
    escape to the west.

N.A.T.O. v. Warsaw Pact
  • N.A.T.O. (1949)
  • Western European countries formed a military
    alliance after the Berlin Airlift.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  • Pledged to support each other with military
    support if attacked.
  • Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • Made up of the Soviet Union and seven of its
    satellites. (Eastern European countries)
  • Pledged to support each other with military
    support if attacked.

The Soviets control the East
Repression in Eastern Europe
  • Stalin and the Soviets tried to keep tight
    control over Eastern Europe.
  • 1950s Tensions rose in
  • East Germany
  • Poland
  • Soviets use tanks to put down revolts.

Repression in Eastern Europe
  • Stalin dies in 1953 However.
  • The new Soviet leader
  • Nikita Khrushchev takes
  • Control and continues the repressions with the
    eastern block countries

Repressions in Eastern Europe
  • The Soviets kept tight control of Eastern Europe.
  • Some of the Soviet satellites wanted to break
    free of Soviet domination.
  • In East Germany and Poland revolts were put down
    with tanks.
  • The Soviets would use force to control the east.

The Hungarian Revolt
  • Imre Nagy a Hungarian nationalist lead a revolt
    in 1956.
  • Nagy wanted to end one party communist rule.
  • Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw pact.
  • The Soviets sent in troops, thousands died and
    the Soviets kept control of Hungary.

The Invasion of Czechoslovakia
  • In the spring of 1968 Alexander Dubcek called for
    liberal reforms and lessening of communist
    control in Czechoslovakia.
  • The Czechs wanted to end censorship and create a
    new democratic constitution.
  • The Soviets sent in troops, took over the
    government and restored a communist dictatorship.

Berlin Wall
  • Soviets built a wall surrounding the communist
    zone in the city of Berlin in an effort to
    prevent East Berliners from escaping to the west.
  • Symbol of the Cold War.

Soviet Domination
  • It was clear that the Soviets had planned on
    using force and military threats to keep the
    Eastern Block countries in line and the communist
    system of government in tact in Eastern Europe.

Tensions Heat Up
Cold War Tensions
  • Tensions began to flare up between the communist
    Soviets and the democratic U.S. around the world.
  • The superpowers supported opposing sides with
    troops, economic aid, and advisors.

Arms Race
  • During the Cold War both the U.S. and Soviets
    raced to build the biggest and most destructive
  • This was known as Nuclear Proliferation.
  • Each country spent billions of dollars on
    development of nuclear weapons otherwise known as
    weapons of mass destruction.
  • At the height of the Cold War both countries
    possessed enough nuclear weapons to destroy the
    earth 14 times over.

  • The reason for the build-up was for both First
    Strikes and Mutual Assured Destruction of each
  • If the Soviets planned to attack the U.S. with
    nuclear weapons then the U.S. would respond with
    the same.
  • Something needed to be done to stop the build

The Space Race
  • In 1957 the Soviets launched Sputnik-the 1st
    satellite to orbit the earth.
  • The U.S. in an effort to catch up created the
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • 1958 the U.S. launches a satellite
  • 1961 the Soviets put a man into space
  • 1969 the U.S. puts a man on the moon.

The Space Race
  • The Space Race also created an educational race
    between both countries.
  • The U.S. felt they had fallen behind the Soviet
    in education.
  • Both science and math were promoted in public
    schools and colleges.
  • The Space Race also caused a drain in economic
    resources for both countries.

Hot Wars during the Cold War
  • After WWII Korea was divided into North and
  • The U.S. controlled the democratic south.
  • The Soviets controlled the communist north.
  • In 1949 both the Soviets and the U.S. left Korea.
  • In 1950 North Korea wanted to unify Korea under a
    communist government.
  • North Korea invaded South Korea.

  • The United Nations supported largely with U.S.
    troops fought back the North Koreans.
  • The U.S. pushes the North Koreans back into
  • China becomes involved in the war and sends

  • By 1953 the war becomes a stalemate with both
    countries in the same location as before the war
  • 38th Parallel which splits Korea in two is the
    dividing line between communist North and
    democratic South .
  • Korea remains divided today and troops from both
    sides still occupy the 38th Parallel.

  • Vietnam had been a colony of the French since
    about 1800.
  • During WWII Vietnam (The Vietminh-a communist
    nationalist group headed by Ho Chi Minh) fought
    on the side of the French to drive out the
  • At the end of WWII the French hoped to regain
    Vietnam. Instead Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam
  • The Vietminh defeated the French and drove them
    out in 1954.

  • In 1954 the French lose control of Vietnam.
  • Vietnam is split in two. The south (democratic)
    headed by Ngo Dinh Diem.
  • The north (communist) headed by Ho Chi Minh.

  • In 1956 elections were to be held to unify
  • However the U.S. back South Vietnam government
    feared that the communist would gain control of
    Vietnam and refused to hold the elections.
  • The Viet Cong communist rebels who began to
    strike out at the South and Diem were supported
    by Ho Chi Minh.
  • The U.S. began to send troops to support Diem
    against the Viet Cong.

  • The communist wanted to control all of Vietnam.
  • To stop communism large numbers of American
    troops were sent to Vietnam.
  • From 1959 to 1975 U.S. troops served in Vietnam.
    In 1969 500,00 troops were in Vietnam.

Vietnam/Domino Theory
  • The U.S. policy for sending troops to Vietnam was
    the fear that if Vietnam fell to the communist
    then all the other countries in Southeast Asia
    would fall like a domino.

  • South Vietnam and the U.S. were unable to stop
    the communist.
  • In 1973 President Nixon orders a cease fire and
    begins pulling out troops.
  • In 1975 Vietnam is turned back to the Vietnamese.
  • In 1975 the communist capture all of Vietnam.

Hot War Summary
  • While not many hot wars were fought the ones that
    were fought were costly to the U.S.
  • In Korea communism was contained and there is
    still a division between both communist north and
    democratic south.
  • In Vietnam communism was not contained and
    Vietnam fell to the communist. Today both
    Vietnam and the U.S. have good relations.

The Cold War in other parts of the World
  • South America
  • Middle East
  • Africa

South America
  • In 1898 Cuba gained its independence from Spain.
  • Cuba then fell under U.S. influence for 60 years.
  • In 1952 Fulgencio Batista takes control of the
  • Batistas government is corrupt and repressive.
  • Fidel Castro organizes a guerrilla army to fight

  • Castro does the following after taking control of
    the country in 1959.
  • Turns the country into a communist state.
  • Becomes a dictator.
  • Allies Cuba with the Soviet Union.

Bay of Pigs
  • Cuba receives aid from the Soviets which is a
    direct threat to the U.S.
  • In 1961 the U.S. supports Cuban nationalist who
    want to overthrow Castro.
  • The invaders are quickly defeated. The invasion
  • The U.S. imposes an embargo on Cuba.
  • This pushes Cuba closer to the Soviets in 1962.

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962 Cold War event whereby the Soviets built a
    missile base in Cuba! 
  • Americans blockaded the island and demanded the
    removal of the missiles! 
  • Peaceful resolution of dismantling the missile
    for an American pledge not to invade the island
    of Cuba.

Contras v. Sandinistas
  • Sandinistas
  • The Somoza Family governs Nicaragua
  • In 1979 the communist Sandinistas overthrow the
    Somoza Family.
  • Daniel Ortega turns Nicaragua into a communist
  • Introduces communist reforms
  • Contras
  • In the 1980s Contras were a counter
    revolutionary group who wanted to drive out the
  • Backed by the U.S.
  • Contras ad Sandinistas fought a civil war.
  • In 1990 Nicaragua had free elections.

  • Congo
  • 1960 the Congo becomes independent
  • The government is pro U.S. while the rebels are
    backed by the Soviets.
  • A anti-Communist dictator, Mobutu Sese Seko takes
    control, renames the country Zaire and is
    supported by the west until the late 1990s.
  • Angola
  • During and after a civil war in Angola the
    Soviets and Cuba sent troops to back the
    pro-communist rebels.
  • The rebels established a communist dictatorship
    with the aid of Soviets and Cuba.
  • The U.S. tried to destabilize the government with
    little success.

Non-Aligned Nations
  • Nations which chose not to align themselves with
    either superpower during the Cold War were known
    as non-aligned nations.
  • They wanted to make economic progress.
  • India, Yugoslavia, and many African nations.

End of the Cold War
  • Détente/Star Wars/Glasnost

  • In the early 70s there was a lessening of
    tensions between the U.S. and Soviets.
  • Nixon traveled to both China and USSR.
  • SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) begin to
    reduce nuclear weapons.

  • The SALT Treaties do limit the amount and types
    of nuclear weapons.
  • People begin to breathe easier.
  • Until Pres. Reagan

Problems in the Soviet Union
  • The Soviet economy is failing.
  • Too much spent on defense and nuclear

  • The Soviets invade Afghanistan in 1979.
  • The war goes badly.
  • Majahideen, Afghani rebels fighting Soviet forces
    in 1979 
  • American provided the rebels with supplies and
    military training 
  • The majahideen successfully prevented a Soviet
    invasion of Afghanistan.
  • This is the Soviets Vietnam. They leave in 1989.

End to Detente
  • With the war in Afghanistan the U.S. and the
    Soviets cooled their relationship with one
  • Both sides began to go back to their old Cold War
    ways of building their military.
  • The U.S. began the Star wars program while the
    Soviets began to weapons in response.

Star Wars
  • Pres. Reagan is a Cold War Warrior.
  • Decides to construct a Star Wars Defense system
    to stop nuclear attacks. (While not directly
    aimed at the Soviets the Soviets see this as a

  • A young conservative with new ideas for the
    Soviet Union.
  • He wanted to encourage social and economic
    changes in the Soviet Union.

  • Gorbachev's policy of "openness" a social and
    economic plan that promoted the free flow of
    ideas and information with the hopes of reform
    and progress.

  • Gorbachev's economic restructuring plan that
    aimed to reform the central planning process of
    communism by allowing capitalist elements such as
    small private businesses and more free
  • This is not Stalins communism!!!!

  • The process of adding free elections and a
    representative government.
  • Several Soviet states break free of the Soviet
    Union forming their own independent nations
  • Lithuania
  • Belarus
  • Latvia

Poland and Solidarity
  • Polish ship year trade union turned
    anti-communist calling for political changes.
  • They were led by Lech Walesa.
  • The movement was called Solidarity.
  •  Workers walked off their jobs.
  • Finally in 1989 the Solidarity movement lead to
    free elections in Poland.

Reunification of Germany
  • In 1989 the Berlin Wall falls. East and West
    Berlin were united.
  • In 1990 communism falls in East Germany.
  • There is reunification of Germany once it
    promises the world that they are dedicated to
    democracy and peace.

The Fall of Communism
  • In 1991 many hated Gorbachevs reforms.
  • Boris Yeltsin had also been elected president and
    Yeltsin demanded a constitutional state.
  • Yeltsin tried to take over the government but
  • Gorbachev however resigned turning the government
    over to Yeltsin.
  • The Soviet states began to break away and the
    Soviet Union and communism were over in Russia.

Problems at the End of the Cold War
Yugoslavia and the Balkans
  • After the death of Josef Tito, the Communist
    leader of Yugoslavia and the break up of the
    Soviet Union countries under Yugoslavia broke
  • Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina all became
    independent states.
  • This break up lead to fighting between these new
  • Serbs (Christians) began to attack non-Serbian
    people especially Bosnians (Muslims).
  • This lead to an ethnic cleansing or a genocide.
  • Both NATO and the UN had to step in to stop the