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How To Improve Student Success By Creating An Active Learning Environment

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Title: Know the Shape Module 3: Triangles Author: Debra Dunlap Runshe Last modified by: Chris Ranallo Created Date: 11/27/2000 1:13:12 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How To Improve Student Success By Creating An Active Learning Environment


1
How To Improve Student Success By Creating An
Active Learning Environment
  • Debra Dunlap Runshe
  • Instructional Development Specialist
  • University Information Technology Services -
    Learning Technologies
  • Indiana University Purdue University
    Indianapolis

2
Webinar Objectives
  • By the end of this webinar, participants will
  • articulate a rationale for using active learning
    in the classroom
  • describe instructional methods that encourage
    active learning
  • identify techniques that can be incorporated into
    their classes to create an active learning
    environment
  • improve student retention and success

3
K W - L
What do you know about active learning? What would you like to know about active learning? What have you learned about active learning?

4
What is Active Learning?
5
Active Learning
Short, low-risk
(Bonwell Sutherland, 1996)
6
Already doing it?
  • Writing exercises
  • Student presentations
  • Computer exercises
  • Labs
  • Tests

7
Why Active Learning?
8
Why Active Learning?
Research has shown that knowledge retention can
be significantly increased by creating a
welcoming environment and incorporating active
learning strategies into your teaching.
9
Blooms Taxonomy
(Bloom, 1956)
10
Seven Principles for Good Practice
  1. Encourages contact between faculty and students.
  2. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among
    students.
  3. Uses active learning techniques.
  4. Gives prompt feedback.
  5. Emphasizes time on task.
  6. Communicates high expectations.
  7. Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.

(Chickering Gamson, 1987)
11
Passive vs. Active Learning
  • Students learn both passively and actively.
  • Passive learning takes place when students take
    on the role of receptacles of knowledge that
    is, they do not directly participate in the
    learning process.
  • Active learning is more likely to take place when
    students are doing something besides listening.

(Ryans Martin, 1989)
12
Retention of Information
  • After 24 hours, what percent of information is
    retained by students in a lecture environment?
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 40
  • 50

13
Passive vs. Active Learning
(Sousa, 2001)
14
Why Active Learning?
More Evidence on Impact Interactive engagement
methods lead to improved test performance Collabor
ative learning methods enhance/improve academic
achievement, student attitudes, and
retention Problem-based learning develops
positive student attitudes, interpersonal skills,
problem solving and lifelong learning skills,
knowledge retention Cooperative learning methods
enhance student achievement, interpersonal
skills, self-esteem
(Prince, 2004)
15
Are there cons?
16
Start Right Away!
Use an active learning technique on the first day
of class it sets an expectation of
participation form the very beginning of the
semester. Start with an activity that is quick
and easy. This will help students acclimate to
your teaching style as well as help them learn
how to participate in collaborative learning.
17
Start Right Away!
18
Start Right Away!
  • Two ways to actively engage your students
  • through the use of technology
  • Chat Sessions
  • Discussion Forums
  • At the beginning of the semester
  • Assess student technology experience and access
    to the environment.
  • Include a demonstration of the online
    environment.
  • Establish ground rules for online interactions.

19
Start Right Away!
20
Where do I start?
  • Include your students in the learning process.
  • Punctuate your lectures.
  • Deliver a series of smaller lectures in place of
    one long lecture.
  • Insert active learning techniques.

21
Easy to Implement Techniques
  • Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) simple,
    ungraded activities that can
  • provide feedback about how your students are
    doing
  • help your students monitor their own learning
  • focus your students attention on course content
    through reflection, writing, and speaking
  • allow you to punctuate your lecture with learning
    activities

22
Examples of Low-Preparation CATs
  • Background Knowledge Probe
  • Punctuated Lectures
  • Minute Paper
  • The Muddiest Point
  • Think Pair Share
  • Complete a Sentence Starter

(Angelo Cross, 1993)
23
Purpose of a Background Knowledge Probe
For students, it highlights key information to be
studied, offering a preview of material to come
and/or a review of prior knowledge. For
teachers, it helps determine the best starting
point and the most appropriate level for a
lesson. For both, it can be used for either pre-
or post-lesson assessment of learning.
24
Examples of Background Knowledge Probe
  • Pro-Con Grid
  • Survey/inventory
  • Place yourself along
  • the continuum.
  • Signs up

25
Background Knowledge Probe
How familiar are you with Angelo and Crosss
Classroom Assessment Techniques A Handbook for
College Teachers? What assessment techniques,
if applicable, do you routinely use in your
classes?
26
Pro-Con Grid
Develop a list of what you think would be pros
and cons of using active learning techniques and
of lecturing. We will then come back together
and share what some of those pros and cons are.
27
Pro-Con Grid
Pros Cons
Active Learning Strategies
Lecturing
28
Online Background Knowledge Probe
29
Large Lecture Techniques
  • Pause 3 times for two minutes each during a
    lecture to allow students to consolidate, share,
    and compare notes.
  • Assign short, ungraded written exercises followed
    by class discussion. Give two mini-lectures
    separated by a small group study session built
    around a study guide.

30
Focus Question
Think While active learning has the potential
to revolutionize instruction, there are many
reasons why it doesnt take place. What are
barriers to active learning in the classroom?
31
Focus Question
Think into the future As students leave the
university, what are the skills, strategies,
concepts, aptitudes, and personal qualities that
they will need to be a productive and successful
citizen in the coming years?
32
Focused Listing
  • Purpose To help determine what learners recall
    about a specific topic, including concepts they
    associate with a central point.
  • When to use this?
  • Before, during or after a lesson.
  • Steps
  • Students write key word at the top of a page.
    For 23 minutes, jot down related terms
    important to the understanding of that topic.
  • Pair up with peer, sharing lists and explanations
    of why concepts were included. This will build
    their knowledge base and clarify their
    understanding of the topic.

33
One Minute Paper
What technique do you think you will implement in
your next course? Specifically, where do you
see its use?
34
Complete a Sentence Starter
Angelo and Crosss Minute Paper, where students
typically respond to two questions, is the
best-known and most widely-used CAT because...
35
Muddiest Point
What about incorporating active learning and
classroom assessment techniques into your
classroom is still confusing to you?
36
Memory Matrix
Course Objective Beginning of semester routine End of semester routine Specific evidence of growth
To develop flexible strategies for generating, revising, editing and proofreading
To write and to read with an awareness of purpose appropriate to the needs of the audience
To narrow the focus of an essay, using a thesis statement appropriately
37
Defining Features Matrix
What are the differences between formative
evaluation and summative evaluation?
Formative Summative

38
Defining Features Matrix
What are the differences between formative
evaluation and summative evaluation?
Formative Summative
Developmental Non-graded Anonymous Occurs more frequently Formal Graded evaluations (quizzes, exams, papers) Occurs at course transitions Often too late for students
39
Concept Maps
  • Brainstorm terms and short phrases related to the
    topic.
  • Create a shape for your central topic.
  • Create levels of association with shapes and
    lines.
  • Insert logical connectives on the lines
    connecting the concepts (such as includes,
    excludes, causes, results in, predicts,
    contradicts, supports).

40
Concept Maps
Central Theme
Subtopic
Detail
Subtopic
Subtopic
41
Concept Maps
Branches of the Government
Legislative
Senate
Congress
Executive
Judicial
House of Representatives
Supreme Court
Vice President
President
42
Cooperative Learning
  • Basic components include
  • positive interdependence,
  • individual and group accountability,
  • promotive interaction,
  • appropriate use of
  • social skills, and
  • group processing.

(Johnson Johnson, 2003)
43
Cooperative Learning Activities
  • Learning new content
  • Checking homework
  • Test preparation and review
  • Presentations and projects
  • Labs and experiments
  • Peer review

(Johnson Johnson, 2003)
44
Wiki
45
Benefits of eLearning
  • Low participants and shy students
  • sometimes open up.
  • There are minimal off-task behaviors.
  • Delayed collaboration is more extensive and rich
    than real time real time is more immediate and
    personal.
  • Students can generate tons of information or case
    situations on the Web.

(Bonk King, 1998)
46
Benefits of eLearning
  • Minimal student disruptions and dominance.
  • Students are excited to publish work.
  • Many forms of online advice are available.
    Practitioner, expert, instructor, and student
    online feedback are all valuable and important.

(Bonk King, 1998)
47
Benefits of eLearning
  • With the permanence of the postings, one can
    print out discussions and perform retrospective
    analysis and other reflection activities.
  • Discussion extends across the semester and
    creates opportunities to share perspectives
    beyond your classroom.
  • Elearning encourages instructors to coach and
    guide learning.

(Bonk King, 1998)
48
Chat Room Activities
  • Debate
  • Guest Speaker
  • Office Hours

49
Discussion Forum Activities
  • Peer Review of Projects
  • Scavenger Hunt
  • Electronic Séance
  • Jigsaw

50
PBL or PBL
  • Problem-Based Learning - a specific problem is
    specified by the course instructor. Students work
    individually or in teams over a period of time to
    develop solutions to this problem.
  • Resource http//www.udel.edu/inst/
  • Project-Based Learning - students have a great
    deal of control of the project they will work on
    and what they will do in the project. The project
    may or may not address a specific problem.
  • Resource http//www.bie.org/

51
How do I choose?
52
How do I Choose?
What do I want my students to know? What do I
want my students to be able to do? How will I
assess my students?
Objectives
Activities
Assessments
53
How do I choose?
(Bonwell Sutherland, 1996)
54
How do I choose?
Students are Active/Lower Level of Risk Demonstrations Self-assessments Brainstorming activities Quizzes or tests Lecture with pauses or discussion Surveys/questionnaires Students are Active/Higher Level of Risk Role playing Small group presentations Individual presentations Guided imagery exercise Unstructured small group discussion Responsive lecture
Students are Inactive/Lower Level of Risk Show a film for the entire class period. Lecture for the entire class period. Students are Inactive/Higher Level of Risk Invite a guest speaker.
55
What do you think?
  • What techniques are suitable for your class?
  • What techniques are you already using?
  • Write down an area of your course you believe is
    appropriate for active learning and the
    technique you would use.

56
Plan, Plan, Plan
  • Create your learning goals and objectives for the
    session activity is to take place as well as the
    course.
  • Plan the activity.
  • Articulate your goals and objectives to your
    students in verbal and written instructions.
  • Debrief after the activity. What did they learn?
    What about the process?
  • Assess the activity.
  • Refine the objectives, activity, and assessment
    for next time.

57
Words of Wisdom
  • When I hear, I forget.
  • When I hear and see, I remember a little.
  • When I hear, see, and ask questions about it or
    discuss it, I begin to understand.
  • When I hear, see, discuss, and do, I acquire
    knowledge and skill.

(Silberman, 1996)
58
Final thoughts...
Resources...
59
Resources
  • Publications
  • Angelo, T. A. Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom
    assessment techniques A handbook for college
    teachers. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Bean, J. C. (1996). Engaging ideas The
    professor's guide to integrating writing,
    critical thinking, and active learning in the
    classroom. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Bligh, D. A. (2000). What's the use of lectures?
    San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Bonk, C.J. Zhang, K. (2008). Empowering online
    learning 100 activities for reading,
    reflecting, displaying, doing. San Francisco,
    CA Jossey-Bass.
  • Bonwell, C. C., Eison, J. A. (1991). Active
    learning Creating excitement in the classroom.
    ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, no. 1.
    Washington, D.C. The George Washington
    University, School of Education and Human
    Development.

60
Resources
  • Publications
  • Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., Cocking., R. R.
    (Eds.). (2000). How people learn Brian, mind,
    experience, and school. Washington, DC National
    Academy Press.
  • Chickering, A. W., and Gamson, Z. F. (1987).
    Seven principles for good practice in
    undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin 39(7)
    3-7.
  • Chickering, A., Erhmann, S. (1996, October).
    Implementing the seven principles Technology as
    lever. AAHE Bulletin, October. Retrieved from
    http//www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.html
  • Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd
    ed.). San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Diamond, R. M. (2008). Designing assessing
    sources curricula A practical guide (3rd ed.).
    San Francisco Jossey-Bass.

61
Resources
  • Publications
  • Finkel, D. L. (2000). Teaching with your mouth
    shut. Portsmouth, NH Boynton/Cook Publishers.
  • Halpern, D. F. Hakel, M. D. (2003). Applying
    the science of learning. Change. (July/August).
    37-41.
  • Hatfield, S. R. editor with David G. Brown ...
    et al. and special sections by Martin Nemko,
    contributing editor. (1995). The seven principles
    in action improving undergraduate education.
    Bolton, MA Anker Publishing.
  • Johnson, D. W. Johnson, R. T. (1994). Learning
    together and alone Cooperative, competitive, and
    individualistic learning (4th ed.). Needham
    Heights, MA Allyn and Bacon.
  • Johnson, D. W. Johnson, R. T. (2003). Joining
    together Group theory and group skills. (8th
    ed.). Boston, MA Allyn and Bacon.

62
Resources
  • Publications
  • Johnson, D. W. Johnson, R. T. (2004). Assessing
    student in groups Promoting group responsibility
    and individual accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA
    Corwin Press.
  • Kuh, G. D., Pace, C. R. Vesper, N. (1997). The
    development of process indicators to estimate
    student gains associated with good practices in
    undergraduate education. Research in Higher
    Education 38(4)435-454.
  • MacGregor, J. (2000). Strategies for energizing
    large classes From small groups to learning
    communities. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Meyers, C. Jones, T. B. (1993). Promoting
    active learning Strategies for the college
    classroom. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Millis, B. J., Cottrell, P. G. (1998).
    Cooperative learning for higher education
    faculty. Phoenix, AZ Oryx Press.

63
Resources
  • Publications
  • Pascarella, E. T., Terenzini, P. T. (1998).
    Studying college students in the 21st century
    Meeting new challenges. The Review of Higher
    Education, 21(2),151-165.
  • Shank, P. (Ed.). (2007). The online learning idea
    book 95 proven way to enhance technology-based
    and blended learning. San Francisco, CA
    Pfeiffer.
  • Silberman, M. L. (1996). Active learning 101
    strategies to teach any subject. Boston Allyn
    Bacon.
  • Sousa, D. A. (2001). How the brain learns A
    classroom teacher's guide (2nd ed.). Thousand
    Oaks, CA Corwin Press.
  • Svinicki, M. D. (2004). Learning and motivation
    in the postsecondary classroom. Bolton, MA Anker
    Pub. Co.

64
Resources
  • Problem-Based Learning Resources
  • Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy Center
    for Problem-Based Learning
  • http//www2.imsa.edu/programs/pbl/cpbl.html
  • Maricopa Center for Teaching and
    Learning http//www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/pbl/
  • Samford University http//www.samford.edu/ctls/arc
    hives.aspx?id2147484112
  • Problem-Based Learning at McMaster
    University http//chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm
  • University of Delaware http//www.udel.edu/inst/

65
Resources
  • Project-Based Learning Resources
  • Buck Institute for Education Project-Based
    Learning
  • http//www.bie.org/
  • National Academy Foundation
  • http//naf.org/files/PBL_Guide.pdf
  • University of Indianapolis Center of Excellence
    in Leadership of Learning (CELL)
  • http//cell.uindy.edu/PBL/pblresources.php

66
Resources
  • Case Study Teaching Resources
  • National Center for Case Study Teaching in
    Science
  • http//ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/
    case.html
  • Virginia Tech Case Study Site
  • http//www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/models/casebase
    d.html
  • Harvard University Case Site for Business
  • http//www.hbs.edu/case/index.html
  • Penn State University Case Site
  • http//tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/cases/
  • Institute for Case Development
  • http//www.wested.org/icd/welcome.html

67
Thank You for Your Participation!
  • Debra Dunlap Runshe, Instructional Development
    Specialist
  • University Information Technology Services
    Learning Technologies
  • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
  • Information Technology and Communications Complex
    (IT 342H) 535 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis,
    IN 46202
  • Phone 317-278-0589 
  • Email drunshe_at_iupui.edu
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