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Hope is like the sun, which, as we journey toward it, casts the shadow of our burden behind us. Samuel Smiles

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Title: Hope is like the sun, which, as we journey toward it, casts the shadow of our burden behind us. Samuel Smiles


1
Hope is like the sun, which, as we journey toward
it, casts the shadow of our burden behind
us. Samuel Smiles
2
Cattle Review Husbandry
3
  • Genetic advancement
  • Aka Purebred breeders

4
It is believed that all modern domestic cattle
evolved from a single ancestor, the Aurochs,
which is now extinct.
Photo courtesy of Wikipedia.
5
What is a breed?
  • The classic definition of a "breed" is usually
    stated as a variation of this statement.
  • Animals that, through selection and breeding,
    have come to resemble one another and pass those
    traits uniformly to their offspring.

6
What is a breed?
  • Unfortunately this definition leaves some
    unanswered questions. For example, when is a
    crossbred animal considered a composite breed and
    when do we stop thinking about them as
    composites?
  • Composite crossbreeding is accomplished by
    developing a new breed composed of other existing
    breeds. Once constructed, the composite breed can
    be mated like a conventional (straight) breed.

7
  • The development of the breeds takes different
    routes also. In some breeds you can see the
    amount of change that can occur as the result of
    selection for a small number of traits.
  • E.g., Holstein cattle have been selected
    primarily for milk production and are the highest
    milk producing cattle in the world.
  • Other breeds have traits that result from natural
    selection pressure based upon the environment in
    which they were developed.
  • E.g. Ndama cattle from west Africa. These
    animals have, through the centuries, developed a
    resistance to trypanosomiasis or sleeping
    sickness spread by the tse-tse fly, which is
    fatal to most other breeds of cattle.

8
Classification and Identification of
Beef Cattle Breeds
Charolais
Black Angus
Brahman
Hereford
9
OBJECTIVES
  • To be able to Classify Beef Cattle Breeds into
    Bos taurus or Bos indicus .
  • To be able to Classify Beef Cattle Breeds into
    British, European.
  • To be able to Determine or Give the Make up of
    Certain Composite Breeds.
  • To Give the Attributes of Specific Breeds.

10
Classification Why do we Need It
  • We classify everything. Example Automobiles
  • We Break them down into Cars and Trucks, How can
    we break them down even further.

11
Classification Of Automobiles
12
CLASSIFICATION OF BEEF CATTLE
13
BRITISH BREEDS OF CATTLE
  • Hereford
    Dairy Cattle
  • Polled Herefords Jersey
  • Black Angus Guernsey
  • Red Angus Ayrshire
  • Devon
    Milking Shorthorn
  • Shorthorn
  • Red Poll
  • Galloway
  • British Whites
  • Scotch Highland
  • Welsh Black
  • Wagyu

14
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF CATTLE
  • Simmental
    Dairy
  • Limousin Brown Swiss
  • Maine-Anjou Holstein
  • Dutch Belted
  • Salers
  • Charolais
  • Piedmontese
  • Blonde dAquitaine
  • Belgian Blue
  • Chianina
  • Gelbvieh
  • MRI
  • Normande
  • Pinzqauer
  • Devon
  • South Devon
  • Tarentaise

15
ZEBU BREEDS OF BEEF CATTLE
  • Grey Brahman
  • Nellore
  • Indo Brazilian
  • Red Brahman
  • Africander

16
COMPOSITE BREEDS OF CATTLE
  • Brangus (RED BLACK)
  • Beefmasters Beefmaker
  • Simbrah Braford
  • Bramousin Santa Gertrudis
  • American 7 Way Composite
  • Salorn

17
HYBRID-VIGOR BENEFITS
  • More Climate variable
  • Increased Growth Rate
  • Increased Vigor and Fertility

18
Bos taurus BEEF BREEDS
  • BRITISH / EUROPEAN

19
Hereford
  • Originated in England
  • Red with white points dewlap, underline, flank,
    switch (Cross breeds white color dominates)
  • Horned usually
  • White face and red bodies (yellow to dark red)
  • Known for pink eye
  • Docile

Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
20
  • Good forages, vigor and hardiness
  • Best at producing more calves in adverse
    conditions

21
Black Angus
  • Native to Angus (East Scotland Aberdeen)
  • Came to U.S. in 1873
  • Most popular beef breed in the US
  • Always black in color and polled (crossbred
    calves mostly polled dominant gene)
  • Can produce Red Angus
  • Known for Marbling Ability
  • Do well in feedlot
  • No.1 in numbers of registered animals

Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
22
Black Brockle - faced
  • Angus and Hereford composite

23
Red Angus
  • Originated in the British Isles
  • Same as Black Angus (red and red cross from black
    angus)
  • Barred from Angus herdbook
  • Recognized as separate breed
  • Were registered with Black Angus herdbooks until
    1917
  • Red Angus Assoc. of America formed in 1954
  • Tolerate heat better than black Angus, marbling
    and do well in feedlots

Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
24
Texas Longhorn
  • Developed from Spanish cattle, brought to new
    world by Columbus
  • Roamed free in the southwest until after the
    Civil War
  • Was replaced by new breeds in 1880s
  • Various colors
  • Horns curve upward 4 feet
  • Almost went extinct
  • Known for Low Birth Weights and Calving ease for
    Heifers
  • Disease and insect resistant
  • Adapt well to harsh climates
  • Numbers are increasing

living symbol of the Old West
Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
25
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26
Red Poll
  • Developed in England
  • Primarily used for meat in US
  • Milk production in other countries
  • Dark red and polled
  • Norfolk and Suffolk mix

Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
27
Shorthorn
  • Originated in England
  • White to red in color (red are predominant)
  • Roane Color, very popular for show heifers.

Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
They are a medium size breed with a truly
rectangular shape with a short, broad head and
wide set eyes
28
  • Small horns that curve inwards or are polled
  • Docile, adaptable to variable climates,
    crossover, good mums with milking abilities and
    good carcass

29
Devon
  • Originated in England
  • Also called North Devon
  • One of the oldest beef breeds
  • At one time used for milk
  • Mature cows weigh 950-1300 lbs.

Red Rubies
Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification
30
Limousin
  • Native to South-Central France
  • Golden-red to red-brown in color, light tan
    muzzle, underline and legs
  • Horn horizontal gt forward gt upward. Head and
    neck is small and short with broad forehead
  • Low fat meats and large loin areas

Bos Taurus European Breed Classification
31
Simmental
  • First recorded in Switzerland
  • Large body mass
  • Light red to dark red with white points
    (red/yellow/black/gray white)
  • Horned medium size horns
  • Known for Maternal Characteristics
  • Docile, grow fast, grow carcass without excess
    fat, adaptable - climates

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
32
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33
Charolais
  • Originated from France
  • Color is white to cream with a pink muzzle and
    pale hooves
  • Large and heavily muscled. Mature bulls weigh
    2000-2500lbs
  • Mature Females weigh 1250-2000
  • Known for Size and Muscle
  • Most naturally horned white, slender tapered
  • Popular for crossbreeding as well suited in many
    areas

Bos taurus/European-Breed Classification
34
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35
Chianina
  • Developed in Italy
  • Came to U.S. in 1971
  • Used in cross-breeding programs
  • They have black skin and white hair (white to
    steel gray in color) and black switch
  • Largest breed of cattle. Cows up to 2400 lbs.
    (Bulls 4,000 lbs and 6 feet)
  • Heat tolerant and gentle, good foragers, good
    mums and tolerant to insect and diseases

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
36
Wagyu
  • Asian/British-European breeds
  • All Japanese cattle Kobe beef
  • Colors horned breed and can be either black or
    red
  • Consists of many Japanese breeds
  • Known for Marbling in the Meat

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
37
Piedmontese
  • Originated in Italy
  • Double muscled breed (mutation myostatin gene)
  • white or gray with black hoofs, switch, ears and
    nose

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
38
Blonde dAquitaine
  • Originated in France
  • Blonde color
  • Known for Heavy Muscle
  • They are the third largest breed in France after
    the Limousin and Charolais

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
39
Salers
  • Native to France
  • Most horned 1 strain is polled
  • Milk production important in Europe
  • Red to brown in color, some black
  • one of the oldest and most genetically pure of
    all European breeds

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
40
  • Known for some Carcass Merit, good mothers,
    forage well on poor range and high weaning weights

41
Tarentaise
  • Originated in France
  • Used for milk in Europe
  • Red color
  • Salers are native to a mountainous region (rugges)

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
42
Maine-Anjou
  • Originated in France
  • Large Mature bulls weigh 2100-3000 lbs.
  • Mature cows weigh 1500-1900 lbs.
  • Dark red with white under markings and patches
    of white on body. Some roan. Light pigmented skin

Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification
43
  • Horned breed medium size horns that curve
  • Docile, grow fast and good marbling

44
BOS INDICUS BEEF BREEDS
  • ZEBU

45
Brahman
  • "sacred cattle of India,"
  • Hindu faith will not eat meat from them, will not
    permit them to be slaughtered, and will not sell
    them.
  • India has more cows than any other country.
  • Most popular breed in the world
  • Developed in U.S. between 1854-1926
  • Brood stock came from India
  • Used in cross-breeding programs
  • Large hump on back and loose skin
  • They have a high heat tolerance
  • Light gray or red to black
  • Known for Mothering Ability

Bos Indicus Classification
46
Red Brahman
  • Heat and Insect Resistant
  • Mothering Ability

Bos Indicus Classification
47
Nelore
  • Known form having smaller ears and cleaner lines
    than other zebu breeds.
  • Biggest populations in South America (esp.
    Brazil).
  • Heat and Insect tolerant

Bos Indicus Classification
48
Indo Brazilian
  • Known for Large Ears
  • Heaviest Populations in
    South America, originally from Brazil
  • High in Maternal Attributes
  • white to dark gray to redish tan in color

Bos Indicus Classification
49
Africander
  • Native to South Africa
  • Usually red with long horns
  • Used for meat and as a draft animal
  • Mature cows weigh 1150-1350 lbs.
  • Mature bulls weigh 1650-2200 lbs.

Bos Indicus Classification
50
Composite Beef Cattle Breeds
51
American
  • Developed in New Mexico
  • Official breed conformation-
  • 1/2 Brahman hardy
  • 1/8 Bison hardy
  • 1/4 Charolais size and bone structure
  • 1/16 Hereford
  • 1/16 Shorthorn mothering and milking ability
  • Composite Breed Classification

52
Brangus
  • LSU increased their weights during the summer
    months more adapted to coastal climates.
  • Calves from Brangus were heavier at birth and
    weaning and for total pounds produced per cow.
  • The Angus had an advantage in conception rate and
    calved earlier, and the calves were more vigorous
    at birth and survived better to weaning
  • Originated in the United States
  • 3/8 Brahman, 5/8 Angus
  • Solid black and Polled
  • Drooping ears and loose hide

Composite Breed Classification
53
Bramousin
  • Originated in the United States
  • Golden to red in color
  • 5/8 Limousin, 3/8 Brahman
  • the animal must be sired by a registered Limousin
    bull, registered Brahman bull or a registered
    Brahmousin bull

Composite Breed Classification
54
Braford
  • Developed in Florida
  • 3/8 Brahman, 5/8Hereford
  • Red with white points
  • . Early puberty, fertility, calving ease, optimum
    milk production, maternal aptitude and productive
    longevity

Composite Breed Classification
55
Simbrah
  • Originated in the United States
  • Brahman and Simmental breeds used
  • Light to dark red with some white marks
  • The All Purpose American Breed

Composite Breed Classification
56
Beefmaker
  • Originated in the United States
  • 3/4 Hereford, 1/4 Simmental
  • Red with white points
  • high conversion efficiency levels, high carcass
    yields and low maintenance costs

Composite Breed Classification
57
Beefmaster
  • Originated in the United States (TX)
  • Brahman, Hereford, and Shorthorn
  • Composite Breed Classification three
    Beefmaster Breeders Universal, The foundation
    Beefmaster Assoc., National Beefmaster Assoc.
  • Droopy ears and loose hide

58
  • Color red and duns (pale brown to yellow) are
    most common
  • Weight gain, Conformation, Milking Ability,
    Fertility, Hardiness and Disposition

59
Salorn
  • Developed in the United States
  • 5/8 Salers. 3/8 Texas Longhorn
  • Lean meat
  • Environmentally adaptable

Composite Breed Classification
60
Salorn
61
Texon
  • Originated in the United States
  • Texas Longhorn and Devon breeds used
  • Evolving

Composite Breed Classification
62
Santa Gertrudis
Originated at the King Ranch in Texas Made up
of Brahman bulls and Shorthorn
cows Breeds Cherry red color, drooping ears and
loose skin, most horned Good carcass with little
waste fat Known for Heat tolerance and resistant
to disease and insects
Composite Breed Classification
63
Review Of Beef Cattle Classification
  • Cattle are Classified into Two Groups
  • The Bos Taurus Classification includes what two
    Groups.
  • What are some Composite Breeds and what are their
    makeup.
  • What are some Breeds Attributes.

64
Resources
  • www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/
  • fyi.uwex.edu/cwas/files/2010/07/BeefCattleClassifi
    cationandID.ppt
  • http//www.ansci.cornell.edu/extension/beef/beefu2
    .pdf
  • K Holtgrew-Bohling , Large Animal Clinical
    Procedures for Veterinary Technicians, 2nd
    Edition, Mosby, 2012
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