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Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church

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Title: Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church


1
Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian
Church
  • The Protestant Reformation
  • The Catholic Reformation

2
Unit ObjectivesPg. 26 in notebookWarning its
long write small
  • VII. Protestant Reformation
  • A. Causes of the Protestant Reformation
  • 1. Declining prestige of the papacy
  • 2. Early critics of the Church
  • 3. Corrupt church practices (e.g., simony,
    pluralism, absenteeism, clerical ignorance)
  • 4. Renaissance humanism (e.g., Erasmus)

3
Unit Objectives
  • B. Martin Luther (14831546)
  • 1. 95 Theses (1517)
  • 2. Impact of Lutheranism on women
  • 3. Luthers views on new sects and peasantry
  • C. Calvinism
  • 1. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian
    Religion (1536)
  • 2. Tenets predestination, the elect, Protestant
    work ethic
  • 3. Strict theocracy in Geneva
  • 4. Spread of Calvinism

4
Objectives Continued
  • D. Anabaptists (the left wing of the Protestant
    Reformation)
  • E. Reformation in England
  • 1. John Wycliffe, the Lollards
  • 2. Henry VIII and the creation of the Church of
    England
  • 3. Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) (1553-58)
  • 4. Elizabeth I (15581603)

5
Objectives -End
  • VIII. Catholic Reformation
  • A. Causes
  • B. Council of Trent (1545-63)
  • C. New religious orders
  • D. Peace of Augsburg (1555)

6
Problems Facing the Church on the Eve of the
Reformation (Review)
  • The Black Death gave rise to anticlericalism
    (why?)
  • The Great Schism (why?)
  • The rise of pietism a notion of a direct
    relationship between individuals and God (why?)
    Come on You can do it!
  • The growth of the power of monarchs (why?)

7
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8
  • The Condition of the Church 1400-1517
  • Declining Prestige
  • The Great Schism and the Babylonian Captivity
  • Secular humanist and moral corruption
  • 16th Century- Signs of Disorder
  • Critics wanted reform (Moral and Administrative)
  • Clerical immorality
  • Education of clergy
  • Ordination Standards
  • Absenteeism
  • Pluralism

9
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10
A Word About the Printing Press
  • The search for new printing technology increased
    as more universities were built in the late
    middle ages
  • Block printing made its way to Europe from Asia,
    but wasnt efficient
  • German Johannes Guttenberg given credit for
    printing Bibles between 1452 and 1453

11
Impact of the Printing Press
  • Many Renaissance ideas were spread, including
    Humanism and individualism
  • An increase in the number of books led to a
    significant increase in literacy in the 16th
    century
  • Ideas of Christian Humanism spread, having an
    impact on society, politics and religion (you see
    where we are going with this)
  • A theory Few inventions in human history have
    had as great an impact as the printing press

12
  • Prelates and Popes were often members of the
    nobility and lived in splendor
  • Moral corruption
  • Signs of Strength (late 15th and early 16th
    centuries)
  • Europe remained deeply religious
  • Parish clergy brought spiritual help to the
    people
  • Organization to minister to poor
  • The Brethren of the Common Life
  • Making religion personal
  • The Imitation of Christ
  • Simple way of life
  • Lateran council 1512-1527 (Julius II)

13
Other Problems
  • Poorly educated clergy ( a plus for Luther, by
    the way)
  • Simony and pluralism
  • Indulgences
  • The extravagance of the Church
  • Immoral clergy

14
Preview Protestant ReformationPg. 28 in notebook
  • PROTESTANT
  • REFORMATION
  • 1. Define the root word.
  • As we take notes today, write down examples of
    the root word in action.
  • Do not copy the yellow parts.
  • 1. Define the root word.
  • As we take notes today, write down examples of
    the root word in action.
  • Do not copy the yellow parts.

15
3.2A
16
Early Movements of the Late Middle Ages
(Pre-Luther)
  • John Wycliffe of England 1329-1384
  • Questioned church wealth, transubstantiation, the
    practice of penance, indulgences
  • Urged followers (Lollards) to read the Bible
  • Jan Hus of Bohemia 1369-1415
  • Rector of University of Prague
  • Authority lies in the Bible, not the church
  • Clergy were so immoral, followers should take the
    cup and wafer themselves
  • Council of Constance condemned him as a heretic
    and burned him at the stake. A long revolt will
    follow in Bohemia

17
3.2B
18
John Wycliff
  • Thought Christians didnt need Church or
    sacraments to achieve salvation
  • Regarded Bible as most important source of
    religious authority (instead of who)
  • Completed first translation of Bible into English
  • Outcome
  • the church persecuted his followers, Lollards as
    heretics

19
Jan Huss
  • Criticized wealth of Church
  • Wanted religious services conducted in the
    language-vernacular
  • Opposed sale of indulgences
  • Outcome
  • Burned at stake for refusing to accept importance
    of church rituals

20
Catherine of Siena
  • Popularized mysticism
  • Believed people could experience God through
    intense prayer
  • Outcome
  • Maintained that Christians dont need priests,
    rituals, or sacraments

21
Girolamo Savonarola
  • Launched crusade against immoral society
  • Encouraged book burnings
  • Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and
    corruption
  • Outcome
  • was burned at the stake by angry citizens of
    Florence

22
Review-IndulgencesPg. 30 in notebook
  • Complete this statement The medieval Catholic
    Church practice of selling indulgences was like
    .
  • (choose one or create your own)
  • A teacher selling grades
  • A referee not calling fouls on players who pay
    him/her
  • Make a simple drawing of your analogy. (full
    page)
  • Do no have to copy the yellow.

23
3.2C
24
3.2D
25
3.2E
26
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27
  • Martin Luther and Protestantism
  • Luthers Early Years
  • Became monk after caught in lightening storm
    (Augustine order)
  • German monk and professor of religion
  • Faith was central to Christianity and the only
    means of salvation

28
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29
Dont mess with Luther
  • Selling of indulgences set him off
  • 1517 Albert of Hohenzollern sought to purchase
    a third bishopric so he borrowed money from
    (guess who think Renaissance banking family)
  • To pay back the money, he was given permission to
    sell indulgences (half would go back to Rome
    what do you think they need the money for?)

30
As soon as gold in the basin rings, the soul to
heaven sings
  • Johann Tetzel, Dominican Friar sent to preach the
    indulgence

31
95 Theses(1517)
  • Nailed on the Castle Church in Wittenberg the
    medieval way of challenging someone to a debate

32
  • Martin Luther and Protestantism
  • Luther 95 Theses- October 1517
  • Propositions on Indulgences raised many
    theological questions
  • Rejected idea that salvation could be achieved by
    good works and sale of indulgences
  • Indulgence was a release from penalties to be
    paid for sin
  • Criticized papal wealth

33
The Argument.
  • Why should the money go back to Rome?
  • With regard to purgatory If the pope has
    control over purgatory, why doesnt he just let
    everyone out?
  • His argument the pope did not give the
    penalties, how can he take them away?
  • (remember the point about uneducated priests?)

34
A Quote 95 Theses
  • The Roman Church has become the most licentious
    den of thieves..They err who ascribe to thee
    the right of interpreting Scripture, for under
    cover of thy name they seek to set up their own
    wickedness in the church, and, alas, through them
    Satan has already made much headway under the
    predecessors. In short, believe none who exalt
    thee, believe those who humble the

35
The Course of the Movement
  • The printing press allowed for the 95 Theses to
    spread quickly, Luther gained support
  • The Dominicans wanted to charge Luther as a
    heretic
  • Pope Leo X ignored as an argument between friars

36
  • Luther Continued
  • Excommunicated by church in 1521
  • Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) declared Luther an
    outlaw in 1521 in Germany at the council of Worms

Unless I an convicted by Scripture and plain
reason I do not accept the authority of popes
and councils, for they have contradicted each
other my conscience is captive to the Word of
God I cannot and I will not recant anything, for
to go against conscience is neither right nor
safe. God help me, Amen -Martin Luther
37
Ruther (I mean Luther) gets Radical
  • Luther engaged in public debate with John Eck who
    called Luther a Hussite
  • Luther claimed Hus had been unjustly condemned
  • In 1520, Luther penned the following
  • Address to the Christian Nobility Claimed that
    the secular government could reform the church
    (who will like that?)
  • On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
    attacked the sacraments
  • Liberty of a Christian Man contained the heart
    of Lutheran belief Grace is the sole gift of
    God therefore one is save by faith alone, and
    the Bible is the sole source of this faith

38
On Christian Libertyby Martin Luther
  • If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord
    Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God
    hath raised Him form the dead, thou shalt be
    saved and the just shall live by faith

39
The Result
  • Luther was a wanted man and hid out in the
    Wartburg Castle by the Elector of Saxony
  • Luther translated the Bible into German while in
    hiding
  • Luther worked with Philip Melanchthon to create a
    new Church based on his ideas which were free
    from papal control

40
Lutheranism
  • Reduced the seven sacraments to 2 baptism and
    communion
  • Luther rejected the idea of transubstantiation
    stating that Christ was already present in the
    bread and wine (Eucharist)
  • Did away with monasticism and a celibate clergy

41
A Happy Ending
  • Luther married a former nun with whom he had many
    children

42
Success of the Reformation
  • Within thirty years of an action of a carpenter
    (the nailing of the 95 Theses get it?) the
    Reformation had spread to many of the states of
    northern Germany, Scandinavia, England, Scotland,
    parts of the Netherlands, France and Switzerland

43
Why Was It So Successful?
  • The ideas and church of Luther were socially
    conservative
  • Luther rejected the German Peasants Revolt in
    which peasants used Luthers teachings of a
    priesthood of all believers to support social
    egalitarianism (Luther responds violently in
    Against the Robbing and Murderous Hordes of
    Peasants)
  • Luther encouraged the German princes to
    confiscate lands of the Catholic Church
  • Luther did not condemn princes creating state
    churches

44
Politically Speaking..
  • Turmoil in the Holy Roman Empire makes it
    difficult to stop the spread of Protestantism
  • Charles V, ruled a huge empire
  • Wars with France and the Ottoman Empire took his
    attention away from the growing protestant threat
  • In 1555, he was forced to sign the Peace of
    Augsburg, which granted legal recognition of
    Lutheranism in territories ruled by a Lutheran
    ruler (and the same for Catholic rulers) In other
    words, the princes could choose to be Lutheran or
    Catholic

45
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46
  • Ulrich Zwingli introduced the reformation in
    Switzerland
  • Supremacy of Scripture
  • Opposed indulgences, Mass, monasticism, and
    clerical celibacy
  • Protestant Thought
  • Confession of Augsburg- Luther and 4 basic
    theological issues
  • Salvation by Faith Alone

47
Ulrich Zwingli Influenced by Writings of
Erasmus
48
  • Religious authority rests with the Bible not the
    Pope
  • Church and community of believers
  • All work is sacred- serving god thorough vocation
  • Believed every believer was own priest-
    communication with god
  • Communion and different beliefs
  • Transubstantiation
  • Consubstantiation
  • Memorial
  • Protestantism was a reformulation of Christian
    beliefs
  • Common man and belief in God

49
  • Impact of Luther Beliefs
  • Impacted all social classes
  • Followers of Luther
  • Preachers from Catholic Church
  • Peasants and reforms based on Luther
  • Landlords and peasant revolts
  • Luther and obedience to civil authority
  • Revolts of 1525 and land
  • Luther and language
  • Printing press
  • Zwingli and Calvin
  • Luther and New Testament
  • Democratized religion

50
  • Luther and Impact on Women
  • Dignity to Women's roles in the home
  • Idea of marriage
  • Encouraged education for girls
  • Ended confession
  • Woman and the efficient wife
  • Germany and the Protestant Reformation
  • Holy Roman Empire (HRE)
  • Holy Roman Emperor
  • The Golden Bull of 1356
  • Seven electors got virtual sovereignty

51
  • The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty
  • Habsburg and European Unity
  • Maximilian I of Austria and Mary Burgundy in 1477
  • Charles V
  • Politics and Luther's Beliefs
  • Nationalism and Germany
  • Anti-Italian Papacy
  • Luther and Patriotism
  • Habsburg Valois Wars (30 Years War)
  • Protestantism
  • Political Fragmentation
  • Peace of Augsburg 1555 and Charles V
  • German Princes and religion

52
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53
Ulrich Zwingli1484-1531
  • Had an impact in Zurich, Switzerland after the 95
    Theses
  • Ideas were similar to Luthers, with exceptions
  • Denial of all sacraments
  • Last Supper a memorial to Christ, and did not
    include the presence of Christ
  • Led social reform
  • Was killed by Swiss Catholics in battle

54
John Calvin1509-1564
  • Born in France but moved to Switzerland
  • In his Institutes of the Christian Religion,
    Calvin asserts the idea of predestination
  • A strict disciplinarian, he instituted a strict
    moral code in Geneva in which he closed the
    taverns, made fortune-telling illegal
  • Calvinism began to spread with mixed results
    It became the established church in
    Switzerland, but was practiced by a small
    minority of Huguenots in France
  • Helped save the protestant reformation against a
    new, aggressive catholic counter-reformation

55
Institutes of Christian Religionby John Calvin
  • Predestination we call the eternal decree of God,
    by which he has determined in himself, what he
    would have become of every individual..For they
    are not all created with the same destiny but
    eternal life is foreordained for some, and
    eternal damnation for others

56
  • The Growth of the Protestant Reformation
  • Northern Europe 1555
  • Calvinism
  • Predestination
  • A City that was a church- Geneva (Theocracy)
  • Institutes of Christian Religion
  • Religious Law of Geneva
  • Church and State
  • Work Ethic
  • Most influential form of Protestantism

57
  • The Anabaptists
  • Adult baptism (denied child baptism)
  • Adopts old ways of multiple wives
  • Tolerance
  • Pacifism
  • Church and State
  • Progressive for time
  • Quakers, the Baptists, and Congregationalists
  • The English Reformation
  • Lollards in the 5th century
  • William Tyndale- 1525
  • Thomas Wolsey
  • Wealth and corruption of the Clergy
  • Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

58
The Protestant Reformation in England
Cardinal Woolsey
Thomas Cranmer
Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII
59
English Reformation
  • More political than religious
  • Henry VIII originally condemned Luther, however
    the Kings Great Matter caused him to think
    twice
  • Henry attempted to annul his marriage to
    Catherine of Aragon of Spain, who he blamed her
    for his lack of a male heir. He also wanted to
    marry the virtuous Anne Boleyn, who he had fallen
    in love with. The Church refused
  • In 1529 he began the Reformation Parliament in
    a slow attempt to get increased authority over
    religious matters.
  • In April of 1533 Henry began to act quickly to
    cut off links with the papacy (he had to, by the
    way, the virtuous Anne was pregnant and he was
    a bigamist). Parliament enacted the Act in
    Restraint of Appeals which gave Henry
    jurisdiction over spiritual cases, taking the job
    away from the Pope, and soon granted himself an
    annulment
  • In September, Elizabeth was born (was it Annes
    fault?)

60
Act of Supremacy, 1534
  • The English Reformation resulted in the King of
    England becoming the Supreme Head of what became
    known as the Church of England (Anglican Church),
    which was really the catholic church without the
    pope
  • Under Henrys only son, Edward VI, the
    reformation became more protestant
  • Under Mary, England restored ties to the papacy
    and persecuted/killed protestants
  • Under Elizabeth, the Church of England was
    restored with a more tolerant protestant approach

61
  • Pope Clement VII and Marriage
  • Papal infallibility
  • Marriage to Catherine and Henrys brother
  • Archbishop Cranmer and divorce
  • Divorce by law and rule of law
  • Acts of Supremacy and England
  • Henry and Church in England
  • Dissolution of the Monasteries
  • Sale of Church Land
  • Nationalization of the Church
  • Edward VI
  • Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)
  • Elizabeth I and Church of England

62
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63
  • Under Henrys only son, Edward VI, the
    reformation became more protestant

64
  • Under Mary, England restored ties to the papacy
    and persecuted/killed protestants

65
  • Under Elizabeth, the Church of England was
    restored with a more tolerant protestant approach
  • Moderation of Catholic and Protestant ways even
    under pressure from different factions in
    country.

66
  • Church of Scotland
  • Ireland
  • Catholic vs. Protestantism
  • Northern Ireland and England (modern)
  • Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
  • Monarchy and reformation
  • The Catholic and Counter Reformation
  • The Catholic Reformation
  • The Counter Reformation
  • Institutional Reform
  • The Popes- politics and pleasures
  • Catholic Councils and Popes power

67
The Catholic (Counter-) Reformation 1530s
  • Though slow-moving, it was the Catholic response
    to the Protestant Reformation
  • (WHY DID IT TAKE SO LONG???)
  • Goals
  • Stop church abuses, primarily simony and
    indulgences
  • A rededication to Christian principles and a
    standardization of church beliefs
  • Restore the prestige of the Church, bring back
    followers and regain papal land claims
  • Wipe out Protestantism

68
  • The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
  • Pope Paul III
  • Reconciliation with Protestants
  • International Politics
  • Papal Authority
  • Reform
  • Spiritual renewal
  • Rejected Sale of Indulgences
  • Limits Simony and Pluralism
  • Clerical training and education
  • Emphasis on preaching

69
The Council of Trent1545-1563
  • Index of Prohibited Books
  • Papal Inquisition was revived
  • Endorsed Catholic teachings (rejecting the ideas
    of Protestantism), especially that of faith and
    goods works, not just faith alone will get you
    salvation
  • Supported baroque art forms versus that of the
    late Renaissance mannerists

70
  • New Religious Orders
  • Ursuline Order of nuns
  • Society of Jesus
  • Jesuits
  • The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
  • Pope Paul III
  • Roman Inquisition

71
Massacre of the Innocents and Fall of Man by
Ruben
72
NOTE
  • Any Late Renaissance painters may also be
    considered mannerists or baroque
  • or both

73
The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 1540
  • Organized by Ignatius Loyola, they Contributed to
    the success of the Catholic Reformation
  • They declared themselves a teaching order and
    worked as Catholic missionaries throughout
    Europe, including Lutheran strongholds such as
    Poland
  • Came up with a plausible argument to Luther,
    suggesting that even if there was not a Bible,
    there would still be the spirit

74
Spiritual Exercisesby Ignatius Loyola
  • for I believe that linking Christ our Lord the
    bridegroom and His Bride the Church, there is one
    in the same Spirit, ruling and guiding us for our
    souls good. Four our Holy Mother the church is
    guided and ruled by the same Spirit, the Lord who
    gave the Ten Commandments

75
Was the Catholic Reformation Successful?
  • Goals
  • Stop church abuses, primarily simony and
    indulgences (yes)
  • A rededication to Christian principles and a
    standardization of church beliefs (yes)
  • Restore the prestige of the Church, bring back
    followers and regain papal land claims (yes)
  • Wipe out Protestantism (what do you think?)

76
Note
  • The catholic Church has a tradition of adjusting
    to changing conditions
  • Reform Movement of the High Middle Ages (St.
    Benedict, Pope Gregory VII, Cluniastic Movement)
  • Council of Trent (Pope Paul III, Pope Innocent
    XI)
  • First Vatican Council 1870
  • Second Vatican Council 1962
  • More changes in to come? Possible Changes?

77
Non-Religious Causes for the Protestant
Reformation
  • Socially, people of lower status in society felt
    the Reformation gave them equality in the eyes
    of God and seized the opportunity to strike out
    an oppressive social order
  • Politically, Princes saw the Reformation as an
    opportunity to seize church land and power
  • Economically, money that went to enhance the
    papal treasury would now stay at home

78
Non-Religious Effects
  • Socially, although women play a prominent role
    early on, women will not gain much from the
    reformation. As Protestant religions become more
    formal, male religious leaders narrowed their
    role to the home and discouraged them from being
    church leaders. In Family matters
  • To protect the family, fidelity was expected of
    both spouses. Divorce was not acceptable in the
    Catholic church, while in Protestantism there was
    a mutual right to divorce and remarry.
  • A mans role was to be the breadwinner, womens
    first priority was her home. Women were not to
    engage in social or political activities and if
    she suffered it was because of Eve
  • Prostitution houses were common and civil
    authorities in both Catholic and Protestant
    countries licensed houses of public prostitution

79
Non-religious effects (cont.)
  • Intellectually, the Reformation will lay the
    groundwork for the enlightenment and scientific
    revolution. After all, if church goers
    themselves begin to question beliefs of the
    church and authority in general, why shouldnt
    others be able to do so? Also, with the closing
    of convents, upper-class women lost a venue from
    which to showcase their intellect and talents
  • Politically, as church power declined, monarchs
    gained strength leading to the development of
    modern nation-states.
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