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HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-1 A Changing Landscape

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HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-1 A Changing Landscape HOW DO WE FIX IT? Applying modern technology to farming is changing some of this environmental impact. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-1 A Changing Landscape


1
HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-1 A
Changing Landscape
2
Video
INTEREST GRABBER
How Does Everything Fit?
  • Click here to play the Ch6 video segment.

3
Objectives
  • -Explain how environmental resources are
    classified
  • -Identify the characteristics of sustainable
    development
  • -Describe how human activities affect land, air,
    and water resources

4
Leaving a Mark on the World
Section 6-1
  • Have you ever seen very old photographs of the
    town or city in which you now live? Has your area
    changed? Perhaps there are more buildings or
    roads than there were many years ago. Maybe your
    town or city has more trees and flowers now than
    it had years ago. Humans, like all organisms,
    have an effect on their environment.

5
Interest Grabber Answers
1. Choose an animal other than a human and
describe at least two ways in which it may change
its environment. 2. What events might have
led to the changes that occurred in your town or
city? 3. What positive effect have humans had
on their environment? What negative effect have
humans had on their environment?
Sample answers A beaver both removes wood from a
forest and dams a body of water. A dog digs a
hole and may damage plants, but also may unearth
worms and turn the soil.
Sample answers increase or decrease in
population and industry.
Humans preserve, conserve, and restore the
natural environment as well as construct
facilities that improve human health. Humans
pollute the air, water, and land with materials
that can harm humans and other organisms.
6
HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  • Humans participate in
  • __________ ____________________
  • Humans play a part in the ecosystems
  • on the planet

Food webs
Biogeochemical cycles
http//www.brevardcounty.us/mrrp/images/misc/boat_
cartoon.jpg
7
HUMAN ACTIVITIES can change local and global
environments!
HUNTING and GATHERING
  • ______________________________
  • ____________________
  • _________________
  • ___________________________

AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Images from http//www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/l
atest/art1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer.jpg
http//www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/
127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming.jpg http//www
.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the20environment/p
ollution_smokestacks.jpg http//www.lubee.org/imag
es/about-threats-1.jpg
8
WHAT HAVE WE BEEN DOING?
  • _______________________

HUNTING and GATHERING
http//msnbc.msn.com/id/8302763
http//www.aeffonline.org/images/poachersandelepha
nt.jpg
9
HUNTING AND GATHERING
  • Throughout human history, people have
  • hunted __________________, ___________
  • in rivers, and gathered __________________________
    ________
  • Even these early people changed their
    _________________

birds and mammals
fished
wild seeds, fruits,and nuts.
environments
http//www.amonsoquath.net/gallery/pages/chee.html
10
HUNTING AND GATHERING
  • Today, people in many parts of the world still
  • follow the hunter-gatherer way of life.
  • These people make ______________ on the
  • environment. However, some are beginning to
  • use ____________________ such as guns,
  • snowmobiles, or other tools.

few demands
modern technology
http//www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Inuit_Haida
/inuit/snowmobile.jpg
http//www.travelwriter.co.za/let-the-train-strain
_p2.html
11
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS CAUSE?
OVERHUNTING
  • ________________ can put animal populations at
    risk of ____________

extinction
http//www.geocities.com/jeniegirl27/SealHunting.h
tml
12
VOCAB
http//www.southeastutah.org/photos/dino.jpg
  • Species that has died out ______________
  • Species whose population size is
  • rapidly declining and will become
  • extinct if the trend continues
  • _____________
  • Species that is in danger of
  • becoming endangered in
  • the near future ____________

extinct
endangered
http//www.blackfootedferret.org/
threatened
http//www.fresnochaffeezoo.com/images/bald-eagle.
gif
13
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS CAUSE?
  • Scientists hypothesize that the first humans to
  • arrive in North America caused a major
  • __________________of animals like
  • woolly mammoths, giant sloths, and
  • saber-toothed cats.

mass extinction
http//www.tunturisusi.com/kissat/smilodon4.jpg
14
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS CAUSE?
  • Many species that once lived in North America
    (like zebra, cheetah, and yak) have disappeared
    from continent.

http//www.swindonweb.com/life/mammoth1.jpg
15
EXAMPLE WHALES
  • During the 19th and the earlier part of
  • 20th centuries, over-hunting led to a
  • severe _________of whale
  • populations, and to _______________
  • of five whale species.

overkill
endangerment
Minke whale most hunted species
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WhalingConservation_
status
http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/45690
0/456973/html/nn1page1.stm
16
EXAMPLE North American Buffalo
Wild buffalo
  • ______________ in America once numbered
  • 30 - 60 million, ranging from Virginia to
  • Alaska and all points in between.
  • By 1884, the buffalo
  • was close to extinction
  • due to ______________.

Pile of bison skulls, 1870s
overhunting
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Bison
17
HOW DO WE HELP?
  • International Whaling Commission has
  • placed a moratorium on whaling.
  • Only works if nations voluntarily comply

http//www.cdnn.info/eco/whaling_250146.jpg
18
HOW DO WE HELP?
  • Conservation efforts, private ownership, and
  • reintroduction of buffalo have allowed the
  • population to recover slightly.
  • Today, the total buffalo
  • population in North
  • America is estimated at
  • 90,000 and about
  • 85 percent
  • of these animals are
  • privately owned.

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Bison
19
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN THIS CAUSE?
  • Many endangered animals today are threatened by
    ____________________

Illegal poaching
http//www.aeffonline.org/images/poachersandelepha
nt.jpg
http//cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/EARTH/9710/02/kenya.
ivory.ap/
20
OVERHUNTING/POACHING
endangered.
  • All five rhino species are ____________
  • Just a few decades ago, the worlds
  • rhino population exceeded 100,000,
  • but today there are less than 11,000 due to
    _____________ and _________________.
  • _______________ are in demand in many countries
    where they can bring over 60,000/lb.
  • It is ground into medicine in China and
  • carved into ceremonial dagger handles in Yemen.

habitat loss
poaching
Rhino horns
http//nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/200
3/6/Sidebar_Forensics.cfm
21
  • WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?
  • The_______________________________________________
    __________ (CITES)
  • bans international ________ in products
  • from endangered species.

Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species
trade
http//www.mtholyoke.edu/sjberg/CITES.htm
22
WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?
  • Support Green organizations that work for laws
    to establish quotas and protect species.

http//www.nwf.org/ http//www.maksimum.com/haberl
er/h/greenpeacee_cevre_cezasi.php http//www.sierr
aclub.org/
http//www.sierraclub.org/
23
HUMAN ACTIVITIES can also change local and global
environments!
HUNTING and GATHERING
  • ______________________________
  • ____________________
  • _________________
  • ___________________________

AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Images from http//www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/l
atest/art1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer.jpg
http//www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/
127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming.jpg http//www
.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the20environment/p
ollution_smokestacks.jpg http//www.lubee.org/imag
es/about-threats-1.jpg
24
  • By end of last ice age (about 11,000 years ago)
    humans began the practice of farming
  • __________________
  • Soon people around the
  • world were growing
  • crops and raising
  • animals for food

AGRICULTURE
agriculture
http//www.bu.edu/mzank/Jerusalem/im/agriculture.j
pg
25
Changing Agriculture
  • The spread of agriculture was one of most
    __________ developments in human history.
  • It _____________ in large quantities that could
    be stored for later.
  • Allowed people to __________________ and enabled
    the _______________of cities, governments, laws,
    and writing.

important
provided food
settle in one place
development
http//www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Inuit_Haida
/inuit/snowmobile.jpg
http//www.travelwriter.co.za/let-the-train-strain
_p2.html
26
Changing Agriculture
  • By middle of 20th century, despite agricultural
    advances there were ________________in many parts
    of the world.
  • Governments and scientists began a major effort
    to ____________ food production

food shortages
http//www.enjoy.org/hstech/HungerSite02/america/F
ordSchwartz/
increase
27
Changing Agriculture
highly productive
  • Plant breeders developed _______________
  • miracle strains of wheat and rice
  • AND
  • Modern ________________________spread
  • This effort ______________________

farming techniques
http//www.wfbf.com/media_center/photo_gallery/Soy
bean20combine.jpg
http//interactive.usask.ca/ski/media/stills/agric
ulture/crops/t_plant-breeder.jpg
GREEN REVOLUTION
28
Changing Agriculture
  • Large fields are planted with a single variety
    year after year ________________
  • Chemical _____________
  • boosted crop growth
  • and ______________
  • controlled
  • damaging insects

MONOCULTURE
fertilizers
pesticides
http//imagesource.allposters.com/images/NGSPOD04/
107870.jpg
29
Changing Agriculture
  • Over the last 50 years, the green revolution
  • has helped world food production _________.
  • Even though hunger is still a major problem in
    parts of the world, agriculture and
  • the green revolution have provided many people
    with better nutrition.

double
http//www.enjoy.org/hstech/HungerSite02/america/F
ordSchwartz/
30
Challenges for Future
  • Modern agriculture has increased world
    _________________, but has also created
    ________________ challenges.
  • Large scale monoculture leads to problems with
    ____________ and _______________.
  • Use of farm chemicals (fertilizers pesticides)
  • can damage ____________ insects, ________________
    water supplies, and ______________ in the
    environment

food supplies
ecological
Insect pests
diseases
beneficial
contaminate
accumulate
31
Challenges for Future
  • Finding enough __________ for irrigation is
    another problem.
  • Less than ¼ of US farmland
  • relies heavily on ___________,
  • but this area produces a
  • __________ portion of
  • our harvest.

water
irrigation
major
http//www.suu.edu/faculty/bowman/Econ1740/Heilbro
nerZinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2.gif
32
Challenges for Future
http//www.suu.edu/faculty/bowman/Econ1740/Heilbro
nerZinn/ogallala_aquifer_map_pic_2.gif
  • Many Midwest states rely
  • on the ___________aquifer
  • for their water needs.
  • However, we are using
  • water faster than the
  • water cycle can _____________ it.
  • Evidence indicates this aquifer may __________
    within 20-40 years.

OGALLALA
replenish
run dry
33
HOW DO WE HELP?
modern technology
  • Applying ____________________ to farming is
    changing some of this environmental impact.
  • EX _________________ and
  • ___________________
  • enable farmers to
  • apply chemicals
  • _____________________

Satellite imaging
GPS technology
only where needed
34
HOW DO WE FIX IT?
  • Applying modern technology to farming is changing
    some of this environmental impact.
  • EX
  • ___________ and other
  • green farming methods
  • can ___________________
  • and ___________________

No-till
reduce soil erosion
protect ecosystems
http//cbarc.aes.oregonstate.edu/images/no-till.jp
g
35
Sustainable Agriculture Ways to preserve the
environment
Section 6-4
Cover Crops Legumes, grasses, and other cover
crops recycle soil nutrients, reduce fertilizer
need, and prevent weed growth.
Controlled Grazing By managing graze periods and
herd densities, farmers can improve
nutrient cycling, increase the effectiveness
of precipitation, and increase the
carrying capacity of pastures.
Biological Pest Control The use of predators and
parasites to control destructive
insects minimizes pesticide use as well as crop
damage
A
B
C
Yr. 1
Contour Plowing Contour plowing reduces soil
erosion from land runoff. On hilly areas,
plowing is done across the hill rather than
straight up and down.
Crop Rotation Different crops use and replenish
different nutrients. By rotating crops, the
loss of important plant nutrients is decreased.
alfalfa
oats
corn
Yr. 2
alfalfa (plowed in)
corn
alfalfa
Yr. 3
corn
alfalfa
oats
36
HUMAN ACTIVITIES can also change local and global
environments!
HUNTING and GATHERING
  • ______________________________
  • ____________________
  • _________________
  • ___________________________

AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Images from http//www.cs.utexas.edu/users/s2s/l
atest/art1/src/proj/Art/cave_art/Hunters-Deer.jpg
http//www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/
127525/2/istockphoto_127525_farming.jpg http//www
.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the20environment/p
ollution_smokestacks.jpg http//www.lubee.org/imag
es/about-threats-1.jpg
37
INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  • The impact of humans on the biosphere was
  • transformed by the _____________________
  • during the 1800s.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
http//www.archives.gov/research/american-cities/i
mages/american-cities-015.jpg
38
  • Industrial productivity and scientific
  • advancements have provided us with
  • the ______________________ we enjoy today

modern conveniences
http//www.vallartasource.com/images/cell_phone.jp
g http//www.danielwiener.com/daniel/tips/archives
/humvee_2.jpg http//www.scriptfx.com/gallery/comp
uter/laptop.jpg http//www.wii-volution.com/images
/wii/gamecube.jpg http//www.nbz.ru/pic/catalog/ip
od/ipod_color.gif
39
BUT . . .
  • The spread of urban
  • areas has resulted in
  • the _____________
  • habitats.
  • Air, water, soil
  • _____________ has had an impact on
    surrounding ecosystems.

destruction
pollution
http//www.kidcrosswords.com/kidoutdoors/the20env
ironment/pollution_smokestacks.jpg
40
  • Energy production requires
  • ______________________
  • which impacts
  • _______________
  • and _______________.

burning fossil fuels
air quality
global climate
MORE ON THIS IN 6-4!
http//tuberose.com/Environmental_Toxicity.html
41
Core High School Nature of Science Performance
Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation
High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation
High school students performing at the BASIC level describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.
42
Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance
Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.
High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment describe how various factors may affect global climate explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth
High school students performing at the BASIC level describe one factor that may affect global climate give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth
43
Core High School Technology, Environment,
Society Performance Descriptors
High school students performing at the ADVANCED level modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues.
High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issues evaluate factors that could limit technological design given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recycling
High school students performing at the BASIC level given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project identify factors that could limit technological design given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.
44
SOURCES

http//www.animation-station.com/smileys/index.php
?page17
http//mff.dsisd.net/Environment/Cycles.htm
http//www.romanviii.co.uk/bp/nhpage.asp?pcatabou
t_us
45
SOURCES

http//www.oldetimecooking.com/Images/Fruits/Apple
.jpg
http//vilenski.org/science/safari/classifyall/euk
aryotic.html
http//dustconnection.com/images/stories/cleaning_
bucket_sm.jpg
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