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The 101st And 82nd Airborne in World War II

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The 101st And 82nd Airborne in World War II By: Dale F. The Beginning U.S. Army Airborne units had first started up in 1942 during World War II It was originally ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The 101st And 82nd Airborne in World War II


1
The 101st And 82nd Airborne in World War II
  • By Dale F.

2
The Beginning
  • U.S. Army Airborne units had first started up in
    1942 during World War II
  • It was originally started with only two units the
    82nd All Americans and the 101st Screaming Eagles

3
101st Screaming Eagles
  • The 101st Airborne division was first activated
    in 1942 and assigned to train at Camp Claiborne
    Louisiana. Then they moved to Fort Bragg North
    Carolina to continue there training then shipped
    to New York then to England until June 6th 1944
    they jumped into Hitlers fortress Europe. There
    Pathfinders being the first to go in. starting
    the units great history.

4
82nd All Americans
  • The 82nd Division was activated at Camp Gordon,
    Georgia, on 25 August 1917.It was originally a
    infantry division which fought in world war I. As
    the Division filled, it was discovered there were
    soldiers from every state. Through a popular
    contest, the nickname "All American" was chosen
    to reflect the unique composition of the
    82nd.When the boys came home it stayed a infantry
    division till August 15, 1942 becoming Americas
    first Airborne division.

5
Operation Husky
  • In 1942 training began in Fort Bragg North
    Carolina and the unit was transformed into
    paratroopers. Then in 1943 the unit was shipped
    out to Casablanca, Morocco on May 10. There they
    were trained for the invasion on Sicily. In which
    they would spear head the assault. As they flew
    over the american fleet to jump they were
    mistaken for enemy bombers and 23 were shot down
    Eighty-one troopers were killed, including the
    assistant division commander, Brigadier General
    Charles Keerans. The 82nd continued its fighting
    in Sicily by leading Patton's westward drive to
    Trapani and Castellmare. In five days, the
    Division moved 150 miles and took 23,000
    prisoners.

6
Italy
  • On 9 September 1943, General Clark's Fifth Army
    launched Operation AVALANCHE with an amphibious
    landing at Salerno, Italy. Several operations had
    been planned for the 82nd, including a drop on
    Rome, but were cancelled. Within four days the
    Allied beachhead was in trouble. General Clark
    sent an urgent request to General Ridgway who was
    in Sicily with the 82nd. On 13 September 1943,
    Colonel Reuben Tucker led his 504th combat team
    (minus 3rd battalion) on a parachute assault at
    Paestum, south of Salerno. On the 14th, the 505th
    jumped. The paratroopers were rushed to the front
    line where they engaged the enemy in the rugged
    hills and drove them back. On the 15th, the 25th
    and 3/504th conducted an amphibious landing near
    Salerno. Throughout September and October the
    82nd conducted operations in the Salerno/Naples
    area. The 82nd was the first unit to enter
    Naples. The Division advanced north to the
    Volturno River, cleared the area of the enemy,
    and became the first unit to set sail for
    England, via Ireland, to prepare for the invasion
    of Normandy.

7
D-Day 101st
  • The 101st Airborne Division first saw combat
    during the Normandy invasion - 6 June 1944. they
    were going to jump before H-Hour to seize
    positions west of Utah Beach. Given the mission
    of anchoring the corps' southern flank, the
    division was also to eliminate the German's
    secondary beach defenses, allowing the seaborne
    forces once ashore, to continue inland. The
    Screaming Eagles were to capture the causeway
    bridges that ran behind the beach between St.
    Martin-de-Varreville and Pouppeville. In the
    division's southern sector, it was to seize the
    la Barquette lock and destroy a highway bridge
    northwest of the town of Carentan and a railroad
    bridge further west. At the same time elements of
    the division were to establish two bridgeheads on
    the Douve River at le Port, northeast of
    Carentan. The 101st completed all assignments
    except securing the crossing at the Douve river.

8
D-Day 82nd
  • The US 82nd Airborne Division's mission was to
    protect the far right flank of the invasion in
    the Cotentin peninsula.  It hoped to accomplish
    this by destroying bridges over the Douve River
    and by securing the Merderet River by occupying
    both sides.  It also had the mission to capture
    Ste. Mere-Eglise from the German garrison
    stationed there.  The capture of Ste. Mere-Eglise
    was important because it straddled the main road
    between Carentan and Cherbourg.

9
Market Garden 101st
  • The plan called Operation Market-Garden, for the
    largest airborne drop in military history. Three
    Allied divisions would be involved. The US Army
    101st Airborne would drop on Eindhoven and take
    the canal crossings at Veghel. They would hold
    the bridges there.

10
Market Garden 82nd
  • The US Army 82nd Airborne would land on bridges
    over the Maas and Waal Rivers. 60 miles behind
    the German lines. And hold the bridges there.

11
Market Garden After
  • The operation was initially successful with the
    capture of the Waal bridge at Nijmegen on
    September 20. But it was a failure overall since
    the planned Allied advance across the Rhine at
    Arnhem had to be abandoned. The British 1st
    Airborne Division did not secure the bridge at
    Arnhem, and although they managed to hold out
    near the bridge far longer than planned, the
    British XXX Corps failed to relieve them. The
    Rhine remained a barrier to the Allied advance
    until the offensives at Remagen, Oppenheim, Rees
    and Wesel in March 1945. Due to the Allied defeat
    at Arnhem, the north of the Netherlands could not
    be liberated before winter and the Hongerwinter
    ('Hungerwinter') took tens of thousands of lives,
    particularly in the cities of the Randstad area.

12
The Battle of the Bulge, December 16, 1944 to
January 25, 1945
  • With the Germans almost in defeat they would try
    one last great offensive later known as the
    Battle of the Bulge. This battle would be fought
    in the Ardennes Forest on the German/Belgium
    border in some of the coldest conditions ever
    recorded.

13
Casualties
  • Over a million men, 500,000 Germans, 600,000
    Americans (more than fought at Gettysburg) and
    55,000 British.
  • Armor 800 tanks lost on each side, 1,000 German
    aircraft.
  • Human Life This would cost the Americans over
    81,000 casualties 23,554 captured and 19,000
    killed. The Germans with over 100,000 killed,
    wounded or captured 1,400 British casualties 
    200 killed.

14
Other Facts
  • The Malmedy Massacre, where 86 American
    soldiers were murdered in an open field while
    they were surrounded by Germans after been taken
    prisoner, was the worst atrocity committed
    against American troops during the course of the
    war in Europe.
  • The 106th Infantry Division, average age of 22
    years, suffered 564 killed in action, 1,246
    wounded and 7,001 missing in action at the end of
    the offensive.   Most  of these casualties
    occurred within the first three days of battle,
    when two of the divisions three regiments was
    forced to surrender.

15
The Bulge, 101st
  • On December 17th, 1944 over 12,000 101st soldiers
    were sent south to fight in what would be known
    as the Battle of the Bulge. The 101st arrived in
    Bastonge just ahead of the Germans and took
    control of the city. They formed a perimeter and
    readied to defend the city the Germans came and
    surrounded the city cutting them off from and
    outside aid . When they left they were in such a
    rush that they had no winter clothing no extra
    ammunition. After 5 days of withstanding attacks
    by the Germans without reinforcements or
    supplies, two German Officers were sent to the
    American Headquarters with a letter from the
    German Commander demanding that the 101st
    surrender. After hearing that the Germans wanted
    the 101st to surrender, the Acting Commander - BG
    General McAuliffe said "Nuts". Surrendering was
    not an option for the 101st so "Nuts" was chosen
    as the official response to the Germans demand
    for surrender. The Germans continued their attack
    of the American perimeter without success, and
    the 101st continued to hold the city. on December
    26th the 101st was relieved by Pattons 3rd army.

16
The Bulge 82nd
  • The 82nd moved into action on December 17th in
    reponse to the German's Ardennes Counteroffensive
    and blunted General Von Runstedt's northern
    penetration in the American lines. On December
    20th the 82nd attacked in the Vielsalm-St. Vith
    region and the 504th PIR took Monceau. This
    fierce attack forced the German units back across
    the Ambleve River the next day.However, further
    German assaults along the Salm hit the 505th PIR
    in the Trois Ponts area on December 22nd and by
    December 24th the division lost Manhay. On
    December 25th, 1944 the division withdrew from
    the Vielsalm salient then attacked northeast of
    Bra on December 27th reaching Salm by January
    4th, 1945.On January 7th the 508th PIR Red
    Devil's launched an attack with the 504th in the
    vicinity of Thier-du-Mont where it suffered heavy
    casualties. The 508th was then withdrawn from the
    line and placed in reserve until January 21st
    when it replaced elements of the 2d Infantry
    Division.On January 29, 1945 First Sergeant
    Leonard Funk, Jr. of Company C, 508th Parachute
    Infantry Regiment won the Congressional Medal of
    Honor for action at Holzheim, Belgium. After
    leading his unit and capturing 80 Germans.On
    February 7th, 1945 the division attacked
    Bergstein, a town on the Roer River. The 82nd
    crossed the Roer River on February 17th. During
    April, 1945 the division performed security duty
    in Cologne until they attacked in the Bleckede
    area and pushed toward the Elbe River. As the
    504th PIR drove toward Forst Carrenzien, the
    German 21st Army surrendered to the division on
    May 2, 1945.

17
Hitler is dead
  • On April 30, as the Battle of Berlin raged above
    him and realizing that all was lost, German
    dictator Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his
    bunker along with Eva Braun, his long-term
    mistress whom he had married just hours before
    their joint suicide. In his will Hitler appointed
    his successors Karl Dönitz as the new
    Reichspräsident ("President of Germany") and
    Joseph Goebbels as the new Reichskanzler
    (Chancellor of Germany). However, Goebbels
    committed suicide on May 1, 1945, leaving Dönitz
    as sole leader of Germany.

18
After the Bulge
  • After the Germans were beat back from there
    offensive in the Ardennes the war was starting to
    come to close in Europe there army crippled there
    factories destroyed and there cities laying in
    ruins the German army surrendered in April of 1945

19
After Math 101st
  • During World War Two, the 101st Airborne Division
    spent 214 days in combat. In addition to 2 Medals
    of Honor awarded to Soldiers of the 101st, the
    Division awarded 47 Distinguished Service
    Crosses, 516 Silver Stars and 6,977 Bronze Stars.
    The Division was responsible for capturing 29,
    527 Enemy soldiers. The price of victory was
    high. 2,043 Screaming Eagles were killed in
    action and 7,976 were wounded. 1,193 became MIA
    and 336 were taken prisoner.

20
After Math 82nd
  • The 82nd airborne lost 9,073 and saw 442 days of
    combat. Following the surrender of Germany, the
    82nd was ordered to Berlin for occupation duty.
    In Berlin General George Patton was so impressed
    with the 82nd's honor guard he said, "In all my
    years in the Army and all the honor guards I have
    ever seen, the 82nd's honor guard is undoubtedly
    the best." Hence the "All-Americans" became known
    as "America's Guard of Honor."
  •      The 82nd returned to the United States
    January 3, 1946. Instead of being demobilized,
    the 82nd made its permanent home at Fort Bragg,
    North Carolina and was designated a regular Army
    division on November 15, 1948. Today, the 82nd
    Airborne Division is still located at Ft. Bragg
    and is the only true Airborne Division in the U.
    S. Army.

21
The Elite
  • Today the united states airborne are the best in
    the world they have served with honor in every
    war carrying out what the men befor them started
    since the begging days they were started.
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