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The Civil War Chapter 4, Section 2

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The Civil War Chapter 4, Section 2 Gen. Joe Hooker in charge of U.S. armies 3 major battles in 1862 & 1863 Chancellorsville (VA): tried to take Richmond by surprise ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War Chapter 4, Section 2


1
The Civil War Chapter 4, Section 2
2
  • 1861Lincoln sent non-military supplies to Fort
    Sumter (SC)
  • Confederate guns fired on the fort, beginning the
    Civil War
  • Lincoln called for volunteers to join the
    northern army
  • Slave states in the Union had to choose sides
  • Questions rose over border states (DE, MD, MO,
    and KY)

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P.G.T. Beauregard Confederate leader at Charleston
Robert Anderson Commander of Fort Sumter
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  • North
  • Goals
  • Preserve Union
  • Abolish slavery
  • Advantages
  • Larger population
  • More railroads
  • More industry
  • South
  • Goals
  • Preserve a way of life
  • Be left alone
  • Keep slavery
  • Advantages
  • Better military leaders
  • Cotton exports for foreign aid

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The War
  • Both sides West Point-trained officers
  • Both sides tactics from Mexican War
  • Weapons deadlier
  • Improved rifles
  • Exploding artillery shells
  • Observation balloons camouflage
  • Communication quicker with telegraph
  • Railroads moved troops faster
  • Bull Run (Manassas) 1st major battle chaos

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Anaconda Plan
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War in the West
  • Control of the Mississippi would split the
    Confederacy
  • Early 1862 U. S. Grant opened 2 water routes
    into the South
  • Grant won a victory at the Battle of Shiloh
  • The battle dashed hopes that the rebellion would
    collapse on its own
  • Admiral David Farragut sailed the U.S. fleet up
    the Mississippi
  • Took New Orleans, then other river cities.

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War in the East
  • Gen. McClellan delayed his attack on the Confed.
    capital at Richmond
  • Confed. Gen. Robert E. Lee lured Union forces to
    the 2nd Battle of Bull Run won
  • Defeat hurt northern morale
  • Lee invaded Maryland, hoping to force northern
    surrender
  • Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest of the war
  • Considered Union victory since it stopped Lees
    invasion

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Stereopticon viewer
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  • Slaves provided food for southern army
  • Thousands escaped to US troops (protection)
  • Some northerners wanted to punish the South for
    slavery policies and free the slaves
  • January 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation
  • Freed slaves in areas that were in southern
    control
  • Some northerners opposed proclamation, others
    thought it should go further
  • It encouraged freedmen to join Union forces
  • Almost 180,000 African Americans served in
    segregated units

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Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts
(National Gallery of Art) Photo by Jay Middleton
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Conditions for Soldiers
  • Most soldiers died from diseases rather than
    wounds
  • Poor sanitation and polluted water
  • Soldiers spent most days in camp, doing drills,
    writing letters home, or playing games
  • Conditions were terrible for prisoners of war at
    overcrowded camps and prisons

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Home International Effects
  • Blockade stopped Southern trade
  • Blockade-runners got cotton to Caribbean
  • South suffered property damage, food shortages,
    inflation
  • Confed. had 1st US draft
  • US followed (Enrollment Act) caused riots
  • Wealthy could buy substitutes, or commutation
  • Poor forced to be drafted
  • Anti-war protesters hurt war effort (called
    Copperheads) jailed

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  • Gen. Joe Hooker in charge of U.S. armies
  • 3 major battles in 1862 1863
  • Chancellorsville (VA) tried to take Richmond by
    surprise
  • Lee marched army west, leaving some behind as a
    decoy
  • He ordered surprise attack and won battle
  • Gettysburg (PA) Lee invaded North
  • 3-day battle troops held positions for 2 days
  • 15,000 Confed. troops charged the center lines
    lost most of their men

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  • Vicksburg (MS) Confederate stronghold on the
    Mississippi River
  • Grants army attacked from the land side
  • He shelled the city for weeks
  • Tried to starve out defenders
  • Gunboats fired on city from river

Canon ball still in the wall of a house in
Vicksburg, Mississippi Photo by Jay Middleton
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Grant and Sherman
  • Spring 1864, Grants troops march toward Richmond
  • Armies of Grant Lee battled through summer
    fall 1864
  • Union Gen. William T. Shermans troops march
    through the deep South
  • Total warfare (citizens suffer)
  • Sherman captured Atlanta, then Savannah
  • Aim was to destroy Southern morale and will to
    fight

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  • Slaves greeted Shermans troops with joy
  • White Southerners hated Sherman

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Destruction in Atlanta after Shermans march.
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Railroad destroyed by retreating Southern troops.
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1864 Election
  • Abraham Lincoln (Rep) vs George McClellan (Demo)
  • Lincoln did not expect to win
  • Shermans capture of Atlanta in Sept. boosted
    Northerners spirits
  • Republican win meant war would continue
  • Lincoln wins re-election

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Final Days
  • April 1865, Grants troops take Richmond
  • Lee retreated from Richmond surrendered
  • April 9, 1865
  • Appomattox Court House, Virginia
  • Other Confederate generals surrendered by May
    war was over

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  • April 14th 1865, Lincoln murdered
  • Attending play with wife
  • Shot by John W. Booth, actor
  • Confederate sympathizer

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